Atyrau

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Atyrau
Атырау
Ural River Atyrau.JPG
Official seal of Atyrau
Seal
Atyrau is located in Kazakhstan
Atyrau
Atyrau
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 47°07′N 51°53′E / 47.117°N 51.883°E / 47.117; 51.883
Country Kazakhstan
Province Atyrau Province
Founded 1640
City status 1885
Government
 • Akim (mayor) Nurlybek Ozhaev
Elevation -20 m (−70 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 163,221
 • Metro 221,585
Time zone UTC+5 (UTC+5)
Postal code 060001 - 060011
Area code(s) (+7) 7122
Vehicle registration E, 06
Website atyrau.gov.kz/index.php/en/

Atyrau (Kazakh: Атырау, pronounced [ɑtərɑ́w]; Russian: Атырау [ɐtᵻˈrau]), known as Guryev (Russian: Гурьев [ˈɡurʲjɪf]) until 1991, is a city in Kazakhstan, and the capital of Atyrau Province. It is located at the mouth of the Ural River, 2700 kilometers west of Almaty and 351 kilometers east of the Russian city of Astrakhan. Other transliterations include Aterau, Atirau, Atyraw, Atyraou, Atırav, Atıraw.

Modern Atyrau is famous for its oil and fish industries. It has 154,100 inhabitants (2007), up from 142,500 (1999 census), 90% ethnic Kazakhs (up from 80%), the rest being mostly Russians and other ethnic groups such as Tatars and Ukrainians.

History[edit]

The wooden fort at the mouth of the Yaik River was founded in 1645 as Nizhny Yaitzky gorodok (literally, Lower Yaik Fort) by the Russian trader Gury Nazarov, a native of Yaroslavl, who specialized in trade with Khiva and Bukhara. The fort was plundered by the Yaik Cossacks, leading the Guriev family to rebuild it in stone (1647–62). Tsar Alexis sent a garrison of Streltsy to protect the fort from Cossack incursions. Despite these efforts, the Cossack rebel Stepan Razin held the town in 1667 and 1668. The fort gradually lost its strategic significance and was demolished in 1810. Between 1708 and 1992 the city was known as Guriev.

Geography[edit]

Atyrau (together with Aktau) is Kazakhstan's main harbour city on the Caspian Sea at the delta of the Ural River. Atyrau city is approximately 20 meters below sea level. The city is considered to be located both in Asia and Europe, as it is divided by the Ural River.

The city is a hub for the oil-rich Caspian Depression; because of this, many oil wells have been drilled in the Tengiz Field and Kashagan Field areas. An oil pipeline runs from Atyrau to Samara, where it joins the Russian pipeline system. A separate oil pipeline runs from the Tengiz field to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiisk.

Climate[edit]

Atyrau's climate is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSk), just shy of being classified as arid (Köppen climate classification BWk), with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is low throughout the year. Snow is common, though light, in winter. The lowest temperature on record is −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F), recorded in 1909, and the highest temperature is 42.7 °C (108.9 °F), recorded in 1984.[1] It is much more continental than areas further west on the European continent, with summer conditions such as temperatures averaging 33 °C (91 °F) and lack of precipation resembling continental hot-summer mediterranean climates and subarctic winters with little snow but with chilling temperatures. These vast temperature swings are more comparable to Siberia and the North American plains.

Climate data for Atyrau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
15.0
(59)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
37.6
(99.7)
41.9
(107.4)
42.7
(108.9)
41.6
(106.9)
40.1
(104.2)
29.6
(85.3)
19.9
(67.8)
11.8
(53.2)
42.7
(108.9)
Average high °C (°F) −2.8
(27)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.8
(42.4)
17.2
(63)
24.5
(76.1)
30.8
(87.4)
33.4
(92.1)
31.6
(88.9)
24.6
(76.3)
15.3
(59.5)
5.1
(41.2)
−1.1
(30)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−6.3
(20.7)
0.8
(33.4)
11.2
(52.2)
18.4
(65.1)
24.5
(76.1)
26.8
(80.2)
24.8
(76.6)
18.0
(64.4)
9.7
(49.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.3
(24.3)
9.9
(49.8)
Average low °C (°F) −9.4
(15.1)
−9.9
(14.2)
−3.1
(26.4)
6.1
(43)
12.8
(55)
18.4
(65.1)
20.5
(68.9)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
5.0
(41)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
5.2
(41.4)
Record low °C (°F) −37.9
(−36.2)
−37.4
(−35.3)
−32.3
(−26.1)
−12.3
(9.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.3
(36.1)
8.1
(46.6)
4.8
(40.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
−15.7
(3.7)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−35.8
(−32.4)
−37.9
(−36.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.55)
11
(0.43)
15
(0.59)
16
(0.63)
25
(0.98)
18
(0.71)
10
(0.39)
10
(0.39)
8
(0.31)
16
(0.63)
18
(0.71)
14
(0.55)
175
(6.89)
Avg. rainy days 5 4 6 8 9 7 6 5 5 8 10 6 79
Avg. snowy days 14 11 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 11 50
 % humidity 84 80 74 58 50 50 35 46 52 64 80 84 60
Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.2 138.4 167.4 246.0 310.0 330.0 344.1 322.4 267.0 195.3 105.0 74.4 2,599.2
Source #1: Weatherbase[2]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory[3]

Industry[edit]

Oil industry[edit]

The third biggest refinery in Kazakhstan is located in Atyrau. Atyrau Refinery is operated by KazMunayGas and has a capacity of 16,600 m³/day (2012). A deep oil refining complex is under construction which is the final stage of complete reconstruction of Atyrau Oil Refinery. This project is designed to process 2.4 million tons/year of raw materials (oil, vacuum gas oil). The project will increase the depth of the oil processing at the refinery by 2016 to 85%. The volume of oil refining will reach 5.5 million tons per year.[4]

Fishing[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Atyrau is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "pogoda.ru.net Погода и Климат". Retrieved January 10, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Atyrai, Kazakhstan". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Climatological Information for Guriev, Kazakhstan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Japanese Banks Provide $297.5 million Loan to Atyrau Oil Refinery". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 15 August 2012. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 47°07′N 51°53′E / 47.117°N 51.883°E / 47.117; 51.883