|IATA: AKL – ICAO: NZAA|
|Operator||Auckland International Airport Limited|
|Location||Mangere, Auckland, New Zealand|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||7 m / 23 ft|
|Statistics (August 2013 to August 2014)|
|Economic impact (2012)||$4.8 billion|
|Social impact (2012)||81.2 thousand|
Auckland Airport (IATA: AKL, ICAO: NZAA) is the largest and busiest airport in New Zealand, with 14,829,393 (7,907,506 international and 6,921,887 domestic) passengers in the year ended November 2013. The airport is located near Mangere, a residential suburb and Airport Oaks, a service hub suburb 21 kilometres (13 mi) south of the downtown Auckland city centre. It is the Northern hub for Air New Zealand, a New Zealand hub of Virgin Australia, and a focus city for Jetstar Airways.
Auckland Airport is one of New Zealand’s most important infrastructure assets, providing thousands of jobs for the region, and is the country’s second largest cargo port by value, contributing around $14 billion to the economy, and catering for over four million visitors each year, resulting in a 70% share of New Zealand's international travellers. It is one of only two airports in New Zealand (the other being Christchurch) capable of handling Boeing 777, Boeing 747 and Airbus A380 aircraft.
The airport is the fourth busiest in Australasia after Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane airports. However, internationally, the airport is the second busiest in Australasia as Melbourne had just 6,213,479 international passengers in 2011. The airport has been rated in the top 3 worldwide for airports handling 5–15 million passengers annually. It was also voted the 12th best airport in the world in 2013 at the Skytrax World Airport Awards, as well as being the best airport in the Australia/Pacific region.
It has a capacity of about 45 flight movements per hour, using a single runway which is fully Cat IIIb capable (at a reduced rate of movements). A close by taxiway was upgraded for use as a runway when the main runway requires maintenance or for use during emergencies, but it does not have sufficient separation distance to operate simultaneously with the main runway. In November 2007 work began on a new northern runway, to be built in several stages and to be used mainly by smaller airplanes, freeing up capacity on the main runway. However, the project was put on hold for at least 12 months in October 2009, and deferred for a further few years in August 2010 following consultation with airlines and a review of capacity management options. The timing of the recommencement of construction of the second runway will be demand driven relative to the capacity of the existing runway.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Holding company
- 5 Access
- 6 Accidents and incidents
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The site of the airport was first used as an airfield by the Auckland Aero Club. In 1928, the club leased some land from a dairy farmer to accommodate the club's three De Havilland Gypsy Moths. The club president noted at the time that the site "has many advantages of vital importance for an aerodrome and training ground. It has good approaches, is well drained and is free from power lines, buildings and fogs." Prior to rebuilding, this was known as Mangere Aerodrome.
In 1960 work started to transform the site into Auckland's main airport, taking over from Whenuapai in the north-west of the city. Much of the runway is on land reclaimed from the Manukau Harbour. The first flight to leave was an Air New Zealand DC-8 in November 1965, bound for Sydney. The airport was officially opened the following year, with a 'grand air pageant' on Auckland Anniversary weekend, 29 January to 31 January 1966.
A new international terminal, named after Jean Batten, was built in 1977. Prior to this, all flights (including international ones) used what is now the domestic terminal. In 2005, the international terminal was altered, separating arriving and departing passengers.
In 2007, construction began on a second runway to the north of the current one. Initially the new runway would have been 1,200-metre (3,900 ft) long and catered for regional flights operated by Air New Zealand using turboprop aircraft. This would have cost $32 million and would have improved the efficiency of the airport by removing smaller planes (which require longer separation distances from the air turbulence wakes of preceding jet airliners) from the main runway. At a later stage, the runway would have been lengthened to 1,950 metres (6,400 ft) to allow it be used by small jets (such as the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320) on domestic and trans-Tasman flights. However, in August 2009, the project was put on hold due to a downturn in air travel, and, as of 2013, the project is still on hold.
Construction for Stage One started in November 2007. However, Stage Two will likely see the runway lengthened to 1,650 metres (5,410 ft) which will enable domestic jet flights to use it. Stage Three (final stage) will lengthen the runway to 2,150 metres (7,050 ft), allowing medium sized international jet flights to land there, from destinations such as the Pacific Islands or Australia. Eventually a new domestic terminal will also be built to the north to better utilize the new runway. The new runway will thus free up the longer southern runway to handle more heavy jet operations. The 10-year project would cost NZ$120 million, not including substantial extensions planned for the airport arrivals/departure buildings and associated structures.
In 2009, an extension to the international terminal was constructed, creating Pier B. Pier B covers 5,500 square metres (59,000 sq ft) and has been designed to allow for the addition of new gates when required. It currently has 2 gates, both capable of handling Airbus A380 aircraft. In May 2009, Emirates became the first airline to fly the A380 to Auckland, using the aircraft on its daily Dubai–Sydney–Auckland route. On 2 October 2012 Emirates began operating the Dubai–Melbourne–Auckland with an A380, having previously operated the route with a B777-300ER. From 2 October 2013, the A380 took over from a B777-300ER on the Dubai–Brisbane–Auckland route This will mean that Emirates now serves Auckland solely with A380s, and Auckland Airport becomes the only airport in the world, other than Dubai, to have three scheduled Emirates A380s on the ground at the same time.
In 2013, the domestic terminal will undergo a series of upgrades costing a total of $30 million. Stage one ran from January 2013 to March 2013, and involved changes to the drop off points and roads outside the terminal. In the second half of 2013, the baggage claim belts will be lengthened, parts of the apron will be changed, and new corridors will connect to the jetbridges. The two different sides to the terminals will share a centralised security screening area following the upgrade and an extra storey will be added to the western wing to provide an airside connection between the Air New Zealand side of the terminal and the Jetstar side of the terminal. The work is expected to take up to 12 months to complete.
In early 2014, the Airport released their 30-year vision for the future which will see the airport combine both the international and domestic operations into one combined building based around the existing international terminal. This will see new domestic piers built to the south of the existing international precinct within the next 5 years. The plan also allows for the extension of the current international piers and also the creation of new piers for international operations. A new 2,150 metres long northern runway will be able to cater for aircraft up to the size of the 777 and 787 jets. New public transport links including a new rail station and line may be built in the future. The plan has been split into four implementation phases. Phase 1 will see all operations combined into one terminal precinct as well as improved road neetwork surrounding the terminal within the next 5 years. Phase 2 sees the new northern runway constructed as well as the extension of the terminal forecourt by 2025. Phase 3 involves the extension of both international and domestic piers by 2044. Phase 4 sees the northern runway extended to a length of around 3,000 metres (9,800 ft).
Check-in counters are at the eastern end of the international terminal building on the ground level.
- Gates 1–9 are single-airbridge gates and gate 10 is a twin-airbridge gate, all of which are located in pier A. This pier also hosts Gates 4A, 4B, 4C, and 4D, which are accessed from the drop-down lounge for gates 2 & 4, and are bus gates from where passengers will be bussed to their aircraft.
- Gates 15 and 16 are in the new pier B extension, and are twin airbridges gates, capable of handling A380 aircraft with simultaneous double-deck boarding.
- Stands 17 and 18 are west of the pier B and are not equipped with airbridges. If boarding of aircraft is necessary from these stands, passengers will be bussed from one of gates 4A–4D.
- Gates 70–73, 76–80, and 82–83 are west and east of pier A and are not equipped with airbridges. If boarding of aircraft is necessary from these stands, passengers will be bussed from one of gates 4A–4D.
Before 2006 Auckland Airport arriving and departing passengers were allowed to mingle airside. After the September 11 attacks, the airport operated with a CAA exemption that allowed this to continue, although flights to the US and all Qantas-operated flights (and for a short time Cathay Pacific flights) were restricted to leaving from gates where a secondary X-ray and metal detector inspection had been set up. This exemption expired in 2006.
Auckland Airport decided that rather than building a new sub-top level to stream arriving passengers (as at Beijing, Vancouver, or Heathrow), they would build a new departures floor for passengers to "drop down" into the existing gate lounges on the first floor, which would be closed off from a central arrivals corridor by glass.
The two previously separate domestic terminal buildings have now been connected by a common retail area. The Jetstar check-in area is located in the western end of the terminal, in the building previously used by Ansett New Zealand, Qantas, and Pacific Blue. The Air New Zealand check-in area is located in the eastern end of the terminal.
Jetstar domestic services operate from gates 20, 21 and 22 (jetbridge gates). Air New Zealand mainline services operate from gates 24–33. Gates 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 have jetbridges, gates 24 and 28 are tarmac gates; gates 25, 26 and 27 don't exist. Air New Zealand regional (Link) services operate from the regional section of the domestic terminal. This is located at the eastern end of the terminal and consists of gates 34–48 (excluding gate numbers 35, 37, 38, 41, and 44 which do not exist). These gates are linked to the terminal by covered walkways, and passengers walk across the apron to the aircraft.
Airlines and destinations
|Air Freight NZ||Christchurch, Palmerston North|
|Air Post||Blenheim, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington|
operated by Tasman Cargo Airlines
|FedEx Express||Honolulu, Los Angeles, Sydney|
operated by Atlas Air
operated by Express Freighters Australia
|Christchurch, Sydney, Cairns|
|Singapore Airlines Cargo||Melbourne, Singapore, Sydney|
Traffic and statistics
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% change||Carriers|
|1||Australia, Australia Total||3,790,548||2.2||Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Emirates, Jetstar, LAN Airlines, Qantas, Virgin Australia|
|2||Australia, Sydney||1,394,417||0.2||Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Emirates, Jetstar, LAN Airlines, Qantas, Virgin Australia|
|3||Australia, Melbourne||962,217||4.7||Air New Zealand, Emirates, Jetstar, Qantas, Virgin Australia|
|4||Australia, Brisbane||846,891||2.2||Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Emirates, Qantas, Virgin Australia|
|5||Australia, Gold Coast||262,683||0.1||Air New Zealand, Jetstar, Virgin Australia|
|6||Australia, Perth||168,697||17.1||Air New Zealand, Qantas|
|7||Australia, Adelaide||71,727||2.2||Air New Zealand, Jetstar|
|8||Australia, Cairns||66,431||13.6||Air New Zealand|
|9||Norfolk Island, Norfolk Island||10,932||15||Air New Zealand|
|10||Australia, Sunshine Coast||6,553||6553||Air New Zealand|
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% change||Carriers|
|1||New Zealand, Christchurch||1,102,009||0.4||Air New Zealand, Jetstar|
|2||New Zealand, Wellington||837,087||0.3||Air New Zealand, Jetstar|
|3||New Zealand, Queenstown||541,856||0.3||Air New Zealand, Jetstar|
|4||New Zealand, Dunedin||392,456||0.5||Air New Zealand, Jetstar|
|Headquarters||Auckland, New Zealand|
|Key people||Adrian Littlewood, CEO|
Auckland International Airport Limited (AIAL) was formed in 1988, when the New Zealand Government corporatised the airport. It had previously been run by the Auckland Regional Authority, covering the five councils in the Auckland region.
The Government was AIAL’s majority shareholder, the rest being held by the local councils. In 1998 the Government sold its shareholding, and AIAL became the fifth airport company in the world to be publicly listed. At that time the major shareholders were Auckland City Council (25.8%), Manukau City Council (9.6%) and North Shore City Council (7.1%). North Shore City Council sold its shares in 1999 and Auckland City Council sold its share down to 12.8% in 2002. After amalgamation into the Auckland Council, the local authority now owns a 22.5% stake worth approximately $750 million as of 2012.
AIAL appears on the New Zealand Stock Exchange (NZX: AIA) and Australian Stock Exchange (ASX: AIA). International shareholders hold around 40% of the shares, domestic approximately 60%. The company has a Standard & Poor's credit rating of A+/Stable/A-1.
AIAL enjoys diverse revenue streams, and operates a 'dual-till' approach, whereby its finances are split into aeronautical and non-aeronautical balance sheets. Aeronautical income is derived from airfield charges, terminal services charge and the airport development charge (or departure fee). Non-aeronautical revenue comes from its significant property portfolio, car park, and retail income. Income from the non-aeronautical side of the business accounts for just over half of its revenue. The airport has been criticised by airlines, led by Air New Zealand, for its purportedly high landing charges. However research conducted in September 2010 by aviation consultants Jacobs indicates that Auckland Airport international charges are slightly below the average of the 20 largest international airports flown by Air New Zealand. Further research by aviation consultants Airbiz conducted in August 2010 indicates that Auckland Airport domestic landing charges are amongst the lowest in Australasia.
The diversity in revenue was of benefit during the downturn in international aviation following the events of 11 September 2001, and subsequently the 2002 Bali bombings, SARS outbreak and the Iraq War. The airport was able to rely on steady income from the non-aeronautical side of the business, which softened the blow of international events. In addition, New Zealand retained favour among the world’s travellers as a safe destination.
In July 2009 Auckland Airport elected to delay a scheduled increase in its landing charges from 1 July 2009 to assist its airline customers during the recession. The scheduled increase was put in place on 1 March 2010. The company has in the past reportedly been singled out by airline lobby group IATA for its consistent excessive level of profits. Airlines such as Air New Zealand complain of excessive landing charges. On 5 June 2007, the airport's 60% profit margin was criticised by IATA director general and CEO Giovanni Bisignani. He said the airport had a "happy monopoly" and that IATA would ask the New Zealand government to investigate.
Until July 2008, AIAL charged all departing international passengers (12 years old or older) a $25 departure fee. This has been replaced with a passenger services charge levied on the airlines for each arriving and departing international passenger. This charge has commenced at $13 and will rise by 50 cents a year for two years to $14. Auckland Airport will cut the international passenger fee and would hike the domestic travellers charges in FY-2013.
Partnership with Queenstown Airport
On 8 July 2010, AIAL announced it had entered into an agreement to take a 24.99% shareholding in Queenstown Airport Corporation Limited, the operator of Queenstown Airport, and form a strategic alliance between the two airports. The shareholding will cost NZ$27.7 million, through the issue of new shares. The alliance is expected to generate an extra 176,000 passengers through Queenstown Airport. AIAL has an option to increase its shareholding in Queenstown Airport to 30-35% at any time up to 30 June 2011, subject to the approval of the Queenstown Lakes District Council. The new share capital from would allow Queenstown Airport to fund growth of the airport's operating capacity and to pay regular dividends back to the community via the Queenstown Lakes District Council shareholding.
Auckland Airport's main access is by road.
A free shuttle bus connects the international and domestic terminals to each other; they are also linked by a walkway.
Two state highways connect to the airport: State Highway 20A and State Highway 20B. State Highway 20A leaves the airport to the north and allows access to central Auckland, the western and northern suburbs, and Northland. State Highway 20B leaves the airport to the east and allows access to southern and eastern Auckland, and the rest of the North Island. Currently, there is no direct motorway access to the airport, and at some point, airport traffic must use Auckland city streets. The completion of the State Highway 20 Manukau Extension in 2010 has allowed motorway access to the State Highway 1 via State Highway 20B. In light traffic, a trip to the central city takes around 40 – 45 minutes. Also, cycle lanes have been implemented on some highways to accommodate cyclists who wish to access the airport by bicycle.
Taxis and shuttles are available at both terminals.
- AIRBUS Express: Operates 24 hours a day and connects both terminals of the airport to the Downtown Ferry Terminal in the central city via Mount Eden and Queen Street. The Downtown Ferry Terminal is opposite the Britomart Transport Centre, which allows bus and train connections to the wider Auckland area. Buses take approximately 50 minutes and operate at least every 30 minutes (every 10 minutes at peak time).
- 380 Airporter: operates between Onehunga, the airport and Manukau City via Papatoetoe Railway Station. Passengers can connect to rail services to Britomart Transport Centre at Onehunga, Papatoetoe station, or Manukau, with the most convenient transfer in terms of frequency being at Papatoetoe. Buses operate half-hourly to Manukau and hourly to Onehunga all week (5am - 11pm Mon-Fri, 6:30am – 11:40pm Sat & Sun).
Accidents and incidents
Accidents and incidents that occurred at or near Auckland Airport include:
- 4 July 1966 – an Air New Zealand Douglas DC-8 on a training flight crashed on the runway shortly after taking off, killing 2 of the 5 crew (no passengers were on board).
- 17 February 1979 – an Air New Zealand Fokker Friendship crashed into Manukau Harbour while on final approach. 1 crew and 1 company staff member were killed.
- 31 July 1989 – a Mainfreight Convair 340/580 crashed shortly after taking off at night. All 3 crew members were killed.
Accidents and incidents that occurred on aircraft that departed from or were destined for Auckland Airport include:
- 22 July 1973 – Pan Am Flight 816, a Boeing 707-321B-operated flight from Auckland to Los Angeles via Tahiti, French Polynesia, crashed 30 seconds after taking off from Tahiti, killing 78 and injuring 1.
- 30 January 1974 – Pan Am Flight 806, a Boeing 707-321B-operated flight from Auckland to Los Angeles via Pago Pago and Honolulu, crashed on its approach to Pago Pago, killing 97 and injuring 4.
- 28 November 1979 – Air New Zealand Flight 901, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-operated sightseeing flight from Auckland to Antarctica and return via Christchurch, crashed into Mount Erebus, killing all 257 on board.
- 24 June 1982 – British Airways Flight 9, a Boeing 747-236B, flying from London to Auckland, flew into a cloud of volcanic ash thrown up by the eruption of Mount Galunggung in Java, Indonesia, resulting in the failure of all four engines. The aircraft recovered after a dramatic dive, regaining enough power to facilitate an emergency landing in Jakarta.
- 24 February 1989 – United Airlines Flight 811, a United Airlines 747 flight from Honolulu, Hawaii, suffered explosive decompression, killing 9.
- 9 June 1995 – Ansett New Zealand Flight 703, a de Havilland DHC-8-operated flight from Auckland to Palmerston North, crashed in the Tararua Ranges while performing an instrument approach to Palmerston North in bad weather, killing 4 people and seriously injuring 14 others.
- 3 May 2005 – Airwork Flight 23, a Fairchild SA227-AC Metro III-operated New Zealand Post cargo flight from Auckland to Blenheim, disintegrated over Stratford in Taranaki when the autopilot disengaged while trying to balance out fuel in the tanks, killing both pilots.
- Auckland Airport Line (proposed)
- List of airports in New Zealand
- List of airlines of New Zealand
- Transport in New Zealand
- List of busiest airports in New Zealand
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- Air passengers and flights (from Statistics New Zealand)
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