District location within Punjab Province
|• District Coordination Officer||Usman Ahmed Ch.|
|• District Police Officer||Israr Ahmad Khan Abbasi|
|• Total||6,857 km2 (2,648 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,758 m (9,049 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|Languages||Punjabi, Pashto and others like Hindko, Urdu,|
The district was created in April 1904 by the merger of Talagang Tehsil in the Jhelum District with the Pindigheb, Fatehjang and Attock tehsils from Rawalpindi District of the Punjab province of British Raj.
Attock region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Attock region was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.
Emperor Akbar the Great, the grandson of Babar, recognising the strategic importance of this area, in 1581 built his famous Attock Fort complex here. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Attock district. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. The British took over Attock District in 1848.
Attock District original name was Attock. It was changed to Campbellpur after the Commander-in-Chief of British forces Sir Colin Campbell who rebuilt the city of Campbellpur. The name of the district was changed to Attock as of 1978 again. Attock city is the district headquarters.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Attock District.
Attock District is bordered by the Haripur and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the north, the district of Rawalpindi and capital Islamabad to the east, the district of Chakwal to the southeast, the district of Mianwali to the southwest, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa's districts of Kohat and Nowshera to the west and northwest. The river Indus forms the western boundary of the district.
Attock is the eastern terminus of the Kabul-Attock corridor to the Central Asia through which for centuries have passed the armies and the caravans alike. However unlike the modern highways, this corridor is not a work of engineering marvel but an act of nature as it was naturally carved through the Hindu Kush Mountains by Kabul River.
The 435 miles long journey of River Kabul starts just west of the Kabul city in Afghanistan and ends at Attock where it ultimately falls into the River Indus.
As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics of the Attock district, by spoken language:
Inhabitants of Attock District speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects: which are
- Chhachi(Hindko) (Northern parts of district mainly in Attock tehsil)
- Ghebi (Western parts of district in Fateh Jang and Pindigheb tehsil)
- Majhi or standard (Sizeable population in cities)
- Jandali (Jand Tehsil Southern border areas with Mianwali)
- Pothohari (Easteren border areas)
Other Languages include:
- Pashto which is also spoken by sizeable population in the KPK province border areas and in the cities.
- Urdu is mother tongue of few people but being national language is spoken and understood by the sizeable population.
- English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite and middle class.
Dhullian is a village in Pindigheb Tehsil. This village has important resources namely oil and gas, It has been providing oil since the 1930s. There are all types of soil as mountains, plain areas fertile grounds and it also has a river flowing through it. There is a famous Ghala Mandi located in Dhullian Chowk. Here 90% of the total population area agricultural. This historical village is located at the end of Attock District.Tehsil Jand of the district also has gas and oil resources near Dhakni and recently disovered in Dhaknair.Khaur area of Tehsil Pindigheb is also contributor to oil and gas. Many oil and gas exploration companies are working to explore these valuable resources.Gypsum is also found in Tehsil Jand which is used in the improvement of soil.Some parts of the district especially Tehsil Jand has also hard rocks like stones which is used in the construction of roads and gravel.The district has also a cement manufacturing facilty,glass making industry,marle finishing and vegetable ghee production industry in the area Hassanabdal. Development: Though the district is still on the path of development, it is considered as an underdeveloped district when compared to the other major cities of the province. Four tehsils of the district namely Teh. Attock, Hassanabdal, Hazro and Fateh Jang are comparatively more developed than the two tehsils(Jand and Pindigheb). These two tehsils are extremely underdeveloped as compared to the rest of the district. Jand is the largest tehsil of the district by area and a major contributor to oil and gas.But has been considerably neglected despite contributing billions to the national exchequer via oil and gas.
Geography and climate
Attock District has a climate of hot summers and cold winters. The northern part of the district is more humid and is more moderate in climate relative to the southern part of the district due to the higher altitude. Geographically, the district is mainly hills, plateaus and dissected plains. The Indus River flows on the northern and western borders of the district. After Haripur, the Haro River passes through the north of the tehsil of Attock where there is a flood plain with fertile soil. The District's average annual rainfall is 783 mm. Agriculture: Depending upon the climate of different parts of the district, different crops are grown. Tehsil Attock,Hazro. Fetehjang and Hassanabdal receives more rain than other parts of the district. So here vegetables like cauliflower,chilies,potatoes,garlic,onion,ladyfinger,carrot, brinjal and turnips are grown.In crops wheat,canola and maize(Fateh Jang)are grown.In Tehsil Jand and Pindigheb, wheat,groundnut,gram(a pulse crop),canola,sorghum, pearl millet(bajra),sesame,taramera and pulses(mungbean,moot) are grown on commercial scales. Fruits like grapes,apricots,lemons and guava are grown. The district has also potential spots for olive cultivation. In livestock, farmers rear goats,cattle,buffaloes,sheep,camel(mainly in mountains.People also rear desi chicken for eggs and meat but now layers and broilers are taking leading roles in the protein requirements of the people.Poultry farming is famous in nearly all parts of the district but Tehsil Attock, Hazro, Fateh Jang and Hassanabdal have more viable poultry industry than other parts of the district because of the nearness to the capital which brings good price to the farmers. Most of the farmers are subsistence farmers. Southern part of the district(Jand) has been receiving considerably low rainfall probably due to climate change effects. There is also a famous fish available in the Indus river near Attock city area with the name "Palwa" which has no or rudementry spines and it is very sumptuous.
Main Occupations: Most of the people are public sector employees and most of them prefer to join Pakistan army and Air Force. But now the trend has changed and people prefer to join civil and private sector. A sizable population is also involved in farming. Contribution to Country: The district has contributed enormously to the country development. It is a major contributor of oil and gas in the country thus savingnational exchequer in billions. Also the district has aircraft industry where air crafts are manufactured to meet defense requirements. POF has also a production facility in the district thus contributing to the defense requirements. The district also has operational Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project(1400 MW)thus contributing to the cheap electricity production. The new Islamabad International Airport is under construction in the Fateh Jang area of the district which will contribute to the development of the district and will improve socioeconomic status of the populace.
According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the district had a population of 1,274,935 of which 20.45% were urban, The estimated population in 2008 was 1.58 million.
The city also had a significant Muhajir population. In fact, Attock city is dominated by the Muslim refugees that migrated from eastern portions of Punjab now in India, during the Partition of India. These Muslim refugees and descendents are majority of the population of the city. They have established businesses and dominate the politics, public service, commerce and industry in the Attock district.
Education Facilities: The district has many schools and colleges mainly in the city area of the district. Cadet college Hassanabdal, Army Public College Attock Cantt, Bahria Foundation College, Fouji Foundatin College, Shaheen College, MRF College,Falcon College, Govt Commerce College,Govt Post Graduate College, Attock, Cadet College Fateh Jang, Cadet College Attock, Army Public College, Mansur Camp and Govt College for Women are famous colleges of the district. Now many famous private school and college chains have also established their campuses in the district. The district has also a campus of Comsat University, University of Education, a small campus of Virtual University and recently announced campus of Univ. of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi. A medical college has also been proposed for the district. There is also a vocational training institute in the name of Govt College of Technology(GCT,TEVTA) which imparts technical education to students after 10th grade. In the past decade, a sizable population has shifted from the rural areas to the Attock city for education purposes. This has considerably improved the literacy rates of the district and now the district is one of the leading districts in the area of literacy rates in the province(Punjab). The district has a famous and renowned Maddrassah with the name of Jamia Paracha in Injra of Tehsil Jand.It produces religious scholars(Mufti)of prestige. Most of them are moderate and progressive.
During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, hundred of thousands of Afghan refugees settled to Attock. Although majority of these refugees have returned to Afghanistan but still there is a considerable who have permanently settled in the Attock district. Carpet industry of the district is contributed by these Afghan refugees. Now the Afghan refugees has started interest in getting education.
Main tribes and clans
The Syed, Khattar, Awan, Shaikh, Gheba, Jat, Qanungoh Shaikhs, Paracha, Arains, Pashtun, Gakharss, Gujjars, Khattak Rajput, Mughal and Qureshi are the main tribes and clans of Attock district. The district is going to become a multi-ethinic city where all the ethnicities live in peace and cooperate with with another in the time of need. People of the district has frequent travelling to Rawalpindi,Peshawer, Kohat and Abbotabad.
- Gazetteer of the Attock District 1930, Punjab Government, Lahore 1932. Reprinted version: Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 1989
- "Official Website". Attock Police. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
- "Pakistan: Population 1901–98". Urban Resource Centre. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
- District Profile: Central Punjab- Attock