Ataxia telangiectasia mutated

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Ataxia telangiectasia mutated
Identifiers
Symbols ATM ; AT1; ATA; ATC; ATD; ATDC; ATE; TEL1; TELO1
External IDs OMIM607585 MGI107202 HomoloGene30952 ChEMBL: 3797 GeneCards: ATM Gene
EC number 2.7.11.1
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 472 11920
Ensembl ENSG00000149311 ENSMUSG00000034218
UniProt Q13315 Q62388
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000051 NM_007499
RefSeq (protein) NP_000042 NP_031525
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
108.09 – 108.24 Mb
Chr 9:
53.44 – 53.54 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks. It phosphorylates several key proteins that initiate activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, leading to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis. Several of these targets, including p53, CHK2 and H2AX are tumor suppressors.

The protein is named for the disorder Ataxia telangiectasia caused by mutations of ATM.[1]

Introduction[edit]

Throughout the cell cycle the DNA is monitored for damage. Damages result from errors during replication, by-products of metabolism, general toxic drugs or ionizing radiation. The cell cycle has different DNA damage checkpoints, which inhibit the next or maintain the current cell cycle step. There are two main checkpoints, the G1/S and the G2/M, during the cell cycle, which preserve correct progression. ATM plays a role in cell cycle delay after DNA damage, especially after double-strand breaks (DSBs).[2] ATM together with NBS1 act as primary DSB sensor proteins. Different mediators, such as Mre11 and MDC1, acquire post-translational modifications which are generated by the sensor proteins. These modified mediator proteins then amplify the DNA damage signal, and transduce the signals to downstream effectors such as CHK2 and p53.

Structure[edit]

The ATM gene codes for a 350 kDa protein consisting of 3056 amino acids.[3] ATM belongs to the superfamily of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs). The PIKK superfamily comprises six Ser/Thr-protein kinases that show a sequence similarity to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). This protein kinase family includes amongst others ATR (ATM- and RAD3-related), DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). Characteristic for ATM are five domains. These are from N-Terminus to C-Terminus the HEAT repeat domain, the FRAP-ATM-TRRAP (FAT) domain, the kinase domain (KD), the PIKK-regulatory domain (PRD) and the FAT-C-terminal (FATC) domain. The HEAT repeats directly bind to the C-terminus of NBS1. The FAT domain interacts with ATM's kinase domain to stabilize the C-terminus region of ATM itself. The KD domain resumes kinase activity, while the PRD and the FATC domain regulate it. Although no structure for ATM has been solved, the overall shape of ATM is very similar to DNA-PKcs and is composed of a head and a long arm that is thought to wrap around double-stranded DNA after a conformational change. The entire N-terminal domain together with the FAT domain are predicted to adopt an α-helical structure, which was found by sequence analysis. This α-helical structure is believed to form a tertiary structure, which has a curved, tubular shape present for example in the Huntingtin protein, which also contains HEAT repeats. FATC is the C-terminal domain with a length of about 30 amino acids. It is highly conserved and consists of an α-helix followed by a sharp turn, which is stabilized by a disulfide bond.[4]

Schematic illustration of the four known conserved domains in four members of the PIKKs family.[4]

Function[edit]

A complex of the three proteins Mre11, RAD50 and NBS1 (Xrs2 in yeast), called the MRN complex in humans, recruits ATM to double strand breaks (DSBs) and holds the two ends together. ATM directly interacts with the NBS1 subunit and phosphorylates the histone variant H2AX on Ser139.[5] This phosphorylation generates binding sites for adaptor proteins with a BRCT domain. These adaptor proteins then recruit different factors including the effector protein kinase CHK2 and the tumor suppressor p53. The ATM-mediated DNA damage response consists of a rapid and a delayed response. The effector kinase CHK2 is phosphorylated and thereby activated by ATM. Activated CHK2 phosphorylates phosphatase CDC25A, which is degraded thereupon and can no longer dephosphorylate CDK2-Cyclin, resulting in cell-cycle arrest. If the DSB can not be repaired during this rapid response, ATM additionally phosphorylates MDM2 and p53 at Ser15.[6] p53 is also phosphorylated by the effector kinase CHK2. These phosphorylation events lead to stabilization and activation of p53 and subsequent transcription of numerous p53 target genes including Cdk inhibitor p21 which lead to long-term cell-cycle arrest or even apoptosis.[7]

ATM-mediated two-step response to DNA double strand breaks. In the rapid response activated ATM phosphorylates effector kinase CHK2 which phophphorylates CDC25A, targeting it for ubiquitination and degradation. Therefore phosphorylated CDK2-Cyclin accumulates and progression through the cell cycle is blocked. In the delayed response ATM phosphorylates the inhibitor of p53, MDM2, and p53, which is also phosphorylated by Chk2. The resulting activation and stabilization of p53 leads to an increased expression of Cdk inhibitor p21, which further helps to keep Cdk activity low and to maintain long-term cell cycle arrest.[7]

The protein kinase ATM may also be involved in mitochondrial homeostasis, as a regulator of mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) whereby old, dysfunctional mitochondria are removed.[8]

Regulation[edit]

A functional MRN complex is required for ATM activation after double strand breaks (DSBs). The complex functions upstream of ATM in mammalian cells and induces conformational changes that facilitate an increase in the affinity of ATM towards its substrates, such as CHK2 and p53.[2] Inactive ATM is present in the cells without DSBs as dimers or multimers. Upon DNA damage, ATM autophosphorylates on residue Ser1981. This phosphorylation provokes dissociation of ATM dimers, which is followed by the release of active ATM monomers.[9] Further autophosphorylation (of residues Ser367 and Ser1893) is required for normal activity of the ATM kinase. Activation of ATM by the MRN complex is preceded by at least two steps, i.e. recruitment of ATM to DSB ends by the mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (MDC1) which binds to MRE11, and the subsequent stimulation of kinase activity with the NBS1 C-terminus. The three domains FAT, PRD and FATC are all involved in regulating the activity of the KD kinase domain. The FAT domain interacts with ATM's KD domain to stabilize the C-terminus region of ATM itself. The FATC domain is critical for kinase activity and highly sensitive to mutagenesis. It mediates protein-protein interaction for example with the histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (HIV-1 Tat interacting protein 60 kDa), which acetylates ATM on residue Lys3016. The acetylation occurs in the C-terminal half of the PRD domain and is required for ATM kinase activation and for its conversion into monomers. While deletion of the entire PRD domain abolishes the kinase activity of ATM, specific small deletions show no effect.[4]

Role in cancer[edit]

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare human disease characterized by cerebellar degeneration, extreme cellular sensitivity to radiation and a predisposition to cancer. All AT patients contain mutations in the ATM gene (ATM). Most other AT-like disorders are defective in genes encoding the MRN protein complex. One feature of the ATM protein is its rapid increase in kinase activity immediately following double-strand break formation.[10][11] The phenotypic manifestation of AT is due to the broad range of substrates for the ATM kinase, involving DNA repair, apoptosis, G1/S, intra-S checkpoint and G2/M checkpoints, gene regulation, translation initiation, and telomere maintenance.[12] Therefore a defect in ATM has severe consequences in repairing certain types of damage to DNA, and cancer may result from improper repair. AT patients have an increased risk for breast cancer that has been ascribed to ATM's interaction and phosphorylation of BRCA1 and its associated proteins following DNA damage.[13] Certain kinds of leukemias and lymphomas, including Mantle cell lymphoma, T-ALL, atypical B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and T-PLL are also associated with ATM defects.[14]

Interactions[edit]

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Giaccia AJ, Kastan MB (1998). "The complexity of p53 modulation: emerging patterns from divergent signals". Genes Dev. 12 (19): 2973–83. doi:10.1101/gad.12.19.2973. PMID 9765199. 
  • Kastan MB, Lim DS (2001). "The many substrates and functions of ATM". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 1 (3): 179–86. doi:10.1038/35043058. PMID 11252893. 
  • Shiloh Y (2002). "ATM: from phenotype to functional genomics--and back". Ernst Schering Res. Found. Workshop (36): 51–70. PMID 11859564. 
  • Redon C, Pilch D, Rogakou E, et al. (2002). "Histone H2A variants H2AX and H2AZ". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 12 (2): 162–9. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(02)00282-4. PMID 11893489. 
  • Tang Y (2003). "[ATM and Cancer]". Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 10 (1): 77–80. PMID 12513844. 
  • Shiloh Y (2003). "ATM and related protein kinases: safeguarding genome integrity". Nature Reviews Cancer 3 (3): 155–68. doi:10.1038/nrc1011. PMID 12612651. 
  • Gumy-Pause F, Wacker P, Sappino AP (2004). "ATM gene and lymphoid malignancies". Leukemia 18 (2): 238–42. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2403221. PMID 14628072. 
  • Kurz EU, Lees-Miller SP (2005). "DNA damage-induced activation of ATM and ATM-dependent signaling pathways". DNA Repair (Amst.) 3 (8–9): 889–900. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2004.03.029. PMID 15279774. 
  • Abraham RT (2005). "The ATM-related kinase, hSMG-1, bridges genome and RNA surveillance pathways". DNA Repair (Amst.) 3 (8–9): 919–25. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2004.04.003. PMID 15279777. 
  • Lavin MF, Scott S, Gueven N, et al. (2005). "Functional consequences of sequence alterations in the ATM gene". DNA Repair (Amst.) 3 (8–9): 1197–205. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2004.03.011. PMID 15279808. 
  • Meulmeester E, Pereg Y, Shiloh Y, Jochemsen AG (2006). "ATM-mediated phosphorylations inhibit Mdmx/Mdm2 stabilization by HAUSP in favor of p53 activation". Cell Cycle 4 (9): 1166–70. doi:10.4161/cc.4.9.1981. PMID 16082221. 
  • Ahmed M, Rahman N (2006). "ATM and breast cancer susceptibility". Oncogene 25 (43): 5906–11. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209873. PMID 16998505. 

External links[edit]