The earlier territory of the Catholic Church in Würzburg became part of Bavaria when the government was secularized in 1805. The present municipality was created during the administrative reforms of 2010.
Aub has a beautiful church and a well-kept Jewish cemetery. The main church has a very fine carved wooden altarpiece by Riemenschnider, who was an important master sculptor in Southern Germany in the late Middle Ages. The town has most of its medieval walls intact, and an interesting small museum in the 'spittalkirche', a medieval monastery-cum-hospice, which served pilgrims and the old and infirm. Today the museum has objects from Aub's past, and displays about caring for the elderly through the centuries (all in German). Aub is the second smallest town in Bavaria. It has a bank, two bakery-cum-cafes, a doctor and a hairdresser. The countryside is very pleasant to cycle around. There is a cycle track along the disused railway line that leads to the Tauber valley, which is quite picturesque. A few kilometres from Aub is the church called the 'Kunegonde Kapelle', named after an early medieval queen-saint. The key to the chapel can be obtained from the nearby village. The chapel is very atmospheric inside. In the wall of the old church yard a (reputedly) 1,000-year-old pollarded lime tree still stands. When the Catholic Church is celebrating a major festival, the townsfolk dress up in medieval costume, the town band plays, and there is a fair with dodgem cars and American Line dancing in the evening, or a medieval fair with jousting in the grounds of the hunting lodge at the top of the town.