Atlanta compromise

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The Atlanta compromise was an agreement struck in 1895 between African-American leaders and Southern white leaders.[1][2]

The agreement was that Southern blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law.[3][4] Blacks would not agitate for equality, integration, or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities.[5][6]

Social impact[edit]

The compromise was announced at the Atlanta Exposition Speech. The primary architect of the compromise, on behalf of the African-Americans, was Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute. Supporters of Washington and the Atlanta compromise were termed the "Tuskegee Machine."

The agreement was never written down. Essential elements of the agreement were that blacks would not ask for the right to vote, they would not retaliate against racist behavior, they would tolerate segregation and discrimination, that they would receive free basic education, education would be limited to vocational or industrial training (for instance as teachers or nurses), liberal arts education would be prohibited (for instance, college education in the classics, humanities, art, or literature).[citation needed]

After the turn of the 20th century, other black leaders, most notably W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter – (a group Du Bois would call The Talented Tenth), took issue with the compromise, instead believing that African-Americans should engage in a struggle for civil rights. W. E. B. Du Bois coined the term "Atlanta Compromise" to denote the agreement. The term "accommodationism" is also used to denote the essence of the Atlanta compromise.

After Washington's death in 1915, supporters of the Atlanta compromise gradually shifted their support to civil rights activism, until the modern Civil rights movement commenced in the 1950s.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Lewis (2009), pp 180–181.
  2. ^ Croce, pp 1–3.
  3. ^ Lewis (2009), pp 180–181.
  4. ^ Croce, pp 1–3.
  5. ^ Lewis (2009), pp 180–181.
  6. ^ Croce, pp 1–3.

References[edit]

  • Croce, Paul (2001), "Accommodation versus Struggle", in W. E. B. Du Bois: An Encyclopedia, Gerald Horne and Mary Young (eds), Greenwood, ISBN 978-0-313-29665-9.
  • Harlan, Louis R. (1986), Booker T. Washington: the wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915, Oxford University Press, pp. 71–120.
  • Harlan, Louis R. (2006), "A Black Leader in the Age of Jim Crow", in The Racial Politics of Booker T. Washington, Donald Cunnigen, Rutledge M. Dennis, Myrtle Gonza Glascoe (eds), Emerald Group Publishing, p. 26.
  • Lewis, David Levering (2009), W.E.B. Du Bois: A Biography, Henry Holt and Co. Single volume edition, updated, of his 1994 and 2001 works. ISBN 978-0-8050-8769-7.
  • Logan, Rayford Whittingham, The Betrayal of the Negro, from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson, Da Capo Press, 1997, pp. 275–313.

External links[edit]