Aubagne

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Aubagne
Aubagne city centre
Aubagne city centre
Coat of arms of Aubagne
Coat of arms
Aubagne is located in France
Aubagne
Aubagne
Coordinates: 43°17′27″N 5°34′15″E / 43.2908°N 5.5708°E / 43.2908; 5.5708Coordinates: 43°17′27″N 5°34′15″E / 43.2908°N 5.5708°E / 43.2908; 5.5708
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Bouches-du-Rhône
Arrondissement Marseille
Canton Aubagne-Est and Aubagne-Ouest
Intercommunality Pays d'Aubagne et de l'Etoile
Government
 • Mayor (2014-2020) Gérard Gazay
Area
 • Land1 54.9 km2 (21.2 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Population2 46,423
 • Population2 density 850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 13005 / 13400
Dialling codes 0442
Elevation 74–701 m (243–2,300 ft)
(avg. 101 m or 331 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Aubagne (French pronunciation: ​[oˈbaɲ], Aubanha in Occitan Provence according to the classic norm, or Aubagno according to the mistralian norm) is a French commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southern France.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aubagnais or Aubagnaises.[1]

Geography[edit]

Aubagne is located in the Huveaune valley and surrounded by the mountain ranges of Garlaban with Sainte-Baume to the north and Douard to the south 17 km (11 mi) east of Marseille Port.

Aubagne is the main city of the Agglomeration community of Pays d'Aubagne et de l'Etoile and the sixth largest city of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône by its population.

It is the main producer of Santon figurines and also hosts many cultural events each year. The French Foreign Legion has its headquarters in Aubagne. Public transport has been free at the point of use since the year 2000.

The A50-A52 junction in Aubagne

Access to the commune is by the A50 autoroute from Mareille which continues south to Toulon. The A501 and A52 autoroutes branch off the A50 in the commune and merge to go north to Aix-en-Provence. Numerous departmental roads go through the commune including: the D96 which goes north to Roquevaire, the D2 which goes east to Gémenos, the D8N which comes from Marseilles and goes south-east to Cuges-les-Pins, the D41E which goes south to Cassis, and many other connecting roads within the commune. There are several smaller towns and villages in the commune apart from the main town: Les Arnauds, Les Grands Mellets, Pinchon, La Martelle, L'Agrie, La Coueste, La Thuiliere, and Font de Mai. A large proportion of the commune is urban with mountainous terrain to north and south[2]

The main railway from Marseille passes through the commune splitting into two lines - one going north-west and one going south with a station in the town.

The Huveaune river flows through the commune from the east flowing west into the Mediterranean sea at Prado beach in the 8th Arrondissement in Marseilles.

Transport[edit]

Aubagne Station before 1916
Aubagne Railway Station

Regional trains link the Gare d'Aubagne railway station with Marseille and Toulon. Aubagne was the first commune in France to be completely surrounded by autoroutes: the A50 autoroute Marseille-Toulon, the A52 autoroute to Aubagne-Aix-en-Provence, and the connecting motorway A501.

From 2009, Aubagne made bus travel zero-fare.[3][4]

A 14-kilometre (9-mile), two-line tram network is planned. This project is criticized as it is not common for a city of that size.[5] Line 1 will be from the station to Le Charrel and Line 2 will be from the station to La Penne-sur-Huveaune. Construction started in 2012 for an opening of the first phase in 2014. The tram is a long-term project to be linked with the Marseille tramway.[6][7]

The tram will also be zero-fare,[8] making it one of the first zero-fare trams in the world with Tallinn.[9]

Neighbouring communes and villages[2][edit]

History[edit]

The Middle Ages[edit]

The death of Queen Joanna I of Naples began a conflict of succession as to who would become the head of the County of Provence. The Union of Aix, a confederation of cities in the region of Provence, supported Charles, Duke of Durazzo, rather than Louis I, Duke of Anjou. By the spring of 1382 the Lord of Aubagne, François des Baux, supported the Duke of Anjou. This support was conditional upon the Duke helping to restore the queen to her throne.[10]

On 4 April 1402 in Brantes, at the foot of Mont Ventoux, and in the presence of his wife Alix des Baux, Odon de Villars bestowed upon his nephew Philippe de Lévis the fiefs of Brantes, Plaisians and their dependencies: the Lordships of Saint-Marcel, Roquefort, le Castellet, Cassis, and Port-Miou which were dependencies of the barony of Aubagne, as well as La Fare-les-Oliviers, and Éguilles. In return, Philippe de Lévis would be surety for Viscount Raymond of Turenne for the agreement between Odon de Villars, his wife Alix, and himself. If Odon and Alix failed to respect the terms of the agreement, they would have to pay 50,000 florins to the viscount.[11]

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Aubagne
Blazon:

Azure, a Roman letter A of Or interlaced with a letter V the same, in chief 2 fleur-de-lis the same, in base a sea of Argent.



Politics and administration[edit]

Political life[edit]

Since 1965 until 2014 Aubagne has elected three Communist mayors: the municipal council is composed mainly of communist, socialist, and other left-leaning members. Still, a significant portion of the population supports centre, right-of-centre, or even far-right political positions. In the second round of elections in 1988 there was both a representative of the French Communist Party (Parti communiste), Jean Tardito, and a representative of the far-right National Front party (Front National), Joëlle Melin elected. Edmond Garcin, of the Community party, was elected mayor from 1965 to 1987.[12][13]

In 2001, the resignation of Jean Tardito brought Daniel Fontaine (PCF) to the position of mayor. In 2008 there were 4 candidates in the first round of municipal elections: Daniel Fontaine for The United Left and a civil society, Sylvia Barthelemy for the UMP and the New Centre, Jean-Marie Orihuel for the Democratic Movement, and Joëlle Melin for the National Front. In the second round the United Left, the Civil Society, and the Democratic Movement joined together to form the Left Union list which was renamed the "rainbow".[14]

List of Mayors[edit]

The market at Aubagne in the early 1900s
Place de l'Obelisque in 1914

List of Successive Mayors[15]

From To Name Party Position
1792 1793 Jean Baptiste Domergue
1831 1843 Félix Beaumond
1870 1871 Jean Louis Henri Dieudonné Celly
1906 Fernand Bouisson
1919 1925 Etienne Marius Florent Boyer
1933 1942 Marius Boyer
1945 1951 Mario Cresp
1951 1953 André Jayne
1953 1959 Marius Boyer
1959 1965 Yves Chouquet
1965 1987 Edmond Garcin
1987 2001 Jean Tardito
2001 2014 Daniel Fontaine
2014 2020 Gérard Gazay

(Not all data is known)

Environment and Environmental Policies[edit]

Agenda 21 sets the terms and conditions for sustainable development in Aubagne which includes providing free public transit, offering a recycling program, encouraging energy conservation and energy demand management, launching awareness campaigns in schools to promote sustainable development and eco-citizenship, and giving incentives for purchasing solar panels. More than 4,000 individual bins and 15,000 recycling bags are available to residents.[16]

The city of Aubagne conducts its environmental, social, and economic policies in collaboration with neighbouring communities to help enhance sustainable development and improve living conditions.

Communal transport: Since 15 May 2009 municipal buses have been free and the Tramway of Aubagne will also be when it opens in 2014. This has reduced the commune's transportation-related ecological footprint: 15% more buses have been put into service, and bus usage has increased by 175%, with 35% of these users from modal shift.[7][17][18]

Compiègne and Châteauroux have done the same but with goals that are more socioeconomic: making the centre of town more dynamic, improving buying power, reducing isolation, etc.

Demography[edit]

In 2010 the commune had 46,423 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
7,230 5,610 6,620 6,122 6,349 6,481 6,208 6,131 6,482
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
6,765 7,232 7,408 7,658 8,027 7,885 8,239 8,154 8,400
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
8,724 9,614 9,744 10,271 11,707 13,085 13,949 16,061 17,639
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -
21,211 27,938 33,595 38,561 41,100 42,588 43,500 46,423 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Aubagne

Economy[edit]

Field of Peas
A Santon of a produce seller

Industry, Trade and Crafts[edit]

  • Industry:
    • Zones of Activity (ZAC): Paluds, La Martelle (shops: Auchan and others), Napallon Business Park;
    • Thales Underwater Systems currently has one of two establishments in France at Aubagne. The other is at Brest;
  • Agriculture: there are farms at various locations in Aubagne (Huveaune Valley, Beaudinard, Napollon);
  • Ceramic Crafts:: terracotta, Santon figurines; the appearance of domestic nurseries has allowed the development of Santon makers who now continue this art in a dozen workshops;
  • Janot Distillery: produces its Gambetta syrup and its Janot Pastis in Aubagne;
  • Sartorius Stedim Biotech: produces biopharmaceutical equipment;[19]
  • Viticulture: Aubagne is a wine commune located in the geographical areas of IGP Bouches-du-Rhone and the Mediterranean IGP;[20]
  • Branch office of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie Marseille-Provence (Chamber of Commerce and Industry Marseille-Provence).

Budget and indebtedness[edit]

Aubagne is one of the most indebted cities in France. According to the latest report of the Court of Auditors of PACA (July 2013), the debt amounts to 157.6 million Euros. According to a ranking published by Le Journal du Net, Aubagne would place 3rd for debt per head of 3,685 Euros per capita - about 5 times the national average. Only Cannes and Levallois-Perret, much richer communes, are higher. The total indebtedness of 119.9 million euros in 2010 exploded in 2013 to reach EUR 157.6 millon. The debt servicing payments have at the same time multiplied by 3.1 from 8.626 million euros to 26.933 million euros between 2010 and 2011.[21]

The listing for Aubagne by the French Fitch Ratings agency in 2010 was "BBB-":[22] "We have downgraded the city of Aubagne due to a strong presence of structured products, along with a very low savings rate and high debt loads. The rating has changed from "A-" to "BBB-" - the lowest category for this investment type"[23] Subsequently the city has not wanted to pursue the issue of its credit status.[24]

In 2009 Aubagne municipality renegotiated certain loans considered "toxic" which were based on risky products contracted with the ABN AMRO bank (loans now owned by Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS)). Risky loans have been converted to fixed-rate borrowings: less advantageous but less risky.[25] The Court of Auditors in 2013 noted that these renegotiations resulted in additional financial burden borne by the commune of the order of 50 to 70 million Euros (19 million for the Dexia and Caisse d'Epargne loans and 25 to 43 million for the RBS loan).

Investments in the commune are about half the average for French communes in the same stratum: approximately 13.3% of revenues against 31.4% according to the administrative accounts for the commune in 2012.

Finally the Observatory of subsidies has repeatedly criticized the management of the city of Aubagne, particularly for subsidies not related to the commune or representing a "waste of public money".[26]

Taxation[edit]

The War Memorial

The 2012 Administrative Accounts for the commune mentions a result of 662 euros per capita tax for Aubagne against 482 euros for the stratum of comparable communes - or higher taxes by 37%.

Aubagne is part of the "Top 20" of towns who have increased their taxes the most in 2012. The city ranks 12th in France for the highest increases in taxes in 2012 according to the website Challenges.fr[27]

Culture and Heritage[edit]

Civil heritage[edit]

Religious heritage[edit]

Chapel of the Black Penitents
Chapel of the Grey Penitents
Chapel of the White Penitents
  • The Chapel of Black PenitentsLogo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[29] contains one item that is registered as a historical object:
    • A Painting: Beheading of Saint John the Baptist (1695)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[30]
  • The Chapel of Grey PenitentsLogo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[31]
  • The Chapel of White PenitentsLogo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[32] contains several items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Painting: The death of Saint Joseph (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[33]
    • A Painting: Purgatory (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[34]
    • A Painting: Sainte Parenté (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[35]
    • A Painting with frame: Incredulity of Saint Thomas (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[36]
  • The Church of Saint-Sauveur contains several items that are registered as historical objects:
    • Instrumental part of the Organ (1784)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[37]
    • Rostrum Organ (1784)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[38]
  • The Chapel of the Observance contains a Statue of the Virgin and Child (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg which is registered as a historical object.[39]
  • The Church of Saint-Pierre-les-Aubagne contains many items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Statue: Christ aux liens (16th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[40]
    • Stalls (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[41]
    • Painting: The Circumcision (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[42]
    • Painting: The disciples of Emmaus (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[43]
    • Panelling, floor coverings and Sideboard in the Sacristy (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[44]
    • Reliquary (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[45]
    • Commemorative plaque for the consecration of the church (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[46]
    • Bust-reliquary: Saint Matthieu (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[47]
    • Retable: 2 angels adoring the paschal Lamb (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[48]
    • 2 Bas-reliefs: The Adoration of the Magii and the Descent from the Cross (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[49]
    • Painting: Virgin & child and St. John the Baptist (16th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[50]
    • Main Altar, Altar seating, Tabernacle (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[51]
    • 2 Bronze Bells (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[52]
  • Chapel of La Royante[53]
  • La Morochita

Environmental heritage[edit]

  • The Garlaban Mountain
The Garlaban Mountain viewed from Aubagne

Cinematic heritage[edit]

Aubagne is the birthplace of Marcel Pagnol, home to the University of Image and Sound (Satis department), 9 cinemas (Cinema Palace and Pagnol), and an International Film Festival.

Aubagne is referred to frequently in the film Manon des Sources.

The Aubagne Ciné Passion association was founded in late 1989 by Charles Villani at a time when cinema was in crisis. Rapidly bringing in many members, its activity was intense and from 1992 until 1999 it organized the 1st Festival of Passions sponsored by Ticky Holgado and Gérard Jugnot. Thereafter each year the Festival featuring long and short films takes place in October or November. Numerous directors, actors, screenwriters, and producers come to present their works in advance of their premier at the Festival of Passions: Jean-Claude Carrière, John Malkovich, Christopher Lee, Lio, Jean-François Stévenin, Jacques Marin, Carmen Chaplin, Paul Vecchiali, Mathieu Demy, Julie Gayet, Benoît Magimel, Pierre Sullice, Olivier Austen, Luc Palun, Catherine Jacob, Marc de Jonge, Michel Voletti, Pomme Meffre, Yannick Bellon, Franck Fernandel ... and of course Ticky Holgado and Gérard Jugnot.

Christopher Lee met by Charles Villani at Aubagne for the Festival of Passions
John Malkovich and Charles Villani at the Festival of Passions in Aubagne
Prizegiving at the Festival of Passions in the presence of Benoît Magimel, Sophie Barjac, Charles Villani (Aubagne Ciné Passion), Jean-Michel Descombes (Festival Saint Jean de Luz)

In 2000 the City of Aubagne request 3 associations: Alphée (photos), Aubagne Ciné Passion (long films), Méridiens (short films) to merge to organize an international film festival. The association of Alcimé was then created, chaired by Charles Villani for its first year and its first festival called FIFA (International Film Festival of Aubagne) that endured. In 2001 differences of perspective caused the departure of Aubagne Ciné Passion from the Alcimé structure. Charles Villani passed the chairmanship to Jean Michel Descombes (General Delegate of the Young Filmmakers Festival of Saint-Jean-de-Luz) and, in 2002, the association went to the nearby commune of Gémenos to organize the RCG (Cinematographers Meetings in Gémenos). Gisèle Mezzina became the president of Aubagne Ciné Passion. Since 2007, the last year of the RCG, the association continues its activities with its circle of members.

Cultural events and festivities[edit]

In the summer of 2013, the city hosted a mobile Annex from the Centre Georges Pompidou as part of the Marseille-Provence 2013 events.[54]

Each year Aubagne has a series of regular and one-off events:

Potter's stall
Modern Pottery in Aubagne
January
  • Old postcards, stamps and old papers Exchange
March
  • International Film Festival of Aubagne (ranked among the 20 most important film festivals in France out of 350)[55]
  • Women's Day
April
May
  • Festival of Neighbours
June
  • Music festival
  • Schools Gala
  • The Santon makers Trophy
July
  • Festimôme
  • The International Festival of singular art
August

Argilla, Festival of ceramics and a pottery market.

  • The great cavalcade
September
  • The festival of peace
October
  • The Great Rendezvous of Aubagne
November
  • Children's Book Days
December
  • The Biennial of santon makers art

There are also the Scientific Tuesdays of Aubagne

Facilities[edit]

Education[edit]

There are there are 30 schools in Auagne including:

  • Primary schools: Jean-Mermoz, Passons, Chaulan, Antide-Boyer, Charrel, Tourtelle, Camp-Major, Pin-Vert, Victor-Hugo, and Paul-Eluard Perrussonne;
  • Colleges: Joseph-Lakanal, Lou Garlaban;
  • High schools: Joliot-Curie, Eiffel, and Sainte-Marie (renowned for its success rate in the Baccalauréat and its level of education: the premier High School of Bouches-du-Rhône and 14th nationally, it is considered one of the best schools in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and even in France).

The SATIS department (Cinema/Audiovisual), attached to the University of Provence, is also located in Aubagne.

Health[edit]

  • Edmond-Garcin Hospital is a genral hospital centrally positioned to be available to 230,000 inhabitants of eastern Bouches-du-Rhône as well as western Var.
  • La Casamance Clinic[56]

Sports[edit]

Lattre-de-Tassigny Stadium
  • Lattre-de-Tassigny Stadium (home ground of Aubagne Football Club)
  • Bras d'Or Stadium
  • Complex Serge-Mésonès
  • Complex Mouren
  • Complex Charrel
  • Tennis Complex at Saint-Pierre-les-Aubagne
  • 6 sports fields
  • 5 fields nearby
  • 6 Gymnasium fcailities
  • 1 indoor swimming pool (Alain-Bernard at Charrel) and 1 outdoor swimming pool (Le Bras d'Or)
  • 1 skating rink ("Mégaglace")- closed in 2013

Foreign Legion Garrison[edit]

Since 1962 the Foreign Legion Command and the 1st Foreign Regiment of the Foreign Legion has had 800 men stationed at Aubagne.

For the centenary of the Battle of Camarón on 30 April 1963 the war memorial, which had been placed in the Vienot barracks in Sidi Bel Abbès, was repatriated to Aubagne. This monument depicts a globe flanked by four legionnaires. The bronze statue was designed by sculptor Henri Pourquet. The weight of the monument is 80 tonnes.

The French Foreign Legion Museum is located at Aubagne in the Viénot district: it commemorates all of the military campaigns of the Legion in history with displays showing the evolution of uniforms, weapons, and decorations until today. The crypt houses the wooden hand of Captain Jean Danjou.

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

Birthplace of Marcel Pagnol
  • François-Urbain Domergue (1745-1810), gramarian and journalist elected to the Académie française.
  • François Barthélemy (1747-1830), one of the Directors of the French First Republic.
  • Honoré Joseph Antoine Ganteaume (1755-1818), Vice-Admiral of the Royal Marine and of the Republic.
  • André Joseph Jourdan (1757-1831), French politician of the 19th century, born in Aubagne.
  • Thérèse Neveu (1866-1946), famous Santon maker, born in Aubagne.
  • Fernand Bouisson (1874-1959), President of the Chamber of Deputies from 1927 to 1936, President of the Council in 1935, elected Mayor of Aubagne in 1906.
  • Marcel Pagnol (1895-1974), writer and filmmaker, born in Aubagne; it was in the hills near Aubagne that his romantic diptyque L'Eau des collines (Water from the Hills) was set.
  • Henri Crémieux (1896-1980), Actor and French scriptwriter, born in Aubagne.
  • Lucien Grimaud (1909-1993), historian of the commune.
  • Paul Dol (1915-2007), painter in water colours.
  • Jean Bercy[57] (1920-1986), sculptor and a founding member of the group Les Cahiers de Garlaban.
  • Jo Corbeau (born in 1946), singer of French reggae.
  • Jean-Jacques Jelot-Blanc (born in 1948), journalist, writer, cinema historian, and biographer of Marcel Pagnol (4 books published about the filmmaker), author of a history of Aubagne published in 2009.
  • Jean Camps (born in 1953 at Maisoncarée (Algeria), footballer (midfielder) who made the Aubagne Football Club successful in the 1970s.
  • René Marsiglia (born in 1959), footballer then entertainer.
  • Bernard Casoni (born in 1961), football player and coach who lived in Aubagne.
  • Christophe Pignol (born in 1969), former professional footballer, twice champion of France (1995, 2000), founder of the Christophe Pignol association to fight against leukemia.
  • Fabien Barthez (born in 1971), footballer who lived in Aubagne.
  • Mourad Ghazli (born in 1974), rugby player, coach, and politician.
  • Stéphane Pignol (born in 1977), footballer.
  • Nicole Ferroni (born in 1982 at Casablanca), comedian who worked and lived in Aubagne.
  • Alain Bernard (born in 1983 in Aubagne), swimmer, world record holder in 2008 of the 100 metres freestyle and the 50 metres freestyle, and olympic champion in the 100 metres freestyle.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Bouches-du-Rhône (French)
  2. ^ a b Google Maps
  3. ^ "By Bus". City of Aubagne. 
  4. ^ "Free transport in the commune". Ekopedia (in French). 
  5. ^ "The Agglomération of Pays d'Aubagne votes on the tram project". La Provence. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "Aubagne: Work on the future tramway have commenced. - France 3 Provence-Alpes" (in French). Provence-alpes.france3.fr. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "Aubagne orders Citadis Compact". Railway Gazette International. 7 October 2011. 
  8. ^ "Aubagne | The Public enquiry begins on 18 June for the Aubagne tramway". La Provence. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Marcel Robert (15 May 2009). "Aubagne will have the first entirely free tramway in the world!". Carfree.free.fr. Retrieved 9 April 2014.  (French)
  10. ^ Louis Barthélemy, Chronological and Analytical Inventory of the Charters of the Houses of Baux, Marseille, 1882, Charte 1692. (French)
  11. ^ Geneviève Xhayet, Supporters and Opponents of Louis of Anjou during the war with the Union of Aix, Provence historique, Fédération historique de Provence, volume 40, No. 162, "Author of the War of the Union ofAix", 1990, p. 409 and 410 (note 41). (French)
  12. ^ "The Municipal Council". Aubagne.fr. Retrieved 9 April 2014.  (French)
  13. ^ "Aubagne always communist? - The blog of resistanceetamour". Resistanceetamour.over-blog.com. Retrieved 2014-04-09.  (French)
  14. ^ UCLG-CISDP website
  15. ^ List of Mayors of France (French)
  16. ^ "Rubbish collection". Aubagne.fr. Retrieved 9 April 2014.  (French)
  17. ^ "Free public transport: from social experiment to political alternative? - Metropolitics". Metropolitiques.eu. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "Free communal transport and modal report: an example to follow?". Actu-environnement.com. Retrieved 2014-04-09.  (French)
  19. ^ Sartorius website
  20. ^ Aubagne, viticultural commune, Vin-Vigne website, Placido Llorca, 2012, consulted on 12 November 2012 (French)
  21. ^ The Debt of Aubagne, Journal du Net (French)
  22. ^ Fitch ratings, Bastamag website (French)
  23. ^ Marsactu website (French)
  24. ^ Fitch confirms its rating for Aubagne, Overblog 15 December 2011] (French)
  25. ^ Aubagne risks its debt on the Stock exchange, Laprovence website (French)
  26. ^ To whom go the taxes of the taxpayers of Aubagne?, Observatoire des subventions website, 7 January 2011 (French)
  27. ^ Top 10 towns for increases in taxes (French)
  28. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA13000059 War memorial (French)
  29. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081197 Chapel of Black Penitents (French)Camera aabb.svg
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000443 Painting: Beheading of Saint John the Baptist (French)
  31. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081196 Chapel of Grey Penitents (French)
  32. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00081195 Chapel of White Penitents (French)Camera aabb.svg
  33. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001960 Painting: The death of Saint Joseph (French)
  34. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001959 Painting: Purgatory (French)
  35. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001958 Painting: Sainte Parenté (French)
  36. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000444 Painting: Incredulity of Saint Thomas (French)
  37. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001753 Instrumental part of the Organ (French)
  38. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001752 Rostrum Organ (French)
  39. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000442 Statue: Virgin and Child (French)
  40. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001961 Statue: Christ aux liens (French)
  41. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001963 Stalls (French)
  42. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001957 Painting: The Circumcision (French)
  43. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001956 Painting: The disciples of Emmaus (French)
  44. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001955 Panelling, floor coverings and Sideboard in the Sacristy (French)
  45. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001954 Reliquary (French)
  46. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001953 Commemorative plaque for the consecration of the church (French)
  47. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13001962 Bust-reliquary: Saint Matthieu (French)
  48. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000448 Retable: 2 angels adoring the paschal Lamb (French)
  49. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000447 Retable: 2 Bas-reliefs: The Adoration of the Magii and the Descent from the Cross (French)
  50. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000446 Painting: Virgin & child and St. John the Baptist (French)
  51. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000445 Main Altar, Altar seating, Tabernacle (French)
  52. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM13000441 2 Bronze bells (French)
  53. ^ Friends of old Aubagne website (French)
  54. ^ A Pompidou Centre mobile at Aubagne (French)
  55. ^ Article "Aubagne montre le son" programme La Provence of MP2013, March–April paper (French)
  56. ^ La Casamance Clinic (French)
  57. ^ Jean Bercy on the L'oiseau de feu du Garlaban website (French)