Athenaeum Club, London
The Athenaeum is a gentlemen's club in London, founded in 1824, that has had many well known persons as members, today including lady members. The distinctive clubhouse (located at 107 Pall Mall at the corner of Waterloo Place) was designed by Decimus Burton in the Neoclassical style with a Doric portico, above which is a statue of the classical goddess of wisdom, Athene. The bas-relief frieze is a copy of the frieze round the Parthenon in Athens. The club's facilities include the extensive library, a dining room known as the Coffee Room, a Morning Room, a Drawing Room on the first floor, a newly restored Smoking Room, where smoking is not permitted, and a suite of bedrooms.
John Wilson Croker, Sir Thomas Lawrence, and some friends founded the club in 1824 for individuals known for scientific, literary or artistic accomplishments as well as patrons of these endeavours. Sir Thomas Lawrence designed the club crest: a head of Athena inside an oval surrounded by the legend "ATHENÆUM CLUB·PALL MALL".
The club house was designed in Neoclassical taste by Decimus Burton. The main entrance and the front of the house on Waterloo Place has a Doric portico with paired columns. There is a continuous balustrade on the piano nobile, the main floor above the ground floor, with an outstanding but costly frieze copied from the Parthenon above. A statue of Pallas Athene by Edward Hodges Baily stands above the porch. The original design was for two storeys; the third was added later. Croker directed the later work, resisting pressure from some members (in those pre-refrigeration days) that an ice-house be part of the scheme; hence the rhyme:
I'm John Wilson Croker, I do as I please, instead of an Ice-House I give you a... Frieze!
For many years The Athenaeum Club was widely seen to represent the peak of London's clubland for the public intellectual. Most members of the Athenaeum were men of inherited wealth and status, but, under Rule II, the club additionally admitted men "... of distinguished eminence in Science, Literature, or the Arts, or for Public Service". The admission of men who had gained their social position through intellectual influence and achievement rather than by title gave the club an unusual diversity of membership.
The membership of the Athenaeum was originally limited to one thousand, and the waiting list was always long. The cost of the magnificent premises had resulted in a deficit of some £20,000 and 200 supernumerary members were elected in 1832 to restore the finances.
By 1838 the Club was again in straitened circumstances after undertaking expensive remedial action because of the damage caused by the gas lighting. (It was one of the earliest buildings to be lit by this means.) To alleviate the situation, 160 supernumeraries were admitted to ordinary membership and an additional forty brought forward from the waiting list. These "forty thieves", as they became known, included Charles Dickens and Charles Darwin. In 1886 the clubhouse was lit by electricity, a relative innovation for London buildings.
In 1853, Charles Manby Smith noted the importance of the club - "... from having been wise enough to join the grocer's Plum-pudding Club, they shall end by becoming prosperous enough to join the Whittington Club, or the Gresham Club, or the Athenaeum Club, or the Travellers' Club; or the House of Commons, or the House of Lords either."
In 2002 the members voted to admit women.
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This is a small selection of the notable people who have belonged to the club:
- The Earl of Aberdeen
- Augustus Agar, naval hero
- Matthew Arnold
- H.H. Asquith
- Andrew Geddes Bain geologist, road engineer, palaeontologist and explorer
- Owen Barfield (1898–1997) philosopher, poet, etymologist, and solicitor
- J. M. Barrie
- Anthony Blunt
- Louis Lucien Bonaparte, linguist
- Virginia Bottomley, Baroness Bottomley of Nettlestone, politician and headhunter
- L.J.F. Brimble, botanist and editor of Nature magazine
- Lord (Alec) Broers
- James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce (1838–1922), jurist, historian and politician
- Oscar Browning politician, historian (1837–1923)
- Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet
- William Burges (1827–1881), architect and designer
- Alexander Burnes, explorer in The Great Game
- Thomas Campbell (poet)
- Gilbert Keith Chesterton (author)
- Winston Churchill
- John Duke Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge (1820–1894)
- Joseph Conrad
- Lord Curzon, MP, Viceroy of India, and British Foreign Secretary
- Charles Darwin
- Charles Dickens
- Isaac D'Israeli
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
- Laurence Dreyfus, musician and academic
- Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934) composer, Master of the King's Musick
- T. S. Eliot poet
- Michael Faraday
- John Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher
- Sir William Galloway (1840–1927) mining engineer, Professor of Mining at University College of Wales
- Victoria Glendinning
- Alec Guinness
- Baroness Hale of Richmond, barrister, academic, Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
- Henry Hallam historian, Commissioner of Stamps (1826)
- Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), novelist
- Leonard Horner (1785-1864), President of the Geological Society, Warden of the University of London, Factory Inspector
- Cardinal Basil Hume
- Roy Jenkins Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary
- Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston (1874–1938), Tutor of the Last Emperor of China
- Charles Kemble
- Rudyard Kipling, poet laureate
- Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, an English physicist and wartime scientific adviser to the British government and Winston Churchill in the late 1930s, 1940s and early 1950s.
- H. F. B. Lynch, traveller and businessman
- Walter de la Mare (1873–1956)
- Eric Millar, historian of illuminated manuscripts
- Lord Robert Montagu (1825–1902)
- Thomas Moore (poet)
- Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792–1871), President of the Geological Society and the Royal Geographical Society.
- George Nugent-Grenville, 2nd Baron Nugent (1789–1850)
- Lord Palmerston
- Harry St John Philby archaeologist and Arabist
- Michael Polanyi
- Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, Neurologist & neuroscientist
- Cecil Rhodes
- Emile Victor Rieu
- Jimmy Savile
- Sir Walter Scott writer
- Idries Shah, author on Sufism (1924–1996)
- Tahir Shah, author
- Richard 'Conversation' Sharp, critic, merchant and politician
- Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)
- Walter Starkie
- James Joseph Sylvester, Mathematician
- Sir Jethro Teall, geologist and petrologist
- William Makepeace Thackeray author
- Arnold J. Toynbee historian
- Professor Rick Trainor, Principal of King's College London
- Anthony Trollope, author
- J.M.W. Turner, painter
- Sir Barnes Wallis, engineer (1887–1979)
- Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769–1852)
- Prof. Sir Charles Wheatstone Scientist, inventor and pioneer of the Telegraph
- W. B. Yeats poet
- Phiz, London at Dinner, or Where to Dine, (London: Robert Hardwick, 1858) ('Phiz' was a pseudonym of Hablot Knight Browne)
- Frank Richard Cowell, The Athenaeum: Club and Social Life in London, 1824-1974, (London: Heinemann, 1975) ISBN 0-435-32010-6
- "The Athenæum. Administrative/Biographical history.". AIM25: Archives in London and the M25 area. October 2003. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- Smith, Charles Manby, Curiosities of London Life, or Phases, Physiological and Social of the Great Metropolis (1853) online at Victorian London - Publications - Social Investigation/Journalism - Curiosities of London Life, or Phases, Physiological and Social of the Great Metropolis, by Charles Manby Smith, 1853: UNFASHIONABLE CLUBS (accessed 14 January 2008)
- Jones, Reginald Victor (1978). "Chapter Thirteen: The Fortunes of Major Wintle". Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945. London, England, UK: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-89746-7.
- C. E. Wright (1968). "Preface". The British Museum Quarterly 33 (1): 1–2. doi:10.2307.2F4423012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Tim Walker (10 October 2012). "Sir Jimmy Savile causes anguish at the Athenaeum". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Athenaeum Club.|
- Official Website of the Athenaeum Club
- Guide to the archives of the Athenaeum Club
- List of London's gentlemen's clubs
- Interesting debate in the House of Lord's May 2002 re the Sex Discrimination Bill and women members of Clubs
- List of prominent Victorian era members of the Athenaeum Club
- Map showing location of the club (streetmap.co.uk)