District location within Punjab Province
|• District Coordination Officer||Usman Ahmed Ch.|
|• District Police Officer||Israr Ahmad Khan Abbasi|
|• Total||6,857 km2 (2,648 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,758 m (9,049 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|Languages||Punjabi, Pashto and others like Hindko, Urdu,|
The district was created in April 1904 by the merger of Talagang Tehsil in the Jhelum District with the Pindigheb, Fatehjang and Attock tehsils from Rawalpindi District of the Punjab province of British Raj.
Attock region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Attock region was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.
Emperor Akbar the Great, the grandson of Babar, recognising the strategic importance of this area, in 1581 built his famous Attock Fort complex here. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Attock district. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. The British took over Attock District in 1848.
Attock District original name was Attock. It was changed to Campbellpur after the Commander-in-Chief of British forces Sir Colin Campbell who rebuilt the city of Campbellpur. The name of the district was changed to Attock as of 1978 again. Attock city is the district headquarters.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Attock District.
Attock District is bordered by the Haripur and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the north, the district of Rawalpindi and capital Islamabad to the east, the district of Chakwal to the southeast, the district of Mianwali to the southwest, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa's districts of Kohat and Nowshera to the west and northwest. The river Indus forms the western boundary of the district.
Attock is the eastern terminus of the Kabul-Attock corridor to the Central Asia through which for centuries have passed the armies and the caravans alike. However unlike the modern highways, this corridor is not a work of engineering marvel but an act of nature as it was naturally carved through the Hindu Kush Mountains by Kabul River.
The 435 miles long journey of River Kabul starts just west of the Kabul city in Afghanistan and ends at Attock where it ultimately falls into the River Indus.
As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics of the Attock district, by spoken language:
Inhabitants of Attock District speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects: which are
- Chhachi (Northern parts of district mainly in Attock tehsil)
- Ghebi (Western parts of district in Fateh Jang and Pindigheb tehsil)
- Majhi or standard (Sizeable population in cities)
- Jandali (Jand Tehsil Southern border areas with Mianwali)
- Pothohari (Easteren border areas)
Other Languages include:
- Pashto which is also spoken by sizeable population in the KPK province border areas and in the cities.
- Urdu is mother tongue of few people but being national language is spoken and understood by the sizeable population.
- English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite.
Dhullian is a village in Pindigheb Tehsil. This village has important resources namely oil and gas, It has been providing oil since the 1930s. There are all types of soil as mountains, plain areas fertile grounds and it also has a river flowing through it. There is a famous Ghala Mandi located in Dhullian Chowk. Here 90% of the total population area agricultural. This historical village is located at the end of Attock District.
Geography and climate
Attock District has a climate of hot summers and cold winters. The northern part of the district is more humid and is more moderate in climate relative to the southern part of the district due to the higher altitude. Geographically, the district is mainly hills, plateaus and dissected plains. The Indus River flows on the northern and western borders of the district. After Haripur, the Haro River passes through the north of the tehsil of Attock where there is a flood plain with fertile soil. The District's average annual rainfall is 783 mm.
According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the district had a population of 1,274,935 of which 20.45% were urban, The estimated population in 2008 was 1.58 million.
The city also had a significant Muhajir population. In fact, Attock city is dominated by the Muslim refugees that migrated from eastern portions of Punjab now in India, during the Partition of India. These Muslim refugees and descendents are majority of the population of the city. They have established businesses and dominate the politics, public service, commerce and industry in the Attock district.
During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, hundred of thousands of Afghan refugees settled to Attock. Although majority of these refugees have returned to Afghanistan but still there is a considerable who have permanently settled in the Attock district.
Main tribes and clans
- Gazetteer of the Attock District 1930, Punjab Government, Lahore 1932. Reprinted version: Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 1989
- "Official Website". Attock Police. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
- "Pakistan: Population 1901–98". Urban Resource Centre. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
- District Profile: Central Punjab- Attock