Auckland Castle

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Auckland Castle
Auckland Castle
Auckland Castle is located in County Durham
Auckland Castle
Location within County Durham
Alternative names Auckland Palace,
Bishop's Palace,
Bishop's Castle
General information
Type Bishop's Palace
Architectural style Neo-Gothic
Address Auckland Castle,
Bishop Auckland,
Co. Durham DL14 7NR
Coordinates 54°39′59″N 1°40′13″W / 54.6664°N 1.6702°W / 54.6664; -1.6702
Owner Auckland Castle Trust [1]

Auckland Castle, also known as Auckland Palace and locally as the Bishop's Castle or Bishop's Palace, is located in Bishop Auckland, its neighbouring town in County Durham, England.

Owned by the Church of England for the prince-bishopric of Durham[2] for more than 800 years, Auckland Castle was originally established as a hunting lodge.[3] The principal seat of the Bishops of Durham from 1832, it was transferred in July 2012 to the Auckland Castle Trust, a charitable foundation to restore both the castle and grounds and also establish permanent exhibitions on the history of Christianity in Britain and the North East.[4]

In appearance more like a Gothic stately home than a medieval fortification, Auckland Castle remains a working episcopal palace being the residence and official headquarters of the Bishop of Durham and its Scotland Wing.[5] It currently serves as the administrative offices of the Durham Diocesan Board of Finance.[6]

Its Long Dining Room[7] houses 12 of the 13 celebrated 17th-century paintings, by Francisco de Zurbarán, of Jacob and his 12 sons.[8] These paintings have hung for 250 years in this room specifically designed and constructed for them. In 2001 the Church Commissioners voted to sell the works of art, then estimated at £20m in value, but relented after a review in 2010.[9][10]

On 31 March 2011 the Church Commissioners announced that plans to sell off the paintings were shelved following a donation of £15 million from investment manager Jonathan Garnier Ruffer,[11][12] placing the paintings, along with the castle, under the Auckland Castle Trust.[13]

The castle is surrounded by 800 acres (3.2 km2) of parkland, which was originally used by the bishops and their entourages for hunting and is today open to the public.[14] The Castle and its grounds contain seven Grade I listed buildings.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21] These include a Deer House in Auckland Castle Park which was built in 1760, a large castellated-stone building to shelter the deer, which nowadays has a viewing room for visitors.[22]

History[edit]

In around 1183 Bishop Hugh Pudsey established a manor house on the site.[23][24] Bishop Beck, who relocated his main residence from Durham Castle to Auckland due to its proximity to his hunting estate, later converted the manor house into a castle.

After the disestablishment of the Church of England at the end of the First English Civil War in 1646, Auckland Castle was sold to Sir Arthur Hazelrigg, who demolished much of the medieval building, including the original two-storey chapel, and built a mansion.[25][26][27] After the Restoration of the Monarchy, Prince-Bishop John Cosin, in turn demolished Hazelrigg's mansion and rebuilt the castle converting the banqueting hall into the chapel that stands today.[25][28]

In 1756 Bishop Richard Trevor bought a set of paintings of Jacob and his 12 sons painted by Francisco de Zurbarán which still hang in the Long Dining Room. It is possible that the seventeenth century paintings were intended for South America. However they never reached their supposed destination, eventually coming into the possession of James Mendez[29] who sold twelve of the thirteen to Dr. Trevor for £125 in 1756.

Bishop Trevor was unable to secure the 13th portrait, Benjamin which was sold separately to the Duke of Ancaster and hangs in Grimsthorpe Castle, Lincolnshire. Bishop Trevor commissioned Arthur Pond to produce a copy painting of "Benjamin". The copy, together with the 12 originals, hang in the castle's Long Dining Room, which Bishop Trevor had redesigned especially to take the pictures.[30][31]

Shute Barrington, Bishop of Durham from 1791 to 1826, employed the eminent architect James Wyatt to match the disparate architecture of the palace in the late 18th century, including its Throne Room and Garden Screen. In 1832, when William van Mildert, the last prince-bishop, gave over Durham Castle to found Durham University, Auckland Castle became the sole episcopal seat of the See of Durham.

Culture[edit]

Auckland Castle hosted two episodes of BBC's Antiques Roadshow in 2006. It also provides the setting for Lewis Carroll's story "A Legend of Scotland". Its Scotland Wing is so named from its historical accommodation of Scots prisoners.

Notable structures[edit]

Image Name Listed Co-ordinates Notes Ref(s)
Auckland Castle 8.jpg Auckland Castle Grade I 54°39′59″N 1°40′13″W / 54.6664°N 1.6702°W / 54.6664; -1.6702 (Auckland Castle) Probably begun in the 12th century and completed in the 13th century; [15]
Auckland Castle 036.jpg West Mural Tower and West Walls Grade I 54°39′59″N 1°40′21″W / 54.6663°N 1.6725°W / 54.6663; -1.6725 (West Mural Tower and West Walls) First wall built 14th century; [16]
Auckland Castle - Gatehouse.jpg Entrance Gateway Grade I 54°39′57″N 1°40′16″W / 54.6657°N 1.6712°W / 54.6657; -1.6712 (Gatehouse) Built by Thomas Robinson in 1760 for Prince-Bishop Trevor; [17]
Auckland Castle - Chapel.jpg Chapel of St Peter Grade I 54°40′01″N 1°40′12″W / 54.6669°N 1.6699°W / 54.6669; -1.6699 (Chapel of St Peter) Built as Great Hall around 1190, completed 1249 and converted to Chapel 1661-65; [18]
Auckland Castle 6.jpg Screen Wall Grade I 54°39′58″N 1°40′11″W / 54.6662°N 1.6698°W / 54.6662; -1.6698 (Screen wall) Built by James Wyatt around 1795 for Prince-Bishop Barrington; [19]
Auckland Castle 013.jpg Deer Shelter Grade I 54°40′07″N 1°40′00″W / 54.6686°N 1.6666°W / 54.6686; -1.6666 (Deer Shelter) Built around 1760; [20]
Auckland Castle - Castle Lodge2.jpg Castle Lodge Grade I 54°39′56″N 1°40′16″W / 54.6656°N 1.6710°W / 54.6656; -1.6710 (Castle Lodge) Built 17th century; [21]
Auckland Castle - 11 Market Place.jpg 11 Market Place Grade II* 54°39′56″N 1°40′17″W / 54.6655°N 1.6715°W / 54.6655; -1.6715 (11 Market Place) Built early 18th century; formerly known as 18 Castle Square; [32]
Auckland Castle 003.jpg 15 and 16 Market Place Grade II 54°39′57″N 1°40′18″W / 54.6658°N 1.6716°W / 54.6658; -1.6716 (Park gate-houses) 18th century Park Gatehouses; [33]
Auckland Castle 17 -18 Market Place.jpg 17 and 18 Market Place Grade II 54°39′57″N 1°40′18″W / 54.6658°N 1.6718°W / 54.6658; -1.6718 (17-18 Market Place) Built early 18th century; [34]
Auckland Castle -12 Market Place.jpg 12 Market Place Grade II 54°39′56″N 1°40′17″W / 54.6656°N 1.6713°W / 54.6656; -1.6713 (12 Market Place) Built early 18th century, previously known as 19 Castle Square; [35]
2 and 3 Castle Square Grade II 54°39′58″N 1°40′17″W / 54.6662°N 1.6715°W / 54.6662; -1.6715 (2 and 3 Castle Square) Medieval use unknown; later Prebends' College, then carriage houses; [36]
Auckland Castle - Westcott Lodge.jpg Westcott Lodge Grade II 54°39′58″N 1°40′17″W / 54.6660°N 1.6713°W / 54.6660; -1.6713 (Westcott Lodge) Built early-18th century; [37]
Six pillars;[38] Grade II 54°39′58″N 1°40′20″W / 54.6662°N 1.6723°W / 54.6662; -1.6723 (Six Pillars) Possibly 17th century hayshed; [39]
Garden and Drive Walls Grade II 54°39′57″N 1°40′12″W / 54.6658°N 1.6701°W / 54.6658; -1.6701 (Garden and Drive Walls) Built 18th and 19th century, railings added 19th century; [40]
Jock's Bridge.jpg Jock's Bridge Grade II 54°40′16″N 1°40′10″W / 54.6710°N 1.6694°W / 54.6710; -1.6694 (Jock's Bridge) Built 1819, forms Park boundary wall; [41]
River Gaunless.jpg Trevor's Bridge Grade II 54°40′14″N 1°40′04″W / 54.6706°N 1.6679°W / 54.6706; -1.6679 (Trevor's Bridge) Built 1757; [42]
Auckland Castle - Ice House.jpg Ice House Grade II 54°40′15″N 1°40′02″W / 54.6707°N 1.6672°W / 54.6707; -1.6672 (Ice House) Probably built late-18th century; [43]
Auckland Castle - Footbridge over Coundon Burn.jpg Footbridge over Coundon Burn Grade II 54°40′18″N 1°40′01″W / 54.6717°N 1.6670°W / 54.6717; -1.6670 (Footbridge over Coundon Burn) Built mid-18th century; [44]
Footbridge over Coundon Burn Grade II 54°40′20″N 1°39′50″W / 54.6721°N 1.6639°W / 54.6721; -1.6639 (Footbridge over Coundon Burn) Built 1827; [45]
Footbridge over Coundon Burn Grade II 54°40′17″N 1°39′41″W / 54.6714°N 1.6614°W / 54.6714; -1.6614 (Footbridge over Coundon Burn) Built 18th century; [46]
Auckland Castle - Well head.jpg Well Head Grade II 54°40′21″N 1°39′32″W / 54.6724°N 1.6588°W / 54.6724; -1.6588 (Well head) 2m high pyramid, part of 18th century water supply to Castle; [47][48]
Cistern Grade II 54°40′22″N 1°39′24″W / 54.6727°N 1.6567°W / 54.6727; -1.6567 (Cistern) Part of 18th century water supply to Castle; [49][50]
Milestone on Castle Drive Grade II 54°40′26″N 1°39′23″W / 54.6740°N 1.6565°W / 54.6740; -1.6565 (Milestone on Castle Drive) 18th century; [51]
Park Head Gates-by-peter-robinson.jpg Park Gates and Screen Wall Grade II 54°40′27″N 1°38′38″W / 54.6741°N 1.6439°W / 54.6741; -1.6439 (Park Gates and Screen Wall) Built late 18th century; [52]
Lodge Farmhouse Grade II 54°40′37″N 1°39′49″W / 54.6770°N 1.6635°W / 54.6770; -1.6635 (Lodge Farmhouse) Built 1779 for Prince-Bishop Egerton; [53]
Stables and Barn of Lodge Farmhouse Grade II 54°40′37″N 1°39′50″W / 54.6770°N 1.6638°W / 54.6770; -1.6638 (Stables and Barn of Lodge Farmhouse) Built 1779; [54]
Stables and Barn of Lodge Farmhouse Grade II 54°40′37″N 1°39′48″W / 54.6769°N 1.6632°W / 54.6769; -1.6632 (Stables and Barn of Lodge Farmhouse) Built 1779. [55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ www.aucklandcastle.org
  2. ^ "Castle History". Auckland Castle. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  3. ^ www.durhamworldheritagesite.com
  4. ^ www.englandsnortheast.co.uk
  5. ^ Scotland Wing, Auckland Castle
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ The Long Dining Room at Auckland Castle
  8. ^ www.artfund.org
  9. ^ www.churchofengland.org
  10. ^ "Church Commissioners vote to keep the Zurbaráns" (Press release). Church of England. 2005-09-29. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  11. ^ Jonathan Garnier Ruffer bio at Debrett's People of Today
  12. ^ www.ft.com
  13. ^ "Francisco Zurbarán paintings saved by £15m donation" (Press release). BBC. 2011-03-31. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  14. ^ Hutchinson, p.20
  15. ^ a b "Auckland Castle". Images of England. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  16. ^ a b "Auckland Castle West Mural Wall". Images of England. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  17. ^ a b "Auckland Castle Gatehouse". Images of England. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  18. ^ a b "Auckland Castle Chapel of St Peter". Images of England. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  19. ^ a b "Auckland Castle Screen Wall". Images of England. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  20. ^ a b "Auckland Castle Deer Shelter". Images of England. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  21. ^ a b "Auckland Castle Lodge". Images of England. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  22. ^ www.english-heritage.org.uk
  23. ^ Simpson, David. "The North East England History Pages - Bishop Auckland and Surrounds". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  24. ^ Hutchinson, p.14
  25. ^ a b Lightfoot, Joseph Barber (1892). "Leaders in the Northern Church: Sermons Preached in the Diocese of Durham". Macmillan. p. 140. 
  26. ^ Dodds, Glen Lyndon (1996). Historic Sites of County Durham. Albion,. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-9525122-5-7. 
  27. ^ Whellan, p.279
  28. ^ Fordyce, p.548
  29. ^ www.thebowesmuseum.org.uk
  30. ^ Jenkins, Simon (2005-10-07). "London should keep its hands off the treasures of the north". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  31. ^ "Bid to keep castle paintings in N-E". The Northern Echo. 2001-05-14. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  32. ^ "11 Market Place". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  33. ^ "15-16 Market Place". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  34. ^ "17-18 Market Place". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  35. ^ "12 Market Place". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  36. ^ "Potting shed and garages west of Auckland Castle". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  37. ^ "Westcott Lodge". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  38. ^ www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk
  39. ^ "Six Pillars 3m East of West Wall". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  40. ^ "Garden and Drive Walls". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  41. ^ "Jock's Bridge". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  42. ^ "Drive bridge over River Gaunless". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  43. ^ "Ice House to the South of Coundon Burn". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  44. ^ "Footbridge over Coundon Burn". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  45. ^ "Footbridge over Coundon Burn". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  46. ^ "Footbridge over Coundon Burn". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  47. ^ "Well head at nz 2213 5389 in high park". Keys to the Past. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  48. ^ "Well head at nz 2213 5389 in high park". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  49. ^ "Cistern at nz 2221 5390". Keys to the Past. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  50. ^ "Cistern at nz 2221 5390". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  51. ^ "Milestone on Castle Drive". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  52. ^ "Park Gates and Screen Wall". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  53. ^ "Lodge Farmhouse". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  54. ^ "Stables and Barn of Lodge Farmhouse". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  55. ^ "Stables and Barn of Lodge Farmhouse". Images of England. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Raine, James (1852). "A brief historical account of the episcopal castle, or palace, of Auckland". George Andrews. 

External links[edit]