Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) 10mg Pill (Ciba/Novartis), a drug commonly prescribed to treat ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) controversies include concerns about its existence as a disorder, its causes, the methods by which ADHD is diagnosed and treated including the use of stimulant medications in children, possible overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis as ADHD leading to undertreatment of the real underlying disease, alleged hegemonic practices of the American Psychiatric Association and negative stereotypes of children diagnosed with ADHD. These controversies have surrounded the subject since at least the 1970s.[1][2]:p.23[3]

The best course of ADHD management is major topic of debate. Stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medication for ADHD in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health maintains that stimulants are considered safe when used under medical supervision,[4] but there are concerns regarding the higher rates of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as increased severity of these disorders in individuals with a history of stimulant use for ADHD in childhood.[5]

Status as a disorder[edit]

The controversy surrounding ADHD involves clinicians, scientists, teachers, policymakers, parents and the media with opinions regarding ADHD ranging from those who do not believe it exists to those who believe that there are genetic and physiological bases for the condition.[6] While the existence of ADHD is generally accepted, controversy exists over the high rates of diagnosis in children and adolescents, the treatment of individuals with ADHD medically, educationally and legally, and whether treatment should continue into adulthood.[7][8] The controversies around ADHD have been on-going at least since the 1970s.[9] In the most accepted authority on clinical diagnoses of psychological behavior, the DSM-IV, ADHD is included as a genuine disorder while significant controversy surrounds how it is diagnosed and treated.[8]

Researchers from McMaster University identified five features of ADHD that contribute to its controversial nature:

  1. It is a clinical diagnosis for which there are no laboratory or radiological confirmatory tests or specific physical features.
  2. Diagnostic criteria have changed frequently.
  3. There is no curative treatment, so long-term therapies are required.
  4. Therapy often includes stimulant drugs that have abuse potential.
  5. The rates of diagnosis and of treatment substantially differ across countries.[10]

Skepticism about the diagnosis[edit]

In 2002, Russell Barkley, a prominent researcher and author on the subject of ADHD, published The International Consensus Statement on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), signed by 86 psychiatrists and psychologists, including several of the most widely published and cited researchers in psychiatry, which asserts the existence of ADHD and denies the existence of controversy within the medical community.[11] Two critiques of their statements have since been published in the peer reviewed literature questioning the negative tone they have used to describe researchers with views differing from their own.[12][13] In 2010, Barkley published book ADHD in Adults: What the Science Says where he stated to make a statement that ADHD is not a valid disorder is egregiously wrong and in the face of such overwhelming evidence to the contrary is to show either a stunning scientific illiteracy or reflect planned religious or political propaganda intended to deceive the uninformed or unsuspecting general public. Barkley points out numerous differences emerged in studies between those with ADHD and general population controls and between those with ADHD and Clinical control groups that make such assertions moribund.[14]

In 2002, a survey among the general population in the U.S. found that of the 64% who had heard of ADHD, 78% believed it to be a "real disease".[15] In the United States, African-American parents state that their friends and family are often unsure about the legitimacy of ADHD.[16]

In 2002, 8 percent of readers of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) who answered an online survey listed ADHD as one of the 10 top "non-diseases". The BMJ survey defined non-diseases as meaning "a human process or problem that some have defined as a medical condition but where people may have better outcomes if the problem or process was not defined in that way." They did not deny that non-diseases do entail real problems or suffering. For example, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, and menopause all received a greater number of votes on this survey.[17][18]

In a June 2009 paper, the chair of the DSM-IV Task Force referred to one of DSM-IV’s unintended consequences as false "epidemics," attributing the sudden increases in the diagnosis of autism, bipolar disorder and ADHD to changes made in the DSM-IV definitions of those disorders.[19]

Robins and Guze's[20] criteria assert that the validity of any diagnosis must derive from empirical research and that some of this research must examine the neurobiologic causes and correlates of disorders. The Robins and Guze criteria view the validity of diagnoses as arising from empirical studies demonstrating the following: 1) the diagnosis has well-defined clinical correlates, 2) the diagnosis can be delimited from other diagnoses, 3) the disorder has a characteristic course and outcome, 4) the disorder shows evidence of heritability from family and genetic studies, 5) data from laboratory studies demonstrate other neurobiologic correlates of the disorder, and 6) the disorder shows a characteristic response to treatment. A 2005 review recognizes the ongoing controversial nature of ADHD among both clinicians and the general public. It found that it fulfills the Robins and Guze criteria which support the idea that ADHD is a valid diagnostic category.[21] A 2008 review, however, came to the opposite conclusion and states that: "Evidence for a genetic or neuroanatomic cause of ADHD is insufficient. [...] ADHD is unlikely to exist as an identifiable disease."[22]

Concerns about methods of diagnosis[edit]

ADHD is controversial in part because most children are diagnosed and treated based on decisions made by their parents and clinicians with teachers being the primary source of diagnostic information. Only a minority, about 20 percent, of children who end up with a diagnosis of ADHD show hyperactive behavior in the physician's office.[23][24][25]

The number of people diagnosed with ADHD in the U.S. and UK has grown dramatically over a short period of time. Critics of the diagnosis, such as Dan P. Hallahan and James M. Kauffman in their book Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education, have argued that this increase is due to the ADHD diagnostic criteria being sufficiently general or vague to allow virtually anybody with persistent unwanted behaviors to be classified as having ADHD of one type or another, and that the symptoms are not supported by sufficient empirical data.[26]

ADHD is purely a diagnosis by exclusion with no definitive physical test.[27] This leads to situations where one doctor would say a child needs psychotropic medication while another doctor could say the child is perfectly normal.[28] Concern exists that "elevated but still developmentally normal levels of motor activity, impulsiveness, or inattention" traits of childhood could be inappropriately interpreted as ADHD.[29][30]

Over / under diagnosis[edit]

Overdiagnosis typically refers to children who are diagnosed with ADHD but should not be. These instances are termed as “false positives”. However, the “presence of false positives alone does not indicate overdiagnosis”. There may be evidence of overdiagnosis if inaccuracies are shown consistently in the accepted prevalence rates or in the diagnostic process itself. "For ADHD to be overdiagnosed, the rate of false positives (i.e., children inappropriately diagnosed with ADHD) must substantially exceed the number of false negatives (children with ADHD who are not identified or diagnosed)." [31] Children aged 8 to 15 years living in the community, indicated an ADHD prevalence rate of 7.8%. However, only 48% of the ADHD sample had received any mental health care over the past 12 months. [32]

Evidence also exists of possible differences of race and ethnicity in the prevalence of ADHD. The prevalence of ADHD dramatically varies across cultures despite the fact that the same methodology has been used. Some believe this may be due to different perceptions of what clarifies as disruptive behavior, inattention and hyperactivity.[33]

It is argued that over-diagnosis occurs more in well-off or less heterogeneous communities, whereas under-diagnosis occurs more frequently in poorer and minority communities due to lack of resources and lack of financial access. Those without health insurance are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. It is further believed that the “distribution of ADHD diagnosis falls along socioeconomic lines”, according to the amount of wealth within a neighborhood. Therefore, the difficulty of applying national, general guidelines to localized and specific contexts, such as where referral is unavailable, resources are lacking or the patient is uninsured, may assist in the establishment of a misdiagnosis of ADHD.[34]

Development can also influence perception of relevant ADHD symptoms. ADHD is viewed as a chronic disorder that develops in childhood and continues into adulthood. However, some research shows a decline in the symptoms of ADHD as children grow up and mature into adulthood. As children move into the stage of adolescence, the most common reporters of ADHD symptoms, parents and teachers, tend to focus on behaviors affecting academic performance. Some research has shown that the primary symptoms of ADHD were strong discriminators in parent ratings, but differed for specific age groups. Hyperactivity was a stronger discriminator of ADHD in children, while inattentiveness was a stronger discriminator in adolescents.[35]

Issues with comorbidity is another possible explanation in favor of the argument of overdiagnosis. As many as 75% of diagnosed children with ADHD meet criteria for some other psychiatric diagnosis.[33] Among children diagnosed with ADHD, about 25% to 30% have anxiety disorders, 9% to 32% have depression, 45% to 84% have oppositional defiant disorder, and 44% to 55% of adolescents have conduct disorder.[35] Learning disorders are found in 20% to 40% of children with ADHD.[33]

Another possible explanation of over-diagnosis of ADHD is the “relative-age effect,” which applies to children of both sexes. Younger children are more likely to be inappropriately diagnosed with ADHD and treated with prescription medication than their older peers in the same grade. Children who are almost a year younger tend to appear more immature than their classmates, which influences both their academic and athletic performance.[36]

The debate of underdiagnosis, or giving a "false negative," has also been discussed, specifically in literature concerning ADHD among adults, girls and underprivileged communities. It is estimated that in the adult population, rates of ADHD are somewhere between 4% and 6%.[37] However, as little as 11% of these adults with ADHD actually receive assessment, and furthermore, any form of treatment.[38] Between 30% and 70% of children with ADHD report at least one impairing symptom of ADHD in adulthood, and 30% to 50% still meet diagnostic criteria for an ADHD diagnosis.[39]

Research on gender differences also reveals an argument for underdiagnosis of ADHD among girls. The ratio for male-to-female is 4:1 with 92% of girls with ADHD receiving a primarily inattentive subtype diagnosis.[33] This difference in gender can be explained, for the majority, by the different ways boys and girls express symptoms of this particular disorder.[40] Typically, females with ADHD exhibit less disruptive behaviors and more internalizing behaviors.[31][41] Girls tend to show fewer behavioral problems, show fewer aggressive behaviors, are less impulsive, and are less hyperactive than boys diagnosed with ADHD. These patterns of behavior are less likely to disrupt the classroom or home setting, therefore allowing parents and teachers to easily overlook or neglect the presence of a potential problem.[40] The current diagnostic criteria appear to be more geared towards males than females, and the ADHD characteristics of men have been over-represented.[42] This leaves many women and girls with ADHD neglected. Studies have shown that girls with ADHD, especially those with signs of impulsivity, were three to four times more likely to attempt suicide when compared with female controls. Additionally, these girls were two to three times more likely to engage in self-harming behaviors.[41]

As stated previously, underdiagnosis is also believed to be seen in more underprivileged communities. These communities tend to be poorer and inhabit more minorities. More than 50% of children with mental health needs do not receive assessment or treatment. Access to mental health services and resources differs on a wide range of factors, such as “gender, age, race or ethnicity and health insurance”. Therefore, children deserving of an ADHD diagnosis may never receive this confirmation and are not identified or represented in prevalence rates.[31]

In 2005, 82 percent of teachers in the United States considered ADHD to be over diagnosed while three percent considered it to be under diagnosed. In China 19 percent of teachers considered ADHD to be over diagnosed while 57 percent considered it to be under diagnosed.[43]

Changing diagnostic criteria[edit]

For over seventy years in the United States, symptoms of what is now called ADHD have had different labels.[44] The fact that the diagnostic criteria and the name used to describe the set of characteristics that make up ADHD have changed over time has led to concerns.[3][45]

Suggestions have been made for a potential revision of the DSM-IV to prevent misdiagnosis, specifically for ADHD. A revision would help with deciphering between the common clinical profiles of “pure ADHD” and ADHD with comorbid externalizing behaviors, like conduct disorder and oppositional-defiant disorder, and internalizing behaviors, like anxiety.[35] A reason for this distinction is due to behaviors exhibited by children with ADHD that are actually related to functional impairment caused by symptoms of comorbid disorders.[46]

Views of ADHD outside North America[edit]

In 2009, the British Psychological Society and the Royal College of Psychiatrists, in collaboration with the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), released a set of diagnosis and treatment guidelines for ADHD.[2] These guidelines reviewed studies by Ford et al. that found that 3.6 percent of boys and 0.85 percent of girls in Britain qualified for a diagnosis of ADHD using the American DSM-IV criteria.[47] The guidelines go on to state that the prevalence drops to 1.5% when using the stricter criteria for the ICD-10 diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder used mainly in Europe.[48]

A systematic review of the literature in 2007 found that the worldwide prevalence of ADHD was 5.29 percent, and that there were no significant differences in prevalence rates between North America and Europe. The review did find differences between prevalence rates in North America and those in Africa and the Middle East, but cautioned that this may be due to the small number of studies available from those regions.[49]

Norwegian National Broadcasting (NRK) broadcast a short television series in early 2005 on the extreme increase in the use of Ritalin and Concerta for children. Sales were six times higher in 2004 than in 2002. The series included the announcement of a successful group therapy program for 127 unmedicated children aged four to eight, some with ADHD and some with oppositional defiant disorder.[50]

Anti-psychiatry and critical psychiatry movement[edit]

Members of the anti-psychiatry movement such as Fred Baughman and Peter Breggin[51][52][53][54] have extensively used the popular media, as well as made a comment[55] on medical literature to criticize ADHD and medications used for ADHD. They have testified at Congressional hearings on the use of Ritalin and supported legal challenges such as the Ritalin class action lawsuits. There is also a movement called critical psychiatry that often refers to their writings, but in contrast to Scientologists (see below), they are not "anti-psychiatry," but critics of some of its practices and offer alternative models and perspectives.[56]

Scientology[edit]

The Church of Scientology, which opposes all forms of psychiatry, has vocally criticized ADHD and its treatments[57] and played a leading role in the anti-Ritalin campaign in the late 1980s.[58] The church states that treatment merely lessens the symptoms rather than addresses the underlying cause,[59] "mental and behavioral problems are largely incorrect diagnoses that cover symptoms and don't handle the real problems, which may be physical or spiritual".[60]

Personality trait[edit]

Some believe that many of the traits of those diagnosed with ADHD are personality traits and are not indicative of a disorder. These traits may be undesirable in modern society, leading to difficulty functioning in society, and thus have been labeled as a disorder.[61] Some conservatives see ADHD as being an attack on masculine traits and the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD as an attack on traditional management of behavioral traits such as by discipline as well as intervention of the state into the sanctity of the family and the private citizen.[62]

Questions concerning the cause[edit]

The pathophysiology of ADHD is unclear and there are a number of competing theories.[63]

ADHD as a biological illness[edit]

A controversial issues regarding ADHD is whether it is wholly or even predominantly a biological illness leading to a chemical or structural defect in the brain.[citation needed] The predominance of opinion in 2001 in medicine was that ADHD is a mixture of genetics and the environment however the pathophysiology was unclear at that time.[64] Xavier Castellanos, the former head of ADHD research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), was "firmly convinced that ADHD is a biological illness" in 2000, but he also noted, regarding ADHD and the brain, "We don't yet know what's going on in ADHD."[65] Neuroimaging and genetic studies have revealed associations with ADHD, however according to NICE ADHD itself does not represent a neurological disease.[2]

Frequently observed differences in the brain between ADHD and non-ADHD patients have been discovered,[66] but it is uncertain if or how these differences give rise to the symptoms of ADHD. Results from various types of neuroimaging techniques suggest there are differences in the brain, such as thinner regions of the cortex, between individuals with and without ADHD.[67]

Although ADHD is said to be highly heritable and twin studies suggest genetics are a factor in about 75% of ADHD cases, it has been argued that ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder[68] caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors and thus cannot be modeled accurately using the single gene theory. Authors of a review of ADHD etiology in 2004 noted: "Although several genome-wide searches have identified chromosomal regions that are predicted to contain genes that contribute to ADHD susceptibility, to date no single gene with a major contribution to ADHD has been identified.",[69] although many further studies have occurred since. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database has a listing for ADHD under autosomal dominant heritable conditions, claiming that multiple genes contribute to the disorder. As of 2014, OMIM listed 6 genes with variants that have been suggested to contribute to ADHD.[70]

Hunter vs. farmer hypothesis of ADHD[edit]

The hunter vs. farmer hypothesis is an idea proposed by author Thom Hartmann about the origins of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who believes that these conditions may be a result of adaptive behavior of the species, his theory states that those with ADHD retain some of the older hunter characteristics.[71]

Social construct theory of ADHD[edit]

It has been argued that even if it is a social construct, this does not mean it is not a valid condition, for example obesity has different cultural constructs but yet has demonstrable adverse effects associated with it.[72] A minority of these critics maintain that ADHD was "invented and not discovered". They believe that the disorder does not exist and that the behavior observed is not abnormal and can be better explained by environmental causes or just the personality of the "patient."[73]

Concerns about medication[edit]

The National Institute of Mental Health recommends stimulants for the treatment of ADHD, and states that, "under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe".[4] A 2007 drug class review found no evidence of any differences in efficacy or side effects in the stimulants commonly prescribed.[74]

Frequency of stimulant use[edit]

Between 1993 and 2003 the worldwide use of medications that treat ADHD increased almost threefold.[75] Most ADHD medications are prescribed in the United States.[75] In the 1990s, the US accounted for 90% of global use of stimulants such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine. By the early 2000s, this had fallen to 80% due to increased usage in other countries.[76][better source needed] In 2003, doctors in the UK were prescribing about a 10th of the amount per capita of methylphenidate used in the US, while France and Italy accounted for approximately one twentieth of US stimulant consumption.[76] These assertions appear to contradict the 2006 World Drug Report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, which indicate the US constituted merely 17% of the world market for dextroamphetamine.[77] They assert that in the early 2000's amphetamine use was "widespread in Europe."[77]

In 1999, a study constructed with 1,285 children and their parents across four U.S. communities has shown 12.5% of children that met ADHD criteria had been treated with stimulants during the previous 12 months.[78] On May 2000, the testimony of DEA Deputy Director Terrance Woodworth has shown that the Ritalin quota increased from 1,768 kg in 1990 to 14,957 kg in 2000. In addition, IMS Health also revealed the numerous use of Adderall prescription have increased from 1.3 million in 1996 to nearly 6 million in 1999.[79]

Concerns about side effects and long term effectiveness[edit]

Some parents and professionals have raised questions about the side effects of drugs and their long term use.[80] Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine or methylphenidate decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function of the right caudate nucleus.[81][82][83]

Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term amphetamine use for ADHD.[84][85][86] An evidence review noted the findings of a randomized controlled trial of amphetamine treatment for ADHD in Swedish children following 9 months of amphetamine use.[87] During treatment, the children experienced improvements in attention, disruptive behaviors, and hyperactivity, and an average change of +4.5 in IQ.[87] It noted that the population in the study had a high rate of comorbid disorders associated with ADHD and suggested that other long-term amphetamine trials in people with less associated disorders could find greater functional improvements.[87] On February 9, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration voted to recommend a "black-box" warning describing the cardiovascular risks of stimulant drugs used to treat ADHD.[88] Subsequently, the USFDA commissioned studies which found that, in children, young adults, and adults, there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events (sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and the medical use of amphetamine or other ADHD stimulants.[89][90][91][92]

A 2008 review found that the use of stimulants improved teachers' and parents' ratings of behavior; however, it did not improve academic achievement.[93] The same review also indicates growth retardation for children consistently medicated over three years, compared to unmedicated children in the study.[93] Intensive treatment for 14 months has no effect on long term outcomes 8 years later.[94] No significant differences between the various drugs in terms of efficacy or side effects have been found.[95][96]

Long term effects[edit]

The effects of amphetamine on gene regulation are both dose- and route-dependent.[97] Most of the research on gene regulation and addiction is based upon animal studies with intravenous amphetamine administration at very high doses.[97] The few studies that have used equivalent (weight-adjusted) human therapeutic doses and oral administration show that these changes, if they occur, are relatively minor.[97] The long term effects on the developing brain and on mental health disorders in later life of chronic use of methylphenidate is unknown. Despite this, between 0.51% to 1.23% of children between the ages of 2 and 6 years take stimulants in the USA. Stimulants drugs are not approved for this age group.[98][99]

While ADHD is associated with an increased risk of substance abuse, stimulant medications have been shown to reduce the risk of subsequent development of substance abuse.[100][101]

A review found that young ADHD patients taking stimulant medication may have a reduced rate of height and weight gain during adolescence, but these effects become lesser over time and stimulant medication may not have an effect on the ultimate weight and height of the medicated patient.[102] It is unclear whether the delay in growth is due to stimulant medication or ADHD itself; ethical problems in giving stimulant medication to children without ADHD as experimental controls makes such studies problematic.[103] Some patients will take a period of time off of medication, called a "drug holiday," in hopes of allowing the normal rate of height and weight attainment to resume.[103] Stimulant medication may also inhibit cartilage growth, liver development and central nervous system growth factors.[103] Periodic CBC, differential, and platelet counts are recommended during prolonged use of methylphenidate.[104]

Coercion[edit]

It is often not a child's decision to take medication, especially those under the age of six, a group that is seeing a dramatic increase in the prescription of psychiatric medications. Some schools have attempted to require treatment with medications before allowing a child to attend school.[105] The United States has passed a bill against this practice.[105] Thus ethical concerns regarding forced treatment or coercion of minors arise. Some suspect that children are using stimulants as a cognitive enhancer at the request of their achievement-oriented parents.[106]

Non specific nature[edit]

Stimulants are often seen as cognitive enhancers or smart drugs. Their effects are non-specific with similar results seen in children and adults with and without ADHD. One finds improved concentration and behavior in all.[107][108] Due to their non-specific activity, stimulants have been used by writers to increase productivity,[109] as well as by the United States Air Force to improve concentration in combat.[110] A small number of scientists recommend widespread use by the population to increase brain power.[106]

Stimulant misuse[edit]

Stimulants are controlled psychotropic substances. They are classified as Schedule II substances (Schedule II: Potential for abuse; potential for psychological or physical addiction; currently accepted medical use).[111]

Controversy has surrounded whether methylphenidate is as commonly abused as other stimulants with many[who?] proposing that its rate of abuse is much lower than other stimulants. However, the majority of studies assessing its abuse potential scores have determined that it has an abuse potential similar to that of cocaine and d-amphetamine.[112]

Both children with and without ADHD abuse stimulants, with ADHD individuals being at the highest risk of abusing or diverting their stimulant prescriptions. Between 16 and 29 percent of students who are prescribed stimulants report diverting their prescriptions. Between 5 and 9 percent of grade/primary and high school children and between 5 and 35 percent of college students have used nonprescribed stimulants. Most often their motivation is to concentrate, improve alertness, "get high," or to experiment.[113]

Stimulant medications may be resold by patients as recreational drugs, and methylphenidate (Ritalin) is used as a study aid by some students without ADHD.[114]

Non-medical prescription stimulant use is high. A 2003 study found that non prescription use within the last year by college students in the US was 4.1%.[115] A 2008 meta analysis found even higher rates of non prescribed stimulant use. It found 5% to 9% of grade school and high school children and 5% to 35% of college students used a nonprescribed stimulant in the last year.[113]

Substance use disorders[edit]

Studies investigating whether stimulant medication can lead to drug abuse later in life found that despite the higher rate of substance abuse among ADHD patients as a whole, stimulant medication use in childhood did not affect or lowered, the risk for substance of abuse in adulthood compared to unmedicated individuals with ADHD.[116]

A 2009 review, and a 2006 study, found that those who had received stimulants during childhood showed the highest number of cocaine abusers in adulthood, twice that of the other groups thus suggesting that stimulant use during childhood was associated with sensitising or predisposing children to cocaine abuse later in life. Smoking tobacco also appeared to increase the risk of cocaine abuse in this population but even after controlling for tobacco exposure cocaine abuse was still significantly higher in adults who had been medicated with stimulants as children. This risk was still present 15 years after stimulant medication exposure.[117][118]

Advertising[edit]

In 2008 five pharmaceutical companies received warning from the FDA regarding false advertising and inappropriate professional slide decks related to ADHD medication.[119] In September 2008 the FDA sent notices to Novartis Pharmaceuticals and Johnson & Johnson regarding advertisings of Focalin XR and Concerta in which they overstated products' efficacies.[120][121] A similar warning was sent to Shire plc with respect to Adderall XR.[122]

Financial conflicts of interest[edit]

Russell Barkley, a well-known ADHD researcher, received payment from pharmaceutical companies for speaking and consultancy fees. There are concerns that this may bias his publications.[123]

In 2008, it was revealed that Joseph Biederman of Harvard, a frequently cited ADHD expert, failed to report to Harvard that he had received $1.6 million from pharmaceutical companies between 2000 and 2007.[124][125] E. Fuller Torrey, executive director of the Stanley Medical Research Institute which finances psychiatric studies, said "In the area of child psychiatry in particular, we know much less than we should, and we desperately need research that is not influenced by industry money."[125]

Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, CHADD, an ADHD advocacy group based in Landover, MD received a total of $1,169,000 in 2007 from pharmaceutical companies. These donations made up 26 percent of their budget.[126] This has been viewed by some as a major conflict of interest.[127]

Concerns about the impact of labeling[edit]

Russell Barkley believes labeling is a double-edged sword; there are many pitfalls to labeling but by using a precise label, services can be accessed. He also believes that labeling can help the individual understand and make an informed decision how best to deal with the disorder using evidence based knowledge.[128] Furthermore studies also show that the education of the siblings and parents has at least a short term impact on the outcome of treatment.[129] Barkley states this about ADHD rights: "... because of various legislation that has been passed to protect them. There are special education laws with the Americans with Disabilities Act, for example, mentioning ADHD as an eligible condition. If you change the label, and again refer to it as just some variation in normal temperament, these people will lose access to these services, and will lose these hard-won protections that keep them from being discriminated against. ..."[128] Psychiatrist Harvey Parker, who founded CHADD, states, "we should be celebrating the fact that school districts across the country are beginning to understand and recognize kids with ADHD, and are finding ways of treating them. We should celebrate the fact that the general public doesn't look at ADHD kids as "bad" kids, as brats, but as kids who have a problem that they can overcome".[130] However, children may be ridiculed at school by their peers for using psychiatric medications including those for ADHD.[131]

In politics and the media[edit]

North America[edit]

In 2001 in the USA, PBS's Frontline ran a TV show titled "Medicating Kids."[132] The program included a selection of interviews with representatives of various points of view. In a segment called "Backlash," Fred Baughman, retired neurologist, and Peter Breggin, founder of the International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology, the two of whom PBS described as "outspoken critics who insist [ADHD] is a fraud perpetrated by the psychiatric and pharmaceutical industries on families anxious to understand their children's behavior,"[133] were interviewed on the legitimacy of the disorder. Russell Barkley and Xavier Castellanos, then head of ADHD research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), defended the viability of the disorder, although Castellanos stated that little is scientifically understood.[134]

The validity of the work of many of the ADHD "experts" (including Biederman) has been called into question by Marcia Angell, former editor in chief of the New England Journal of Medicine,[135] in her book review, "Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption."[136] Newspaper columnists such as Benedict Carey, science and medical writer for The New York Times, have also written controversial articles on ADHD.[137][138]

In 1998, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) released a consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. The statement, while recognizing that stimulant treatment is controversial, supports the validity of the ADHD diagnosis and the efficacy of stimulant treatment. It found controversy only in the lack of sufficient data on long-term use of medications and in the need for more research in many areas.[139]

In 2013, a long term study, with an impressive sample of of 15, 871 children, by Princeton economist Janet Currie et al. on the effect of increased use of Ritalin among children in Quebec due to a policy change suggested that the effect on average was negative, both in the short and long run.[140][141]

United Kingdom[edit]

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) concluded that while it is important to acknowledge the body of academic literature which raises controversies and criticisms surrounding ADHD for the purpose of developing clinical guidelines, it is not possible to offer alternative methods of assessment (i.e. ICD 10 and DSM IV) or therapeutic treatment recommendations. NICE stated that this is because the current therapeutic treatment interventions and methods of diagnosis for ADHD are based on the dominant view of the academic literature.[2]:p.133 NICE further concluded that despite such criticism, ADHD represented a valid clinical condition,[2]:p.138 with genetic, environmental, neurobiological, and demographic factors.[2]:p.139 Although the diagnosis has a high level of support from clinicians and medical authorities,[2][142] a number of alternative theories[143][144] explaining the symptoms of ADHD have been proposed; these views include the hunter vs. farmer hypothesis and the social construct theory of ADHD.

Baroness Susan Greenfield, a leading neuroscientist, wanted a wide-ranging inquiry in the House of Lords into the dramatic increase in the diagnosis of ADHD in the UK and its possible causes.[145] This followed a BBC Panorama programme in 2007 which highlighted US research (The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD by the University of Buffalo showing treatment results of 600) suggesting drugs are no better than therapy for ADHD in the long-term.[145][146] In the UK medication use is increasing dramatically.[citation needed] Other notable individuals have made controversial statements about ADHD. Terence Kealey, a clinical biochemist and vice-chancellor of University of Buckingham, has stated his belief that ADHD medication is used to control unruly boys and girls behavior.[147]

The British Psychological Society said in a 1997 report that physicians and psychiatrists should not follow the American example of applying medical labels to such a wide variety of attention-related disorders: "The idea that children who don't attend or who don't sit still in school have a mental disorder is not entertained by most British clinicians."[29][148] In 2009, the British Psychological Society, in collaboration with the Royal College of Psychiatrists, released a set of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.[149] In its guideline, it states that available evidence indicate that ADHD is a valid diagnosis and that medication should be the first-line treatment for adults, for children with severe ADHD, or for children with mild ADHD who do not respond to non-medication interventions. However, it states that the diagnosis lack any biological basis and that "controversial issues surround changing thresholds applied to the definition of illness as new knowledge and treatments are developed and the extent to which it is acknowledged that clinical thresholds are socially and culturally influenced and determine how an individual's level of functioning within the 'normal cultural environment' is assessed". It further states that "the acceptable thresholds for impairment are partly driven by the contemporary societal view of what is an acceptable level of deviation from the norm."[149]

Scientology[edit]

An article in the Los Angeles Times stated that "the uproar over Ritalin was triggered almost single-handedly by the Scientology movement."[150] The Citizens Commission on Human Rights, an anti-psychiatry group formed by Scientologists in 1969, conducted a major campaign against Ritalin in the 1980s and lobbied Congress for an investigation of Ritalin.[150] Scientology publications identified the "real target of the campaign" as "the psychiatric profession itself" and said that the campaign "brought wide acceptance of the fact that (the commission) [sic] and the Scientologists are the ones effectively doing something about [...] psychiatric drugging".[150] However, Robert Whitaker in his book, Anatomy of an epidemic stated that ever since Eli Lilly used Scientology to their benefit to dismiss concerns regarding Prozac, pharmaceutical companies have successfully conditioned the public and the media to associate criticisms and controversies surrounding psychotropic drugs to being part of a Scientology conspiracy against their products and psychiatry in general.[151]

The well-known Scientologist Tom Cruise's interview with Matt Lauer was widely watched by the public. In this interview he spoke about the use of medications for mood disorders and also referred to Ritalin and other medications as being "street drugs." The sale of stimulants on campuses is not uncommon; they are used by non ADHD students to tackle drudgery.[152]

Imitation of symptoms[edit]

The symptoms of ADHD can be faked fairly easily; possible motives include access to stimulant drugs and/or academic resources.[153][154]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cormier E (October 2008). "Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and update". Journal of Pediatric Nursing 23 (5): 345–57. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2008.01.003. PMID 18804015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "CG72 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): full guideline" (PDF). UK National Health Service. 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  3. ^ a b Lange KW, Reichl S, Lange KM, Tucha L, Tucha O; Reichl; Lange; Tucha; Tucha (December 2010). "The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders 2 (4): 241–55. doi:10.1007/s12402-010-0045-8. PMC 3000907. PMID 21258430. 
  4. ^ a b "NIMH · ADHD · The Treatment of ADHD". 
  5. ^ Ross RG (July 2006). "Psychotic and manic-like symptoms during stimulant treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (7): 1149–52. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1149. PMID 16816217. 
  6. ^ "Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". US department of health and human services. December 1999. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  7. ^ Mayes R, Bagwell C, Erkulwater J; Bagwell; Erkulwater (2008). "ADHD and the rise in stimulant use among children". Harvard Review of Psychiatry 16 (3): 151–66. doi:10.1080/10673220802167782. PMID 18569037. 
  8. ^ a b Sim MG, Hulse G, Khong E; Hulse; Khong (August 2004). "When the child with ADHD grows up". Australian Family Physician 33 (8): 615–8. PMID 15373378. 
  9. ^ Parrillo, Vincent (2008). Encyclopedia of Social Problems. SAGE. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-4129-4165-5. 
  10. ^ Jadad AR, Booker L, Gauld M et al. (December 1999). "The treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: an annotated bibliography and critical appraisal of published systematic reviews and metaanalyses". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 44 (10): 1025–35. PMID 10637682. 
  11. ^ "www.russellbarkley.org". 
  12. ^ Jureidini J; Taylor (October 2002). "Does the International Consensus Statement on ADHD leave room for healthy scepticism?". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 11 (5): 240; author reply 241–2. doi:10.1007/s00787-002-0267-1. PMID 12557837. 
  13. ^ Timimi S, Moncrieff J, Jureidini J et al. (March 2004). "A critique of the international consensus statement on ADHD". Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 7 (1): 59–63; discussion 65–9. doi:10.1023/B:CCFP.0000020192.49298.7a. PMID 15119688. 
  14. ^ Barkley, Russel (2010). ADHD in Adults: What the Science Says. The Guilford Press. p. 435. ISBN 978-1609180751. Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  15. ^ McLeod JD, Fettes DL, Jensen PS, Pescosolido BA, Martin JK; Fettes; Jensen; Pescosolido; Martin (May 2007). "Public knowledge, beliefs, and treatment preferences concerning attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder". Psychiatric Services 58 (5): 626–31. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.58.5.626. PMC 2365911. PMID 17463342. 
  16. ^ Olaniyan O, dosReis S, Garriett V et al. (2007). "Community perspectives of childhood behavioral problems and ADHD among African American parents". Ambulatory Pediatrics 7 (3): 226–31. doi:10.1016/j.ambp.2007.02.002. PMID 17512883. 
  17. ^ http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/324/7334/DC1[full citation needed]
  18. ^ Smith R (April 2002). "In search of 'non-disease'". BMJ 324 (7342): 883–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7342.883. PMC 1122831. PMID 11950739. 
  19. ^ Frances, Allen (26 June 2009). "A Warning Sign on the Road to DSM-V: Beware of Its Unintended Consequences" (Full text). Psychiatric Times. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  20. ^ Robins E., Guze S. B.; Guze (1970). "Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia". Am J Psychiatry 126 (7): 983–7. PMID 5409569. 
  21. ^ Faraone SV (February 2005). "The scientific foundation for understanding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a valid psychiatric disorder". Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 14 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1007/s00787-005-0429-z. PMID 15756510. 
  22. ^ Furman LM (July 2008). "Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): does new research support old concepts?". J. Child Neurol. 23 (7): 775–84. doi:10.1177/0883073808318059. PMID 18658077. 
  23. ^ Meyers p.5
  24. ^ Sleator EK, Ullmann RK (January 1981). "Can the physician diagnose hyperactivity in the office?". Pediatrics 67 (1): 13–7. PMID 7243422. 
  25. ^ "ADHD in Children: Diagnosis and Assessment by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D.". 
  26. ^ Hallahn, Dan P.; Kauffman, James M.. Exceptional Learners : Introduction to Special Education Allyn & Bacon; 10th edition (April 8, 2005) ISBN 0-205-44421-0
  27. ^ Joughin C, Ramchandani P, Zwi M (May 2003). "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Am Fam Physician 67 (9): 1969–70. PMID 12751659. Archived from the original on Sep 25, 2006. 
  28. ^ medicating kids: interviews: dr. lawrence diller PBS - Frontline
  29. ^ a b Reason R; Working Party of the British Psychological Society (1999). "ADHD: a psychological response to an evolving concept. (Report of a Working Party of the British Psychological Society)". Journal of Learning Disabilities 32 (1): 85–91. doi:10.1177/002221949903200108. PMID 15499890. 
  30. ^ Lakhan SE, Hagger-Johnson GE (2007). "The impact of prescribed psychotropics on youth". Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health 3 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/1745-0179-3-21. PMC 2100041. PMID 17949504. 
  31. ^ a b c Sciutto, M. J., & Eisenberg, M. (2007). Evaluating the Evidence For and Against the Overdiagnosis of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(2), 106-113. Retrieved March 5, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  32. ^ Connor, Daniel F., M.D. "Problems of Overdiagnosis and Overprescribing in ADHD." Psychiatric Times 28.8 (2011): 14-8.
  33. ^ a b c d Cuffe, S. P., Moore, C. G., & McKeown, R. E. (2005). Prevalence and Correlates of ADHD Symptoms in the National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(2), 392-401. Retrieved March 6, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  34. ^ Morely, C. P. (2010). Disparities in ADHD Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 40(4), 383-389. Retrieved March 6, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  35. ^ a b c Harrison, J. R., Vannest, K. J., & Reynolds, C. R. (2011). Behaviors That Discriminate ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Primary Symptoms, Symptoms of Comorbid Conditions or Indicators of Functional Impairment? Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(2), 147-160. Retrieved March 6, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  36. ^ Morrow, R.; Garland, J.; Wright, J.; Maclure, M., Taylor, S.; Dormuth, C. (17 April 2012). "Influence of Relative Age on Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children". Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) 184 (7): 755–762. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111619. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  37. ^ Able, S. L., Johnston, J. A., Adler, L. A., & Swindle R. W. (2007). Functional and psychosocial impairment in adults with undiagnosed ADHD. Psychological Medicine, 37, 97-107. Retrieved March 10, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  38. ^ Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., . . . Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 716-723. Retrieved March 10, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  39. ^ Manos, M. J. (2010). Nuances of Assessment and Treatment of ADHD in Adults: A Guide for Psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41(6), 511-517. Retrieved March 10, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  40. ^ a b Bruchmuller, K., Margraf, J., & Schneider S. (2012). Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord with Diagnostic Criteria? Overdiagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 80(1), 128-138. Retrieved March 6, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  41. ^ a b Beiderman, J.,, Joseph; Stephen Farone; Eric Mick (1999). "Clinical correlates of ADHD in females: Findings from a large group of girls ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric referral sources". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 38 (8): 966–975. doi:10.1097/00004583-199908000-00012. 
  42. ^ Hinshaw, Stephen; Elizabeth Owens; Christine Zalecki (2012). "Prospective Follow-Up of Girls With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury". American Psychology Association 80 (6): 1041–1051. doi:10.1037/a0029451. 
  43. ^ Norvilitis JM, Fang P (November 2005). "Perceptions of ADHD in China and the United States: a preliminary study". J Atten Disord 9 (2): 413–24. doi:10.1177/1087054705281123. PMID 16371664. 
  44. ^ "Suffer the Restless Children: ADHD, Psychostimulants, and the Politics of Pediatric Mental Health". 
  45. ^ Jadad AR, Booker L, Gauld M et al. (December 1999). "The treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: an annotated bibliography and critical appraisal of published systematic reviews and metaanalyses". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 44 (10): 1025–35. PMID 10637682. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  46. ^ Klimkeit, E., Graham, C., Lee, P., Morling, M., Russon, D., & Tonge, B. (2006). Children should be seen and heard. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10, 181-191. Retrieved March 10, 2012 from PsychINFO database.
  47. ^ Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H (October 2003). "The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42 (10): 1203–11. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000081820.25107.ae (inactive 2010-01-07). PMID 14560170. 
  48. ^ Professor Michael Fitzgerald; Dr. Mark Bellgrove; Michael Gill (30 April 2007). Handbook of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. John Wiley & Sons. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-470-03215-2. 
  49. ^ Polanczyk, G.; De Lima, M. S.; Horta, B. L.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A. (2007). "The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis". American Journal of Psychiatry 164 (6): 942–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.942. PMID 17541055. 
  50. ^ Bergløff, Charlotte Berrefjord; Tor Risberg; Kjell Herning (2 May 2005). "Mister diagnosen AD/HD" (in Norwegian). Norwegian National Broadcasting. Retrieved 2009-05-09. "title, translated: [They] Lose the Diagnosis AD/HD" 
  51. ^ Talking Back to Ritalin-New Breggin Book Excerpts
  52. ^ An Anti-Psychiatry Reading List
  53. ^ Online Dictionary of Mental Health
  54. ^ TOC - Antipsychiatry Reading Room
  55. ^ Baughman F (July 2006). "There Is No Such Thing as a Psychiatric Disorder/Disease/Chemical Imbalance". PLoS medicine 3 (7): e318. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030318. PMC 1518691. PMID 16848623. 
  56. ^ "what is critical psychiatry". Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  57. ^ Fahlén T (March 2002). "[Church of Scientology and criticism of ADHD]". Lakartidningen (in Swedish) 99 (12): 1373–4. PMID 11998173. 
  58. ^ http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/269/18/2369
  59. ^ Scientology's war on psychiatry - Salon.com
  60. ^ http://deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,595091823,00.html?pg=3
  61. ^ http://adhdtexas.com/addptod.htm
  62. ^ Dr Jennifer Erkulwater; Dr Rick Mayes; Dr Catherine Bagwell (2009). Medicating Children: ADHD and Pediatric Mental Health. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 146. ISBN 0-674-03163-6. 
  63. ^ "Evaluation and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children". December 5, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  64. ^ Dopheide, Julie A. (March 16–20, 2001). "ADHD Part 1: Current Status, Diagnosis, Etiology/Pathophysiology". American Pharmaceutical Association 148th Annual Meeting. APhA 2001. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  65. ^ "Castellanos interview". Frontline. WGBH. 10 October 2000. 
  66. ^ Cortese S, Castellanos FX (October 2012). "Neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current neuroscience-informed perspectives for clinicians". Curr Psychiatry Rep 14 (5): 568–78. doi:10.1007/s11920-012-0310-y. PMID 22851201. 
  67. ^ Philip Shaw; Jason Lerch; Deanna Greenstein; Wendy Sharp; Liv Clasen; Alan Evans; Jay Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Judith Rapoport (2006). "Longitudinal Mapping of Cortical Thickness and Clinical Outcome in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". Arch Gen Psychiatry 5 (63): 540–549. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.5.540. PMID 16651511. 
  68. ^ Barkley, Russel A. "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Nature, Course, Outcomes, and Comorbidity". Retrieved 2006-06-26. 
  69. ^ M. T. Acosta, M. Arcos-Burgos, M. Muenke (2004). "Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Complex phenotype, simple genotype?". Genetics in Medicine 6 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1097/01.GIM.0000110413.07490.0B. PMID 14726804. 
  70. ^ "Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder; ADHD". Online Medelian Inheritance in Man. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  71. ^ Hartmann, Thom (2003). The Edison gene: ADHD and the gift of the hunter child. Rochester, Vt: Park Street Press. ISBN 0-89281-128-5. 
  72. ^ Parens, Erik; Johnston, J (2009). "Facts, values, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies". Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 3 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/1753-2000-3-1. PMC 2637252. PMID 19152690. 
  73. ^ "CG72 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): NICE guideline" (PDF). NHS. 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  74. ^ McDonagh MS, Peterson K, Dana T, Thakurta S. (2007). Drug Class Review on Pharmacologic Treatments for ADHD. Results "lack of evidence of a difference between the drugs studied in efficacy or adverse events."
  75. ^ a b "Global Use of ADHD Medications Rises Dramatically". NIMH. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  76. ^ a b Marwick, C. (2003-01-11). "US doctor warns of misuse of prescribed stimulants". BMJ (Washington, DC) 326 (7380): 67. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7380.67. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1125021. PMID 12521954. 
  77. ^ a b Chawla S, Le Pichon T (2006). "World Drug Report 2006". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. pp. 143–144. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  78. ^ Jensen PS, Kettle L, Roper MT, et al. (July 1999). "Are stimulants overprescribed? Treatment of ADHD in four U.S. communities". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 38 (7): 797–804. doi:10.1097/00004583-199907000-00008. PMID 10405496. 
  79. ^ "Statistics on Stimulant Use". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  80. ^ Lakhan SE, Hagger-Johnson GE (2007). "The impact of prescribed psychotropics on youth". Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health 3: 21. doi:10.1186/1745-0179-3-21. PMC 2100041. PMID 17949504. 
  81. ^ Hart H, Radua J, Nakao T, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K (February 2013). "Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects". JAMA Psychiatry 70 (2): 185–198. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.277. PMID 23247506. 
  82. ^ Spencer TJ, Brown A, Seidman LJ, Valera EM, Makris N, Lomedico A, Faraone SV, Biederman J (September 2013). "Effect of psychostimulants on brain structure and function in ADHD: a qualitative literature review of magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging studies". J. Clin. Psychiatry 74 (9): 902–917. doi:10.4088/JCP.12r08287. PMC 3801446. PMID 24107764. 
  83. ^ Frodl T, Skokauskas N (February 2012). "Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects.". Acta psychiatrica Scand. 125 (2): 114–126. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01786.x. PMID 22118249. "Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD. These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood. Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure." 
  84. ^ Millichap JG (2010). "Chapter 3: Medications for ADHD". In Millichap JG. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 111–113. ISBN 9781441913968. 
  85. ^ "Stimulants for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder". WebMD. Healthwise. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  86. ^ Chavez B, Sopko MA, Ehret MJ, Paulino RE, Goldberg KR, Angstadt K, Bogart GT (June 2009). "An update on central nervous system stimulant formulations in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Ann. Pharmacother. 43 (6): 1084–1095. doi:10.1345/aph.1L523. PMID 19470858. 
  87. ^ a b c Millichap JG (2010). Millichap JG, ed. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 122–123. ISBN 9781441913968. 
  88. ^ Nissen SE (April 2006). "ADHD drugs and cardiovascular risk". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (14): 1445–8. doi:10.1056/NEJMp068049. PMID 16549404. 
  89. ^ "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review Update of Medications used to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and young adults". United States Food and Drug Administration. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  90. ^ Cooper WO, Habel LA, Sox CM, Chan KA, Arbogast PG, Cheetham TC, Murray KT, Quinn VP, Stein CM, Callahan ST, Fireman BH, Fish FA, Kirshner HS, O'Duffy A, Connell FA, Ray WA (November 2011). "ADHD drugs and serious cardiovascular events in children and young adults". N. Engl. J. Med. 365 (20): 1896–1904. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1110212. PMID 22043968. 
  91. ^ "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review Update of Medications used to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults". United States Food and Drug Administration. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  92. ^ Habel LA, Cooper WO, Sox CM, Chan KA, Fireman BH, Arbogast PG, Cheetham TC, Quinn VP, Dublin S, Boudreau DM, Andrade SE, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Achacoso N, Uratsu C, Go AS, Sidney S, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Ray WA, Selby JV (December 2011). "ADHD medications and risk of serious cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults". JAMA 306 (24): 2673–2683. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1830. PMC 3350308. PMID 22161946. 
  93. ^ a b "What is the evidence for using CNS stimulants to treat ADHD in children?". March–May 2008. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  94. ^ Molina BS, Hinshaw SP, Swanson JM et al. (March 2009). "The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined Type ADHD in a Multisite Study". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48 (5): 484–500. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819c23d0. PMC 3063150. PMID 19318991.  |first10= missing |last10= in Authors list (help); |first11= missing |last11= in Authors list (help)
  95. ^ King S, Griffin S, Hodges Z et al. (July 2006). "A systematic review and economic model of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents". Health Technol Assess 10 (23): iii–iv, xiii–146. PMID 16796929.  |first10= missing |last10= in Authors list (help)
  96. ^ Brown RT, Amler RW, Freeman WS et al. (June 2005). "Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: overview of the evidence". Pediatrics 115 (6): e749–57. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2560. PMID 15930203. 
  97. ^ a b c Steiner H, Van Waes V (January 2013). "Addiction-related gene regulation: risks of exposure to cognitive enhancers vs. other psychostimulants". Prog. Neurobiol. 100: 60–80. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.10.001. PMC 3525776. PMID 23085425. 
  98. ^ Kimko HC, Cross JT, Abernethy DR (December 1999). "Pharmacokinetics and clinical effectiveness of methylphenidate". Clin Pharmacokinet 37 (6): 457–70. doi:10.2165/00003088-199937060-00002. PMID 10628897. 
  99. ^ Vitiello B (October 2001). "Psychopharmacology for young children: clinical needs and research opportunities". Pediatrics 108 (4): 983–9. doi:10.1542/peds.108.4.983. PMID 11581454. 
  100. ^ Faraone SV, Wilens TE (2007). "Effect of stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on later substance use and the potential for stimulant misuse, abuse, and diversion". J Clin Psychiatry. 68 Suppl 11: 15–22. doi:10.4088/jcp.1107e28. PMID 18307377. 
  101. ^ Wilens TE, Faraone SV, Biederman J, Gunawardene S (January 2003). "Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature". Pediatrics 111 (1): 179–85. doi:10.1542/peds.111.1.179. PMID 12509574. 
  102. ^ Faraone SV; Spencer TJ (September 2008). "Effect of stimulants on height and weight: a review of the literature". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47: (9): 977–80. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31817e0ea7. PMID 18580502. 
  103. ^ a b c Joshi SV; Adam, H. M. (February 2002). "ADHD, growth deficits, and relationships to psychostimulant use". Pediatr Rev 23 (2): 67–8; discussion 67–8. doi:10.1542/pir.23-2-67. PMID 11826259. 
  104. ^ Kidd PM (October 2000). "Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management" (PDF). Altern Med Rev 5 (5): 402–28. PMID 11056411. 
  105. ^ a b "Schools Can't Require ADHD Drugs". 
  106. ^ a b Greely, Henry; Barbara Sahakian; John Harris; Ronald C. Kessler; Michael Gazzaniga; Philip Campbell; Martha J. Farah (2008). "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy". Nature 456 (7223): 702–705. doi:10.1038/456702a. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 19060880. Retrieved December 2008. 
  107. ^ Clayton, Paula J.; Fatemi, S. Hossein (2008). The medical basis of psychiatry. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 318. ISBN 1-58829-917-1. 
  108. ^ "Medscape & eMedicine Log In". 
  109. ^ "My romance with ADHD meds. - By Joshua Foer - Slate Magazine". 
  110. ^ "Air force rushes to defend amphetamine use". The Age. January 18, 2003. 
  111. ^ Jim Rosack. "Controversy Erupts Over Ads for ADHD Drugs". Psychiatr News 36 (21): 20. 
  112. ^ Kollins SH, MacDonald EK, Rush CR (March 2001). "Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 68 (3): 611–27. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(01)00464-6. PMID 11325419. 
  113. ^ a b Wilens TE, Adler LA, Adams J et al. (January 2008). "Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: a systematic review of the literature". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47 (1): 21–31. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e31815a56f1. PMID 18174822. 
  114. ^ "Ritalin abuse scoring high on college illegal drug circuit". CNN. 2001-01-08. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  115. ^ McCabe SE, Knight JR, Teter CJ, Wechsler H (January 2005). "Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: prevalence and correlates from a national survey". Addiction (Abingdon, England) 100 (1): 96–106. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.00944.x. PMID 15598197. 
  116. ^ Kollins SH (September 2008). "ADHD, substance use disorders, and psychostimulant treatment: current literature and treatment guidelines". Journal of Attention Disorders 12 (2): 115–25. doi:10.1177/1087054707311654. PMID 18192623. 
  117. ^ Susan Schenk; Emily S. Davidson. "Stimulant Preexposure Sensitizes Rats and Humans to the Rewarding Effects of Cocaine" (PDF). National Institute on Drug Abuse. pp. 73–76. Retrieved 3 June 2009. 
  118. ^ Lambert NM, McLeod M, Schenk S (May 2006). "Subjective responses to initial experience with cocaine: an exploration of the incentive-sensitization theory of drug abuse". Addiction 101 (5): 713–25. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01408.x. PMID 16669905. 
  119. ^ "FDA Warns Five Drugmakers Over ADHD Ads // Pharmalot". 
  120. ^ "Focalin XR (dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride) extended-release capsules CII". Warning Letters. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  121. ^ "CONCERTA (methylphenidate HCI) Extended-release Tablets CII". Warning Letters. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  122. ^ "Adderall XR Capsules". Warning Letters. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  123. ^ Southall, Angela (2007). The Other Side of ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Exposed and Explained. Radcliffe Publishing Ltd. p. 41. ISBN 1-84619-068-1. 
  124. ^ Adams G. (9 July 2008). "Harvard medics "concealed drug firm cash"". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  125. ^ a b Harris, Gardiner; Carey, Benedict (2008-06-08). "Researchers Fail to Reveal Full Drug Pay". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  126. ^ Susan Buningh. "CHADD’s Income and Expenditures (2006-2007)" (PDF). 
  127. ^ "Drug Companies Pushing ADHD Drugs for Children". CorpWatch. 
  128. ^ a b PBS - frontline: medicating kids: interviews: russell barkley
  129. ^ Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder http://www.aacap.org/galleries/PracticeParameters/JAACAP_ADHD_2007.pdf
  130. ^ PBS - frontline: medicating kids: interviews: harvey parker
  131. ^ Santosh PJ, Taylor E (2000). "Stimulant drugs". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 9 (Suppl 1): I27–43. doi:10.1007/s007870070017. PMID 11140778. 
  132. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/medicating/adhd/ Medicating Kids
  133. ^ PBS - frontline: medicating kids: opponents and backlash
  134. ^ PBS - frontline: medicating kids: interviews: xavier castellanos, m.d
  135. ^ "Marcia Angell". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2009-07-21. "Marcia Angell is a Senior Lecturer in Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. A physician, she is a former Editor in Chief of The New England Journal of Medicine." 
  136. ^ Angell, Marcia (15 January 2009). "Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  137. ^ Carey, Benedict (2006-12-22). "Parenting as Therapy for Child's Mental Disorders". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  138. ^ Carey, Benedict (2006-11-11). "What's Wrong With a Child? Psychiatrists Often Disagree". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  139. ^ (not given) (Nov 16–18, 1998). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)". NIH Consens Statement (National Institutes of Health) 16 (2): 1–37. PMID 10868163. 
  140. ^ Jeff Guo (14 June 2013): Did Ritalin Make Kids in Quebec Dumber? The New Republic, retrieved 16 June 2013
  141. ^ NBER Working Paper No. 19105: Do Stimulant Medications Improve Educational and Behavioral Outcomes for Children with ADHD? National Bureau of Economic Research, retrieved 16 June 2013
  142. ^ Goldman LS, Genel M, Bezman RJ, Slanetz PJ (April 1998). "Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association". JAMA 279 (14): 1100–7. doi:10.1001/jama.279.14.1100. PMID 9546570. 
  143. ^ Russell A. Barkley. Taking charge of ADHD: the complete, authoritative guide for parents. ISBN 0-89862-099-6. 
  144. ^ "Comprehensive References of Scientific Studies on ADHD". Retrieved 25 September 2009. 
  145. ^ a b "Peer calls for ADHD care review". BBC News. 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  146. ^ "Questions over drugs for ADHD". United Kingdom: BBC. 12 November 2007. 
  147. ^ Kealey, Terence (2004-06-04). "Boisterous boys are too much like hard work so we drug them into conformity". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  148. ^ Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  149. ^ a b "ADHD Full Guideline". National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). 
  150. ^ a b c Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W. (1990-06-29). "Suits, Protests Fuel a Campaign Against Psychiatry". Los Angeles Times. p. A48:1. Retrieved 2006-11-29.  Backup copy link here
  151. ^ Whitaker, Robert H. (13 April 2010). Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America. USA: Crown Publishing Group (NY). pp. 292–295. ISBN 0-307-45241-7. "The wonder drug aura around Prozac had been restored, and the public and the media had been conditioned to associated criticism of psychiatric drugs with Scientology." 
  152. ^ "Latest Campus High: Illicit use of Prescription Medication, Experts and Students Say" NY Times Page B8 3/24/2000.
  153. ^ Newton, Philip M. (July 3, 2010). "How easy is it to fake ADHD?". Psychology Today. From Mouse to Man. 
  154. ^ Sollman, M. J.; Ranseen, J. D.; Berry, D. T. R. (2010). "Detection of feigned ADHD in college students". Psychological Assessment 22 (2): 325–335. doi:10.1037/a0018857.  edit
Bibliography
  • Dr Jennifer Erkulwater; Dr Rick Mayes; Dr Catherine Bagwell (2009). Medicating Children: ADHD and Pediatric Mental Health. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-03163-6. 

External links[edit]