Map of Atropatene under the Parthian Empire.
|Languages||Middle Persian, Median|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
Atropatene, known as Āturpātakān in Middle Persian, was an Sasanian province in northern Iran which almost corresponded to the present day Iranian Azerbaijan and Iranian Kurdistan. The natives of the province spoke Middle Persian, Adhari and Median.
In 224 Atropatene submitted with little resistance to Ardashir I once he had defeated and killed Artabanus at the Battle of Hormizdegan, Atropatene was invaded by Heraclius during the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–28 and later fell to the Arabs around 651.
- Boyce, Mary (2000). "GANZAK". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 3. pp. 289–290.
- Chaumont, M. L. (1987). "ATROPATES". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 1. pp. 17–18.
- de Planhol, X. (1987). "AZERBAIJAN i. Geography". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 2. pp. 205–215.
- Schippmann, K. (1987). "AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 2. pp. 221–224.