Aubazine

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Aubazine
Aubazines vue générale.JPG
Coat of arms of Aubazine
Coat of arms
Aubazine is located in France
Aubazine
Aubazine
Coordinates: 45°10′26″N 1°40′16″E / 45.174°N 1.671°E / 45.174; 1.671Coordinates: 45°10′26″N 1°40′16″E / 45.174°N 1.671°E / 45.174; 1.671
Country France
Region Limousin
Department Corrèze
Arrondissement Brive-la-Gaillarde
Canton Beynat
Intercommunality Canton de Beynat
Government
 • Mayor (1995–2020) Jean-Pierre Chouzenoux
Area
 • Land1 14.07 km2 (5.43 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Population2 874
 • Population2 density 62/km2 (160/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 19013 / 19190
Elevation 126–522 m (413–1,713 ft)
(avg. 345 m or 1,132 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Aubazine (Obasina in Occitan) is the official name (incorrectly spelt Aubazines on many maps and notably in the INSEE database) of a commune in the Corrèze department in the Limousin region of central France.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aubazinois or Aubazinoises.[1]

Geography[edit]

Sign clearly displaying the correct spelling of the village name.
The gorges of the Coiroux.

Aubazine is a commune in the Massif Central located some 10 km east by north-east of Brive-la-Gaillarde and 12 km south-west of Tulle. The D1089 highway passes through the north-west of the commune going from Malemort-sur-Corrèze to Tulle however access to the village is by the D130 branching off the D1089, going south to the village, and continuing south to Beynat. The D48 also goes east from the village to Le Chastang with the D48E branching off it in the east of the commune to go north to Cornil. The D14E1 also goes south-west from the village to join the D14.[2]

A railway line passes through the commune parallel to the D1089 and the station for Aubazine is at Gare d'Aubazine in the neighbouring commune. The line is served by the TER Limousin trains from Brive-la-Gaillarde to Clermont-Ferrand.

The village is in the south of the commune on a promontory overlooking the Coiroux at a height of over 150 metres. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of: Pauliac Bas, Pauliac Haut, Villieres, Vergonzac, Le Varachou, Rochesseux, Chastagnol, Quatre Routes, and Les Vayres. The commune is mixed forest and farmland.[2]

The Corrèze river forms the north-western border of the commune as it flows south-west to join the Vézère west of Breve-la-Gaillarde. A number of streams rise in the commune to join the Corrèze including the Ruisseau de la Geinde, 2.7 km long, which rises near Quatre-Routes and flows north to join the Ruisseau de Brauze in Cornil commune which flows to the Corrèze, the Ruisseau Français,[3] and the Canal des Moines which branches from the Coiroux.[2]

The lowest altitude of the commune is 126 metres in the west where the Corrèze leaves the commune. The highest points are 520 metres high on the Puy de Pauliac which dominates the area, and in the south-east next to Le Chastang near a place called la Jarouste.

Neighbouring communes and villages[2][edit]

History[edit]

The village of Aubazine, which had a church, became a commune in the French Revolution in 1790 through the dismantling of the parish of Cornil but it lacked Vital records until 1 March 1792.[4][5]

Aubazine, formerly written Obazine, has its origin in the foundation of a monastery by Étienne de Vielzot in the 12th century.[6][7] The monastery was affiliated shortly after to the Cistercian order. Very soon an associated convent of nuns was established in the village of Coyroux a few hundred metres away. The two monasteries existed until the Revolution. Formerly spelled Obazine the parish depended on Cornil.

The site of the monastic institutions and their dependencies have been the object of archaeological excavations and extensive studies in the last third of the 20th century under the direction of Professor of medieval history Bernadette Barrière.

Due to an error in the INSEE code there is confusion over an incorrect spelling Aubazines. The spelling Aubazine is the correct name of the village.

Aubazine-Saint-Hilaire Railway Station[edit]

The village of Gare d'Aubazine, although located in the commune of Saint-Hilaire-Peyroux is an integral part of the history of Aubazine and of Dampniat than that of Saint-Hilaire.

Th station was established at a place called Confolens however, as the station was primarily to serve Aubazine even though it was on the territory of the neighbouring commune, the council demanded a composite name. The railway acceded to the demand and the stop which was called Aubazine-Saint-Hilaire-Peyroux became Aubazine thereafter. Saint-Hilaire-Peyroux have their own stop at Pont Bonnel.

Before 1840, the date of the opening of Route nationale N89 (later D1089), there was nothing at the bottom of this valley other than the worn-out mills of: Confolens in Dampniat commune, Claredent in Aubazine commune, and Jayle in Malemort-sur-Corrèze commune, which were accessible only on narrow, bumpy, and steep slopes by goods wagons. Horses, mules, and donkeys circulated more often than carts.

The village, now called Gare d'Aubazine was rather poorly named. The SNCF station is located on the right bank of the Corrèze in the territory of Saint-Hilaire-Peyroux while the left bank belongs largely to Dampniat with the nearest village located 2 km away.

The Confolens bridge and paper mill added to progress together with the railway at the end of the 19th century and in 1912 the establishment of a railhead for the departmental tram line going to Turenne then Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne via Le Bosplos completed this action. The Tacot (Jalopy) had disappeared by 1932, replaced by a bus and the agglomeration of the Gare d'Aubazine retained its thriving business. New houses were built and a school with two classes was opened for the children. Their parents climbed to Dampniat to learn to read.

In June 1944 maquisards destroyed the Claredent railway bridge, blocking a German armoured train and preventing convoys of equipment from the manufacture of weapons at Tulle from being quickly transported to their destination on the front or the Rhine.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Aubazine

Blazon:
Party per pale, at first Gules, a sun in his splendour of Or with two mullets the same all posed in pale; at second Azure a crescent moon of Argent with two mullets the same all posed in pale.




Administration[edit]

The Town Hall
Lake Coiroux

List of Successive Mayors[8]

From To Name Party Position
1799 1812 Jean Leguerenne
1817 1819 Jean-Baptiste Dejouvenel
1825 1825 Pierre Brugeille Farmer
1849 1852 Aubin Pierre Louradour
1853 1865 Aimard Epiphane Louradour
1870 1870 Jean-Maxim Brugeille Notary
1870 Jean-Louis Auguste Lafon
1874 1876 Jean-Baptiste Lavergne
1890 1944 Jean-Baptiste Laumond RS Notary
1893 1893 François Firmin Delmas Lawyer
MP from 1928 to 1936
Magistrate of Andorra
1945 1959 Raymond Bouillaguet
1959 1977 Emile Bouy
1977 1995 Léon Canard
1995 2020 Jean-Pierre Chouzenoux PS

(Not all data is known)

Demography[edit]

In 2010 the commune had 874 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
746 849 771 865 921 921 907 920 971
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
973 984 913 913 946 939 992 975 977
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
883 911 970 839 808 806 901 752 704
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -
677 669 642 673 788 732 798 874 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Aubazine

Culture and heritage[edit]

Civil heritage[edit]

The commune has two structures that are registered as historical monuments:

  • A Stone circle at Puy de Pauliac (Neolithic)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[9]
  • The Canal des Moines (12th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[9] with a length of 1.7 km, it was built to supply the village - it is the only canal of its kind still operating in Europe.[10] It dominates the Gorges of Coiroux.[11]

Other sites of interest are:

  • The Dolmen of Rochesseux.
  • The Saut de la bergère rock (overlooking the Canal des Moines), a 70m high cliff where, according to legend, a shepherdess was thrown from to escape dishonour.[12]
  • The Tourist centre and Lake Coiroux.

Religious heritage[edit]

Two religious buildings are registered as historical monuments and one more contains historical objects:

  • Remains of the old Monastery of Coyroux (12th century).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[13][14] It contains many items that are registered as historical objects:
    • Statue: Sainte Marie-Madeleine (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[15]
    • Statue: Nicodème (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[16]
    • Group sculpture: Virgin and Saint John (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[17]
    • Group sculpture: Setting on a Tomb (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[18]
  • The old Abbey Saint-Etienne (1142)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[19] and monastic buildings of the ancient Cistercian abbey founded in 1142 by Saint Etienne, the first abbot. The abbey contains many items registered as historical objects:
    • Group sculpture: Saint Roch (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[20]
    • Statuette: Virgin and child playing with a bird (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[21]
    • Master Altar: Altar, seating, Tabernacle, Pedestal, Statue (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[22]
    • 3 Stalls (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[23]
    • Statue: Saint Etienne of Obazine (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[24]
    • Group sculpture: Virgin of pity (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[25]
    • Bas-relief: Saint Etienne Harding holding the habit of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[26]
    • Bas-relief: Saint Etienne Harding, Abbot of Citeaux, granting the Charter of charity (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[27]
    • Cabinet (12th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[28]
    • Altar Cross (13th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[29]
    • 4 plates on a shrine (13th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[30]
    • Reliquary Cross (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[31]
    • Recumbent Statue: Saint Etienne of Obazine (13th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[32]
    • Tomb of Etienne of Obazine (13th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[33]
    • Total of 42 Stalls (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]
    • Statue: Virgin (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[45]
    • Pedestal (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[46]
    • 2 Statuettes: Adoring angels (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[47]
    • Tabernacle (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[48]
    • 3 Statues: (1 large 2 small) Christ between 2 angels (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[49]
    • Altar, seating, altar tomb, altar exhibits (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[50]
    • 2 Bas-reliefs: Saint Etienne (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[51]
    • Cabinet in the Sacristy (14th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[52]
    • Bronze bell (1683)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[53]
    • Little bell (1605)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[54]
    • Bronze bell (1605)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[55]
    • Reliquary Cross (double cross) (12th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[56]
    • Monumental Painting: Virgin of pity (1466)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[57]
    • 25 Stained glass windows (12th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[58]
    • Group of Stalls (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[59]
  • The Parish Church of Notre-Dame contains three items registered as historical object:
    • Statue: Saint John the Baptist (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[60]
    • Retable and Altar seating in the 2nd chapel in the south transept (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[61]
    • Bas-relief: Arms of the Abbey of Aubazine (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[62]

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • Étienne d'Obazine, founder of the Abbey.
  • Pierre Brugeilles (1845-1893), born in Aubazine, Mayor of the commune, MP for Corrèze from 1885 to 1889.
  • Jean-Baptiste Laumond (1865-1957), Mayor of the commune from 1890 to 1944, MP for Corrèze from 1926 to 1938, Magistrate of Andorra from 1937 to 1940.
  • Coco Chanel (1883-1971), Hatmaker and clothes designer, spent part of her youth at the orphanage.[63] in the Abbey and managed by the nuns from Saint-Cœur de Marie.
  • Bernadette Barrière (1936-2004), Professor of medieval history, University of Limoges.
  • Étienne Jugie, born in Aubazine on 3 May 1878,[64] died at Sorgues on 29 November 1954, known in religion under the name Marin Jugie, (Augustinian of the Assumption) Theologian, author of numerous works, Professor at the Vatican and at Lyon. He worked on the Doctrine of the Assumption and on the Churches of the Orient, studied "Joseph de Maistre and the Greco-Russian Church".
  • Thierry Chenavaud, designer and producer of shows since 2007, every year in July the "Cistercian Lights" with huge images at the old monastery of Coyroux at Aubazine. The narration of the show is extracted from the Life of Etienne d'Obazine text from the 12th century, written by a contemporary of Etienne.

Philately[edit]

A Postage stamp with a value of 1.25 francs depicting the Abbey of Aubazine was issued on 18 February 1978.[65]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Corrèze (French)
  2. ^ a b c d Google Maps
  3. ^ See the Hydrography section (French)
  4. ^ Historic parish registers, Vital records, and decennial tables (French)
  5. ^ Life in Aubazine under Napoléon (French)
  6. ^ The village of Obazine, then Aubazine from the Latin Obazina ("thick forest") (French)
  7. ^ Étienne de Vielzot (French)
  8. ^ List of Mayors of France (French)
  9. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00099660 Stone circle (French)Camera aabb.svg
  10. ^ Documentary Heritage passion: from Lot-et-Garonne to Corrèze, Marie Maurice and Franck Dhelens, transmission Des racines et des ailes, 13 April 2011 (French)
  11. ^ The Gorges of Coiroux (French)
  12. ^ Saut de la Bergère on the Aubazine website, consulted on 7 December 2009 (French)
  13. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00099661 Monastery of Coyroux (French)
  14. ^ Google Books: Father J. B. L. Roy de Pierrefitte, Historical studies on the monasteries of Limousin and la Marche, Volume 1, Guéret, 1857-1863 (French)
  15. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000026 Statue: Sainte Marie-Madeleine (French)Camera aabb.svg
  16. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000025 Statue: Nicodème (French)Camera aabb.svg
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000024 Group sculpture: Virgin and Saint John (French)Camera aabb.svg
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000585 Group sculpture: Setting on a Tomb (French)Camera aabb.svg
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00099658 Abbey Saint-Etienne (French)Camera aabb.svg
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000836 Group Sculpture: Saint Roch (French)Camera aabb.svg
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000023 Statuette: Virgin and child playing with a bird (French)Camera aabb.svg
  22. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000022 Master Altar: Altar, seating, Tabernacle, Pedestal, Statue (French)Camera aabb.svg
  23. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000021 3 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  24. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000020 Statue: Saint Etienne of Obazine (French)Camera aabb.svg
  25. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000019 Group sculpture: Virgin of pity (French)Camera aabb.svg
  26. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000018 Bas-relief: Saint Etienne Harding holding the habit of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (French)Camera aabb.svg
  27. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000017 Bas-relief: Saint Etienne Harding, Abbot of Citeaux, granting the Charter of charity (French)Camera aabb.svg
  28. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000016 Cabinet (French)Camera aabb.svg
  29. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000015 Altar Cross (French)Camera aabb.svg
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000014 4 plates on a shrine (French)Camera aabb.svg
  31. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000013 Reliquary cross (French)Camera aabb.svg
  32. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000617 Statue: Saint Etienne of Obazine (French)Camera aabb.svg
  33. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000616 Statue: Saint Etienne of Obazine (French)Camera aabb.svg
  34. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000598 2 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  35. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000597 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  36. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000596 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  37. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000595 2 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  38. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000594 6 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  39. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000593 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  40. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000592 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  41. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000591 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  42. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000590 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  43. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000589 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  44. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000588 4 Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  45. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000587 Statue: Virgin (French)Camera aabb.svg
  46. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000583 Pedestal (French)Camera aabb.svg
  47. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000582 Statuette: Adoring angels (French)Camera aabb.svg
  48. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000581 Tabernacle (French)Camera aabb.svg
  49. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000580 3 Statues: (1 large 2 small) Christ between 2 angels (French)Camera aabb.svg
  50. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000579 Altar, seating, altar tomb, altar exhibits (French)Camera aabb.svg
  51. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000578 2 Bas-reliefs: Saint Etienne (French)Camera aabb.svg
  52. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000543 Cabinet in the Sacristy (French)Camera aabb.svg
  53. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000515 Bronze bell (French)Camera aabb.svg
  54. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000514 Little bell (French)
  55. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000513 Bronze bell (French)Camera aabb.svg
  56. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000489 Reliquary Cross (double cross) (French)Camera aabb.svg
  57. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000488 Monumental Painting: Virgin of pity) (French)Camera aabb.svg
  58. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000487 25 Stained glass windows (French)Camera aabb.svg
  59. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000486 Group of Stalls (French)Camera aabb.svg
  60. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19001177 Statue: Saint John the Baptist (French)Camera aabb.svg
  61. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19001176 Retable and Altar seating in the 2nd chapel in the south transept (French)Camera aabb.svg
  62. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM19000835 Bas-relief: Arms of the Abbey of Aubazine (French)Camera aabb.svg
  63. ^ Chanel, Martine Marcowith, Weekend.be (French)
  64. ^ Register of Births No. 6 of 1878 on page 595 on the Departmental Archives of Corrèze website (French)
  65. ^ Stamps of France 1978 (French)