|Owner||Attiko Metro S.A.|
|Locale||Greater Athens and East Attica|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||3|
|Number of stations||60 served
6 under construction
|Began operation||27 February 1869|
|Operator(s)||Statheres Sygkoinonies S.A.|
|Number of vehicles||294 Railcars|
|System length||79.6 km (49.46 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (standard gauge)|
|Electrification||750 V DC and 25 kV AC|
The Athens Metro (Greek: Μετρό Αθήνας, Metró Athínas) is a rapid transit system in Greece, serving the Athens conurbation and parts of East Attica. It incorporates the former Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways (ISAP S.A.), which opened in 1869 and is now part of Line 1. Beginning in 1991, Attiko Metro S.A. constructed and extended Lines 2 and 3, and the Attiko Metro Operations Company (AMEL S.A.) operated these lines from 2000 until 2011. The metro network formally merged in 2011 when the Greek government created the Urban Rail Transport Company (STASY S.A.), a subsidiary of the Athens Urban Transport Organization (OASA S.A.).
- 1 History
- 2 Infrastructure
- 3 Ticketing policy
- 4 Archaeological excavations and exhibits
- 5 Future
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Until 28 January 2000, Line 1 was the only rapid transit line in Athens and Piraeus. The Athens & Piraeus Railway Company (SAP S.A.) opened the line on 27 February 1869, as a steam railway between Piraeus and Thiseio. It was electrified in 1904 and extended in stages to Kifisia in 1957.
From 1976 to 16 June 2011, the Athens-Piraeus Electric Railway Company (ISAP S.A.) operated Line 1 independently from the rest of the metro and the tram network. Its main distinctive feature that sets it apart from Lines 2 and 3 is that it runs almost exclusively overground.
Projects of the 1990s
Since the current Line 1 opened, the government created many proposals to expand the subway network, including a fourteen-line subway network in 1963.
Construction of Lines 2 and 3 began in November 1992 to decrease traffic congestion and improve Athens' air quality by reducing its smog level. Both lines were constructed underground. Lines 2 and 3, built by Attiko Metro S.A. and operated until 2011 by Attiko Metro Operations Company S.A. are known as the red and blue lines respectively, and were inaugurated in January 2000. Line 3 extended to the Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport in summer 2004 and Line 2 extended to Anthoupoli and Helliniko in 2013.
Until 17 June 2011, the operational management of the Athens Metro network was similar to the operation of the London Underground network (before the creation of the London Passenger Transport Board and the absorption of the Metropolitan Railway on 1 July 1933). The Greek government attempted to absorb ISAP S.A. into Attiko Metro S.A. under Law 2669/1998 so that the latter could become responsible for the operation of the whole network, but the process never came to fruition.[why?]
The consolidation of operations on the Athens Metro finally arrived when the Greek government enacted Law 3920/2011, replacing AMEL S.A., ISAP S.A. and Tram S.A. with Urban Rail Transport (STASY) S.A. (Greek: ΣΤΑΣΥ Α.Ε.), a subsidiary of OASA S.A.
Stations and lines
|Line||Map colour[I]||First section
|Latest station opened||Route||Length (km, mi)||Sta.|
|7000100000000000000||Green||27 February 1869||1904||10 August 1957||6 August 2004 (Nerantziotissa)||Piraeus – Kifisia||25.6 km (15.9 mi)||24|
|7000200000000000000||Red||28 January 2000||2000||26 July 2013||26 July 2013 (Elliniko)||Anthoupoli – Elliniko||16.4 km (10.2 mi)||20|
|7000300000000000000||Light Blue+||28 January 2000||2000||26 May 2007||30 December 2010 (Agia Paraskevi)||Egaleo – Doukissis Plakentias/Airport||37.6 km (23.4 mi)||20|
|7000400000000000000||Orange||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Petroupoli – Ethniki Odos||33.0 km (20.5 mi)||29|
|7000500000000000000||Dark Blue||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Fyli – Nea Elvetia||Unknown||Unknown|
|7000600000000000000||Pink||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Amalia Fleming – Vryoni/Perama||Unknown||Unknown|
|7000700000000000000||Yellow||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Proposed||Chaidari – Poseidonos||Unknown||Unknown|
|+ Dark blue on signage.|
The three-line Athens Metro network serves 60 stations: it owns and operates 56 of them, and OSE owns the remainder on the Airport section. The network has four metro interchanges that enable the metro lines to interchange with each other at least once. Each line also has at least one station that connects to the Proastiakos Suburban Railway and the Athens Tram, but Line 3 does not have direct interchange to a TrainOSE service until the extension to Dimotiko Theatro opens.
The whole of Line 2 and the Attiko Metro S.A. portion of Line 3 is entirely underground while Line 1 is mostly in the open, with a tunnel section in Central Athens. The Airport section of Line 3, east of the tunnel portal near Doukissis Plakentias, is wholly in the open. In the tunnel sections, up and down lines share a common tunnel, except for approaches to stations with an island platform, such as at Egaleo.
The network uses standard gauge electric trains that run on 750 V DC third rail, but Line 1 has their own fleet for historical reasons and the Airport section requires trains that can use overhead lines of 25 kV AC, 50 Hz. Nevertheless, there is a rail connection between Lines 1 and 2 near Attiki, and between Lines 2 and 3 near Syntagma. Train maintenance facilities are located at Attiki, Faliro, Irini, Piraeus and Thiseio for Line 1, and Doukissis Plakentias, Eleonas and Sepolia for Lines 2 and 3.
The length of the blue line (line 3) as of April 2008 was 16.4 km not including the suburban railway part to the airport, or, as of February 2008, 37.6 km including the 21.2 km of the line that it shares with the suburban railway system of Athens. The length of the red line (line 2) as of July 2008 was 10.9 km. This brings the overall length of the green, red and blue lines to approximately 74 km.[needs update]
The Athens Metro is heavily used, with approximately 1,353,000 passengers daily.
The Athens Metro uses standard gauge trains, and classifies rolling stock by "Batches" for Line 1 and "Generations" for Lines 2 and 3, because ISAP S.A. and AMEL S.A. used different systems for rolling stock classification prior to consolidation.
Five types of rolling stock operate on the network, with another entering service from next year. They are all equipped to run on 750 V DC third rail, but only seven trains from the 2nd Generation Stock can serve Line 3 from Doukissis Plakentias to Airport. Additionally, different signalling systems prevent Batch Stocks from running on Lines 2 and 3 and Generation Stocks from running on Line 1.
The 8th Batch (introduced in 1983) is the oldest rolling stock in passenger service, while the 2nd Generation (introduced in 2003) is the latest rolling stock in passenger service. The 8th and 10th Batch Stocks are externally similar, but the former uses split-flap headsigns in Johnston typeface, and a cream/green interior colour scheme.
|8th Batch Stock||1983|
|10th Batch Stock||1993|
|11th Batch Stock||2000|
|1st Generation Stock||2000|
|2nd Generation Stock||2004|
|3rd Generation Stock||2013|
- First series (delivery): 28 six-car electric multiple units made by Alstom–Siemens–Adtranz (2000). Maximum speed 80 km/h.
- Second series (delivery): 21 six-car EMU made by Hanwa-Rotem-Mitsubishi (2004). Seven of these trains can also operate on OSE lines with 25 kV AC −50 Hz overhead electrification system and are used for airport services. All second series trains are air-conditioned. Maximum speed 80 km/h.
- Third series: Athens Metro ordered 17 additional trains.
- Four service hybrid locomotives made by Kaelble-Gmeinder-Siemens. They can operate from a third rail 750 V DC system or using their own diesel generators. They are of a B-B configuration with a maximum power of 550 kW under diesel traction and 600 kW under electric traction.
- One rail-road Unimog
|1st||2000||DT-M-MD+MD-M-DT||DT||A01-A56||56 EMU-3 "half-trains" operating as 28 EMU-6 trains. Made by Alsthom-Siemens-ADtranz. MD railcars have an auxiliary driving facility used only for shunting.|
|2003–2004||DM-T-M+M-T-DM||DM||D201-D228||28 EMU-3 "half-trains" operating as 14 EMU-6 trains. Made by Hanwa-Rotem-Mitsubishi.|
|2003–2004||DM-T-M+M-T-DM||DM||D251-D264||14 EMU-3 "half-trains" operating as 7 EMU-6 trains. Made by Hanwa-Rotem-Mitsubishi, can also operate on 25 kV AC, 50 Hz lines.|
|3rd||2012–2013||DM-T-M+M-T-DM||DM||D301-D334||A contract for 17 air conditioned EMU-6 trains was signed on 2009-09-16 with Hanwa-Rotem. 34 EMU-3 "half-trains" will enter service as 17 EMU-6 trains in July 2013.|
Railcar codes: DM: driving motor car, DT: driving trailer, M: motor car, T: trailer, MD: motor car with auxiliary driving facility.
Line 1 uses two-aspect red/green home signals, yellow/green distant signals and passenger information system (PIS). The current system replaced semaphore signals from the 1950s.
Lines 2 and 3 use the Alstom automatic train supervision system (ATS) and a passenger information system (PIS). Two-aspect red/white colour signals are used at points and junctions only.
Purchased tickets are valid for 90 minutes after validation and can be used for several journeys on the network (lines 1, 2 and 3), as well as in most other means of public transport in Athens including buses, trolleybuses, trams, and the urban part of the suburban railway (between Piraeus, Magoula and Koropi stations, excluding the airport). Passengers must validate their tickets only once, using the machines at the entrance to the station, at the start of their first journey.
There are daily and weekly tickets, as well as monthly cards which also apply for all means of public transport in Athens – Passengers also only need to validate these tickets once, at the start of their first journey. Fares are checked frequently: passengers who fail to show a validated ticket or a monthly card are required to pay 60 times the price of a standard ticket.
Travel to and from the Athens International Airport requires a special 8 euros ticket. Return tickets are also available – in February 2011, the return fare for use within 48 hours was 14 euros. There are also two- and three-person one-way tickets available.
Archaeological excavations and exhibits
During the construction of the metro tunnels, numerous artefacts of archaeological interest were discovered. Their discovery was brought about as a result of what is known as salvage archaeology, this is archaeology that comes into play not because of natural decay but due to the artefacts' imminent destruction by the systematic excavation process. Teams of archaeologists worked ahead of, then alongside, engineers for a total of 6 years. They protected and recorded the archaeological evidence that was uncovered which included ancient streets, houses, cemeteries, sanctuaries, public workshops, foundry pits, kilns, aqueducts, wells, cisterns, drains and sewage tunnels. Together this allowed a new insight into the topography of the city in ancient times. Never before has such a rapid development of infrastructure been accompanied hand-in-hand with the attentive study and preservation of archaeological data.
Exhibitions of ancient artifacts and/or their replicas can be found at various metro stations, such as those of Monastiraki and Syntagma.
|This section is outdated. (August 2013)|
Proposed Line 4
A new line between Alsos Veikou and Maroussi is planned, but no funding is secured as of May 2009. On 4 November 2010, it was announced that a call for tenders for the construction of the western branch shall be published in late 2011. Currently geotechnical investigations are taking place at various locations on the proposed route.
According to the Metro Development Study, two new lines would be constructed, as branches of the existing lines: a line 2 branch from Panepistimio to Alsos Veikou and a line 3 branch from Panormou to Maroussi. Further studies showed that the construction of an new separate line combining these two branches is preferable. The proposal also recommends lighter rolling stock than the type used in lines 2 and 3, which shall operate fully automatically without a driver. The proposed route for line 4 is:
- Alsos Veikou
- Panepistimio (new station with underpass connection to existing line 2 station)
- Evangelismos (existing line 3 station)
- Ano Ilissia
- Katehaki (existing line 3 station)
- Maroussi (existing line 1 station)
Proposed future expansion
In April 2009, The Hellenic Ministry of Public Works released a preliminary proposal for a future expansion of the Attiko Metro, as part of the new Regulatory Plan for Athens and Attica. The proposal was intended to serve as a basis for future expansion of the rapid transit system in the Attiki basin, specifically stating that the project would not be completed in less than 20 years. Upon completion, however, it will cover 85% of the wider area of Attica basin, and thus discouraging citizens from using their private vehicles for transfer to the city centre and the centres of large urban municipalities.
The proposed expansion will bring the system to a total of eight lines (including ISAP Line 1) with a total length of 220 km and serving 200 stations. In addition to small extensions to lines 1, 3 and 4, the proposed expansion will consist of lines 5 (Ano Liosia – Vyronas), 6 (Melissia – Perama/Piraeus), 7 (Chaidari – Alimos) which would cross the Attiki basin, passing through downtown Athens and line 8 as an incomplete circle around Athens (Katechaki – Sepolia – Kallithea – Dafni – Pangrati). As of March 2012 those extensions of the system constitute the Athens Metro Regulatory Plan and will be gradually implemented by Attiko Metro in the future.
- ISAP (Line 1)
- Athens Mass Transit System
- Thessaloniki Metro
- List of metro systems
- Media related to Athens Metro at Wikimedia Commons
- "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 15". OASA. www.oasa.gr. Retrieved 4 February 2007.
- "AttikoMetro Inside – Base Project". Attiko Metro S.A. 9 September 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Law 2669/1988, Government Gazette Issue A 283/1998-12-18, Part 7, paragraph 2.
- "Urban Rail Transport SA (STASY SA): Urban Rail Transport S.A". Urban Rail Transport S.A. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Hekimoglou, Achilleas (24 August 2013). "Οραμα για 14 γραμμές Μετρό στην Αττική από το 2000" (in Greek). Το Βήμα (To Vima). Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Law 2669/1998". Εφημερίδας της Κυβερνήσεως (in Greek) (Athens: Government of Greece) A (283). 18 December 1998. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- Law 3920, Government Gazette issue A-33, 3 March 2011.
- Ministerial Decision 28737/2637, Government Gazette issue B-1454, 17 June 2011
- "Athens Metro Regulatory Plan". Attiko Metro S.A. 30 January 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Stations", ISAP – Athens Piraeus Electric Railways (Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways), 2007, retrieved 2 September 2012
- "Information on Line 1 – Technical Data", ISAP – Athens Piraeus Electric Railways (Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways), 2007, retrieved 2 September 2012
- "Urban rail news in brief – May 2013". Railway Gazette International. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Operation", AMEL – Athens Metro Operation (Attiko Metro Operation Company), 31 December 2010, retrieved 2 September 2012
- "Line 4", AttikoMetro Inside (Attiko Metro), 31 December 2010, retrieved 19 July 2012
- "AMEL – Athens METRO operation:OPERATION". Amel.gr. 14 February 2009. Archived from the original on 24 April 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
- Attiko Metro S.A. – The Company http://www.ametro.gr/page/default.asp?la=2&id=5
- G. Nathenas, A. Kourbelis, T. Vlastos, S. Kourouzidis, V. Katsareas, P. Karamanis, A. Klonos, N. Kokkinos (2007). Από τα Παμφορεία στο Μετρό (in greek) 2. Athens: Μίλητος (Militos). pp. 703–708. ISBN 978-960-8460-91-1.
- N. Sbarounis (December 2002). "Hybrid locomotives of Athens Metropolitan Network (Greek: Υβριδικές Ηλεκτράμαξες του Μητροπολιτικού Δικτύου Αθηνών)". Sidirotrohia (Greek: Σιδηροτροχιά) (in Greek) (23): 30–31.
- ATHENS METRO – Completion of the tender for the supply of 17 new trainsets for the Athens Metro (16/09/2009)
- "AMEL – Athens METRO operation:Flat fare tickets". Amel.gr. 14 February 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
- June 2008 issue of the free Attiko Metro magazine available in the stations
- "AttikoMetro Inside". Ametro.gr. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
- The future Metro extensions were incorporated into the New Regulatory Plan for Athens and Attica Prefecture
- Map of the Athens Metro Regulatory Plan
- Future extensions of Attiko Metro
- "Athens Public Transportation Map". Athens Urban Transport Organisation. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Athens Metro.|
- Urban Rail Transport Company (STASY S.A.)
- Attiko Metro Company (Construction and Infrastructure)
- Athens Urban Transport Organisation (OASA S.A.)
- Hellenic Ministry of Public Works page on the Attiko Metro
- UrbanRail.Net – Athens Metro
- CityRailTransit – Athens railway map (real distance)