|Audi 100 / Audi 200 / Audi 5000 / Audi 500|
|Also called||Audi 5000|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Mid-size luxury car /
|Platform||Volkswagen Group C platform|
The Audi 100 and Audi 200 are mid-sized automobiles manufactured for model years 1968–1994 by Audi, a division of the Volkswagen Group. The C3 model of the Audi 100 was sold in the United States as the Audi 5000 until 1988.
- 1 Audi 100 (C1, 1968–1976)
- 2 Audi 100 and 200 (C2, 1976–1982)
- 3 Audi 100, 200 & 5000 (C3, 1982–1991)
- 4 Audi 100 (C4, 1991–1994)
- 5 Type numbers
- 6 Chinese production
- 7 Audi Duo
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
- 10 External links
Audi 100 (C1, 1968–1976)
|Audi 100 (C1)|
Audi 100 (C1) Coupé S
Coupé S: 30.687
|Assembly||Neckarsulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany
Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-/4-door saloon/sedan
|Platform||Volkswagen Group C1 platform|
|Engine||1.8 L I4
1.9 L I4
|Transmission||4-speed manual all-synchromesh
|Wheelbase||105.3 in (2,675 mm) (coupe)|
|Length||173.2 in (4,399 mm)|
|Width||68 in (1,727 mm)|
|Height||55.8 in (1,417 mm)|
|Curb weight||2,401 lb (1,089 kg) (coupe)|
The Audi 100 was shown to the press on 26 November 1968. Its name originally denoting a power output of 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp), the Audi 100 was the company's largest car since the revival of the Audi brand by Volkswagen in 1965. The C1 platform spawned several variants: the Audi 100 two- and four-door saloons, and the Audi 100 Coupé S, a stylish fastback coupé, which bore a remarkable resemblance to the Aston Martin DBS released a year earlier, especially at the rear end, including details such as the louvres behind the rear side windows and shape of the rear light clusters.
Audi followed up the introduction of the four-door saloon in November 1968 with a two-door saloon in October 1969 and the 100 Coupé S in autumn 1970. The cars' four-cylinder engines originally came in base 100 ( 80 PS or 59 kW; 79 hp), 100 S (1.8 litre, 90 PS or 66 kW; 89 hp) and 100 LS (1.8 litre, 100 PS or 74 kW; 99 hp) guise, while the Coupé was driven by a bored-out 1.9 litre developing 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp). From April 1970 the 100 LS could be ordered with a three-speed automatic transmission sourced from Volkswagen.
The Audi 100 enjoyed a level of commercial success for which the company had not planned. As a distinguished German commentator pointed out, the rough engine note was unlikely to discourage buyers whose first car had been a Volkswagen and who aspired to drive a diesel powered (pre-turbo) Mercedes-Benz. Despite running the Ingolstadt production line at full capacity, supply fell short of demand to such an extent that during the summer of 1970 an additional production line for Audi 100s was set up in Volkswagen's own Wolfsburg plant, which made it the first water-cooled car to be produced in Germany's (and by some criteria the world's) largest car plant.
Starting with model year 1972 the 80 and 90 PS versions were replaced by a new regular-petrol-variant of the 1.8 litre engine developing 85 PS (84 hp/63 kW); at the same time, the 100 GL was introduced that featured the 1.9 liter engine formerly used in the Coupé S only.
In March 1971 the 500,000th Audi was produced. By now the Audi 100 had become the most commercially successful model in the company's history, so it is unsurprising that the car in question was an Audi 100 produced at the Ingolstadt plant.
In September 1973 the 100 received a minor facelift with a somewhat smaller grille and reshuffled taillight lens patterns. The rear torsion bar was replaced by coil springs. For model year 1975 the base 100 was re-christened the 100 L and received a 1.6 litre four-cylinder engine (coming out of the Audi 80). A four-wheel drive prototype of the Audi 100 C1 was built in 1976, long before the appearance of the quattro.
In the United States the Audi 100 appeared in 1970 in LS guise, with a 115 hp (86 kW) SAE 1.8 liter engine and with either two or four doors. For 1972 the engine was enlarged to 1.9 litres, but since the power figures were now in SAE net claimed power was down to a less impressive sounding 91 hp (68 kW). A base and a GL model were added, as was an automatic transmission. For 1974 the lineup was again restricted to the 100 LS, while the larger safety bumpers were now fitted. Power increased to 95 hp (71 kW) for 1975, courtesy of fuel injection. Standard equipment was also improved, but at the cost of a sizable price hike. In August 1977 the new Audi 5000 replaced the 100, although another 537 leftover cars were sold in 1978. The Coupé was never sold in the United States.
Audi 100 and 200 (C2, 1976–1982)
|Audi 100 & 200 (C2)|
Audi 100 (C2)
|Also called||Audi 5E (Australia) |
100 4-door: 887,647
|Assembly||Neckarsulm, Ingolstadt, Germany
Uitenhage, South Africa
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door saloon/sedan
|Platform||Volkswagen Group C2 platform|
|Engine||I5 diesel & turbo diesel|
|Wheelbase||105.39 in (2,677 mm)|
|Length||184.25 in (4,680 mm)|
|Width||69.61 in (1,768 mm)|
|Height||54.84 in (1,393 mm)|
|Curb weight||2,532 lb (1,148 kg)|
The restyled C2 Audi 100 was launched in 1976, with an in-line five-cylinder engine. It was initially a 100 PS (74 kW) engine offering "six-cylinder power and four-cylinder economy", and later upgraded to 136 PS (100 kW).
The Coupé was discontinued, but a five-door hatchback model, the 100 Avant, was launched in August 1977 as part of this generation. The mainstay of the range remained the four-door sedan model. A two-door sedan version was offered, primarily on the domestic market, from February 1977, but by now there was little demand, even in Germany, for large two-door sedans: few of these two-door Audi 100 C2s were sold.
At the end of September 1977, the Audi 100 became the manufacturer's first model to reach a production level of 1,000,000 units. The millionth Audi 100 was a hatchback Audi 100 Avant assembled not at the company's main Ingolstadt plant but to the west, at the Neckarsulm factory which, since the demise of the mainstream volume models from the NSU range, had been concentrating on providing additional production capacity for the fast selling Audi range.
Engines available included:
- 1.6 L I-4, 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp), carburetted (1976−1982)
- 2.0 L I-4, 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp), carburetted (1976−1978)
- 1.9 L I-5, 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp), carburetted (1980−1982)
- 2.1 L I-5, 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp), carburetted (1978−1982)
- 2.1 L I-5, 136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp), fuel injection (1976−1982) (100 and 200)
- 2.1 L I-5, 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp), fuel injection, turbo (1979−1982) (200 only)
- 2.0 L I-5 Diesel, 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp), (1978−1982)
- 2.1 L I-5, 103 hp (77 kW; 104 PS), fuel injection (MY 1978−1983)
- 2.1 L I-5, 130 hp (97 kW; 132 PS), fuel injection, turbo (MY 1980−1983)
- 2.0 L I-5 Diesel, 67 hp (50 kW; 68 PS) (MY 1980−1983)
- 2.0 L I-5 Turbodiesel, 84 hp (63 kW; 85 PS) (MY 1983)
Right Hand Drive Audi 200 5E and 5T (type 43)
The RHD Audi 200 5E and 5T were introduced into the UK in 1979, only 500 were imported. The 5T (170 PS) was a higher spec Turbo version of the 5E (136 PS injection) and came with many optional extras as standard. As an attempt to lure British buyers the UK version of the 5T had opening quarter lights, electric wing mirrors, a sun roof, cruise control and heated seats. All Type 43 200's came with Automatic gearboxes, a five-speed manual was special order only.
Audi 100, 200 & 5000 (C3, 1982–1991)
|Audi 100 & 200 (C3)|
Audi 100 (C3)
|Also called||Hongqi Mingshi|
1992–1999 (China; FAW-VW)
Uitenhage, South Africa
Tokyo, Japan (AMA)
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door saloon/sedan
front-wheel drive / quattro permanent four-wheel drive
|Platform||Volkswagen Group C3 platform|
2.0 L I5 Turbodiesel
2.4 L I5 Diesel
2.5 L I5 TDI
|Wheelbase||105.6 in (2,682 mm)
(1988–1991 FWD & 200)
105.9 in (2,690 mm)
(1988–1990 AWD & Wagons)
105.8 in (2,687 mm) (Pre-1988)
|Length||188.7 in (4,793 mm) (RoW)
192.7 in (4,895 mm) (USA)
|Width||71.4 in (1,814 mm)|
|Height||55.9 in (1,420 mm)
55.7 in (1,415 mm) (S)
Edging out the Ford Sierra as the 1983 European Car of the Year, the 1983 Audi 100 had a remarkably aerodynamic look, achieving a drag coefficient of 0.30 for its smoothest base model. The increased aerodynamic efficiency resulted in better fuel economy and consumers all over the world were waking up to this fact. This became a great marketing tool for Audi in the 1980s, and marked a huge leap forward from the boxy shape of the C2, as well as the technology it introduced, including the procon-ten safety system.
Audi was able to follow up on the modern smooth look first seen in this segment on the 1967 NSU Ro 80 and popularised by the 1974 Citroën CX. This rounded look became the norm by the 1990s. It also set a styling trend of flush wheel covers, a thick black side door moulding and blacked out window frames eventually adopted by a range of cars such as the 1984 Honda Accord and the Chrysler K cars. Audi innovated flush windows on the C3, a key area for aerodynamic drag that has been adopted by virtually all manufacturers today. In addition to giving it better fuel economy its aerodynamic body gave the 100 higher top speed than other cars of similar engine size.
The two-door models were no longer available, and the Audi 100 Avant was reintroduced as Audi's first attempt at a station wagon based on the 100. The 200, launched in 1983 continued as the upmarket variant with several versions of the 2.2 L turbo 5-cylinder available in different markets over its life ranging in power outputs from 165 PS (121 kW) MC engine, through the 200 PS (147 kW) versions to the final 220 PS (162 kW) 20-valve 3B engine available from 1991. Due to its low drag coefficient, the 1983 Audi 200 Turbo had a top speed of 139 mph (224 km/h). The MC turbo engine was available in the 100 as well for some markets.
The 1991 200 20V was distinguished by its flared front and rounded rear wheel arches instead of the flat type used for the rest of the 100-200 range, this allowed wider wheel and tire combinations to be fitted to 20V models. For many markets, the 20V Audi 200 gave customers a taste of performance levels that would later be seen in the C4-Chassis Audi S4, and S6. US Magazine articles of the period reported 0-60 times of the 20v Audi 200 under 7 seconds, with 1/4 mile times in the mid to upper 15 second mark.
The 100 also featured a 2.5 L straight-five direct injection turbo-diesel (TDI) model with 120 PS (88 kW) introduced in January 1990 (engine code 1T). A such-engined Audi 100 was the very first model to wear the now ubiquitous and hugely successful TDI label that changed the perception of diesel engines all over the world. It had a brief career in the C3, being replaced in December of that year when the C4 arrived.
Reported sudden unintended acceleration
During model years 1983–1987, Audi's U.S. sales fell after a series of recalls of Audi 5000 models associated with reported incidents of sudden unintended acceleration linked to six deaths and 700 accidents. At the time, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) was investigating 50 car models from 20 manufacturers for sudden surges of power.
60 Minutes aired a report titled Out of Control on November 23, 1986, featuring interviews with six people who had sued Audi after reporting unintended acceleration, including footage of an Audi 5000 ostensibly displaying a surge of acceleration while the brake pedal was depressed. Subsequent investigation revealed that 60 Minutes had not disclosed they had engineered the vehicle's behavior – fitting a canister of compressed air on the passenger-side floor, to pump fluid via a hose to a hole drilled into the transmission — the arrangement executed by one of the experts who had testified on behalf of a plaintiff in a then-pending lawsuit against Audi's parent company.
Audi initially responded by suggesting that the drivers of the cars involved in the incidents were at fault, because they had stepped on the accelerator pedal rather than the brake. Subsequently, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) concluded that the majority of unintended acceleration cases, including all the ones that prompted the 60 Minutes report, were caused by driver error such as confusion of pedals. CBS did not acknowledge the test results of involved government agencies, but did acknowledge the similar results of another study. Audi's research demonstrated that many of the drivers who encountered "unintended acceleration" were "below average in height".
In a review study published in 2012, NHTSA summarized its past findings about the Audi unintended acceleration problems: "Once an unintended acceleration had begun, in the Audi 5000, due to a failure in the idle-stabilizer system (producing an initial acceleration of 0.3g), pedal misapplication resulting from panic, confusion, or unfamiliarity with the Audi 5000 contributed to the severity of the incident."
This summary is consistent with the conclusions of NHTSA's most technical analysis at the time: "Audi idle-stabilization systems were prone to defects which resulted in excessive idle speeds and brief unanticipated accelerations of up to 0.3g [which is similar in magnitude to an emergency stop in a subway car]. These accelerations could not be the sole cause of [(long-duration) sudden acceleration incidents (SAI)], but might have triggered some SAIs by startling the driver. The defective idle-stabilization system performed a type of electronic throttle control. Significantly: multiple "intermittent malfunctions of the electronic control unit were observed and recorded … and [were also observed and] reported by Transport Canada."
With the series of recall campaigns, Audi made several modifications; the first adjusted the distance between the brake and accelerator pedal on automatic-transmission models. Later repairs of 250,000 cars dating back to 1978 added a device requiring the driver to press the brake pedal before shifting out of park. It is unclear what was done regarding the defects in the idle-stabilization system. As a byproduct of the Audi scare, vehicles now include gear stick patterns and brake interlock mechanisms to prevent inadvertent gear selection.
Audi’s U.S. sales, which had reached 74,061 in 1985, dropped to 12,283 in 1991 and remained level for three years. – with resale values falling dramatically. Audi subsequently offered increased warranty protection and renamed the affected models — with the 5000 becoming the 100 and 200 in 1989. The company only reached the same level of U.S. sales again by model year 2000.
As of early 2010, a class-action lawsuit — dealing with a charge that on account of the sudden acceleration controversy, Audi models had lost resale value — filed in 1987 by about 7,500 Audi Audi 5000-model owners remains unsettled and is currently contested in county court in Chicago after appeals at the Illinois state and U.S. federal levels.
|Model||Capacity||Fuel type||Cylinder layout||Power output||Injection & Combustion features||Production period|
|Audi 100||1.8 L||Gasloline||I-4||75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)||carburetted||1982−1987|
|Audi 100||1.8 L||Gasloline||I-4||90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp)||carburetted, later fuel injected/with catalyst||1983−1990|
|Audi 100||1.9 L||Gasloline||I-5||100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)||carburetted||1982−1984|
|Audi 100||2.0 L||Gasloline||I-5||115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)||fuel injection, later catalyst||1984−1990|
|Audi 100||2.1 L||Gasloline||I-5||136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp)||fuel injection||1982−1984|
|Audi 100||2.2 L||Gasloline||I-5||138 PS (101 kW; 136 hp)||fuel injection||1984-1990|
|Audi 100||2.2 L||Gasloline||I-5||115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)||fuel injection, catalyst||1984-1987|
|Audi 100||2.3 L||Gasloline||I-5||136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp)||fuel injection||1986-1990|
|Audi 100||2.2 L||Gasloline||I-5||165 PS (121 kW; 163 hp)||fuel injection, turbo||1986-1990|
|Audi 100||2.0 L||Diesel||I-5||70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp)||1982-1989|
|Audi 100||2.0 L||Diesel||I-5||87 PS (64 kW; 86 hp)||turbo||1983-1988|
|Audi 100||2.0 L||Diesel||I-5||100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)||turbo||1988-1989|
|Audi 100||2.4 L||Diesel||I-5||82 PS (60 kW; 81 hp)||1989-1990|
|Audi 100||2.5 L||Diesel||I-5||120 PS (88 kW; 120 hp)||turbo||1990|
|Audi 200||2.1 L||Gasoline||I-5||136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp)||fuel injection||1983−1984|
|Audi 200||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||138 PS (101 kW; 136 hp)||fuel injection||1984−1985|
|Audi 200||2.1 L||Gasoline||I-5||141 PS (104 kW; 139 hp)||fuel injection, turbo, catalyst||1984−1985|
|Audi 200||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||165 PS (121 kW; 163 hp)||fuel injection, turbo, catalyst||1985−1991|
|Audi 200||2.1 L||Gasoline||I-5||182 PS (134 kW; 180 hp)||fuel injection, turbo||1983-1987|
|Audi 200||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp)||fuel injection, turbo, manual transmission||1988-1990|
|Audi 200||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||190 PS (140 kW; 190 hp)||fuel injection, turbo, automatic transmission||1988-1990|
|Audi 200||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||220 PS (160 kW; 220 hp)||20-valve turbo for 200 Quattro 20V||1989-1991|
|Audi 5000||2.1 L||Gasoline||I-5||100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)||MY 1984|
|Audi 5000||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)||MY 1985|
|Audi 5000||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||110 PS (81 kW; 110 hp)||MY 1986−1987½|
|Audi 5000||2.3 L||Gasoline||I-5||130 PS (96 kW; 130 hp)||MY 1987½−1991|
|Audi 5000||2.1 L||Gasoline||I-5||140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp)||Turbo||MY 1984-1985|
|Audi 5000||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||158 PS (116 kW; 156 hp)||Turbo||MY 1986-1987½|
|Audi 5000||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||162 PS (119 kW; 160 hp)||Turbo||MY 1987½-1991|
|Audi 5000||2.2 L||Gasoline||I-5||220 PS (160 kW; 220 hp)||Turbo||MY 1991|
|Audi V8||3.6 L||Gasoline||V8||1988-|
|Audi V8||4.2 L||Gasoline||V8||1988-|
As of late 1988, the Audi V8 was available. Although styling was similar to the 200, the V8 had different chassis and body. The V8 was available as a 3.6 L or a 4.2 L engine. It was the first quattro model to have an automatic gearbox, featuring a ZF four-speed unit with an electronically controlled multiplate clutch centre differential, combined with a Torsen rear differential. The manual gearbox quattro's across the range continued with a conventional rear differential (lockable at low speeds), and the Torsen centre differential (manual transmission V8 quattros had Torsen differentials in both the centre and the rear). The 5000 S/Turbo was on Car and Driver's Ten Best list for 1984 and 1985. The CS Turbo quattro was on that list for 1986 through 1988.
In 1988, after years of rallying, Audi would enter the Trans-Am Series with the 200 turbo quattro via the services of Bob Tullius's Group 44 Racing. As usual the car ran their trademark Quattro system. However this did not run without controversy as the car, piloted by Haywood and with both Walter Röhrl and Hans Joachim Stuck sharing duties, steamrollered the opposition taking eight out of thirteen wins. As Audi would defect to IMSA by the end of the season, the SCCA would change the regulation to a two-wheel drive only and banning cars with non American engines from taking part. The Historic Trans-am & IMSA Group is dedicated to the preservation of the cars that ran in the SCCA Trans-am series and the similar IMSA GTO class from 1980 until 1991.
Audi 100 (C4, 1991–1994)
|Audi 100 (C4)|
Tokyo, Japan (AMA)
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door saloon/sedan
front-wheel drive / quattro permanent four-wheel drive
|Platform||Volkswagen Group C4 platform|
2.0 L I4 74 kW (99 hp) SPI
2.0 L I4 85 kW (114 hp) MPI
2.0 L I4 103 kW (138 hp) 16-valve
2.3 L I5 98 kW (131 hp)
2.6L V6 110 kW (148 hp)
2.8 L V6 128 kW (172 hp)
2.4 L I5 60 kW (80 hp)
2.5 L I5 85 kW (114 hp) TDI
|Wheelbase||105.8 in (2,687 mm) (FWD)
106 in (2,692 mm) (4WD)
|Length||192.6 in (4,892 mm)|
|Width||70 in (1,778 mm)|
|Height||56.3 in (1,430 mm)
56.6 in (1,438 mm) (FWD saloon)
57 in (1,448 mm) (FWD Avant)
Audi released the C4 (a heavily revised C3) in 1991. The C3-platform Audi V8 continued to be sold as a separate line. The major change for the C4 was the introduction of a 2.8 L, 90-degree, SOHC 12v, V6 engine. It was later joined by a 2.6 L variant, of the same configuration as the 2.8 L unit. They are essentially the same engines offered in the 1992, B4 Audi 80. The option of quattro permanent four-wheel drive was an option across the range, and the Audi 100 quattro was available with a ZF four-speed automatic gearbox.
For the 1995 model year, in conjunction with some styling revisions, Audi dropped the Audi 100 tag, renaming it the A6 instead. In addition, the existing 100-derived Audi S4 became the S6. The S4 name was later re-used for the high-performance derivative of the Audi A4. The Audi V8 had been replaced by the A8 in 1994.
The C4-based A6 continued until early 1997, when it was replaced by an all-new A6.
In addition to the C platform codes, Audi assigned type numbers to their models:
- F104: C1; Audi 100 (1968–1976)
- Type 43: C2; Audi 100 (1976–1982); Audi 200 (1979–1982)
- Type 44: C3; Audi 100 (1983–1991); Audi 200 (1983–1992)
- Type 4A: C4; Audi 100 (1991–1994); Audi S4 (1992–1994); Audi A6 (1995–1997); Audi S6 (1995–1997)
The C3-platform Audi 100 was also produced in Changchun, China, by FAW (First Automobile Works, a Chinese automotive manufacturer), for many years during the 1990s. Since most products are for governmental usage, all of China-made 100s are front-wheel drive sedans with a 2.0 L 4-cylinder engine or a 2.3 L 5-cylinder one.
In 1990, Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPC approved a resolution to circumscribe car import and the engine displacement of cars equipped to officials. Furthermore, the resolution also prescribed that all cars of central departments of both Party and government must be homemade ones. As the most luxurious and advanced cars made in China in early-1990s, FAW-Audi 100 and 200 have possessed a considerable percentage in Chinese high-class market of executive cars for nearly one decade, until the C3-platform cars was replaced by Audi A6 in 1999.
During the negotiation between FAW and Volkswagen in late-1980s, Volkswagen acceded to FAW's suggestion of combining the C3 platform with previously introduced Chrysler engines in the new generation Hongqi (Red Flag). Hongqi CA7200 series with the technology of C3 were launched in mid-1990s, while most of C3 Audi 100 parts could be made in China. CA7200 were initially equipped with Chrysler 2.0 L or 2.2 L 4-cylinder 488 engines, whose product line was introduced into China in 1987. In 2000s, new Nissan VQ20 engines replaced the original 4-cylinder petrol engine. 
At the Geneva Motor Show in March 1990 Audi presented its first iteration of the Audi Duo (or Audi 100 Avant Duo) experimental vehicle, a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. This car had a 12.6 bhp (9.4 kW) Siemens electric motor which drove the rear wheels. A trunk-mounted nickel-cadmium battery supplied energy to the motor that drove the rear wheels. The vehicle's front wheels were powered by a 2.3-litre five-cylinder engine with an output of 136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp). The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country and electric mode in the city. Mode of operation could be selected by the driver. Just ten vehicles are believed to have been made; one drawback was that due to the extra weight of the electric drive, the vehicles were less efficient when running on their engines alone than standard Audi 100s with the same engine.
In late 1991, Audi unveiled the second Duo generation – likewise based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. Once again this featured an electric motor, a 28.6 PS (21 kW; 28 hp) three-phase machine, driving the rear wheels. This time, however, the rear wheels were additionally powered via the Torsen differential from the main engine compartment, which housed a 2.0-litre four-cylinder engine.
- Werner Oswald: Deutsche Autos 1945–1990, vol. 4, ISBN 3-613-02131-5, p. 268
- "Autotest Audi 100 Coupe S". Autocar. 136 (nbr 3960): pages 22–27. 9 March 1972.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990 [German Cars 1945-1990] (in German) 4. Motorbuch Verlag. p. 268. ISBN 3-613-02131-5. "Das die Motoren des Audi 100 ziemlich rauh liefen, vermochte deutsche Käufer, die ja grossenteils vom VW-Käfer kamen und zum Mercedes-Diesel strebten, kaum zu stören."
- "Turner's Travel [to Wolfsburg]". Motor: pages 28–30. 24 July 1971.
- "News and Views". Autocar. 134 (nbr 3914): page 31. 1 April 1971.
- Renaux, Jean-Jacques (1984-02-23). "Volkswagen soulève un coin du voile: Wunderbar!" [VW raises the veil: Wunderbar!]. Le Moniteur de l'Automobile (in French) (Brussels, Belgium: Editions Auto-Magazine) 35 (789): 9.
- Flammang, James M. (1994). Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, 1946-1990. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc. p. 62. ISBN 0-87341-158-7.
- Flammang, p. 63
- Flammang, p. 64
- Flammang, p. 66
- Audi 5E advertisement, Volkswagen Australia Pty Limited, Australian Playboy, April 1979, page 179
- Oswald, op. cit., p. 263. Figures given for calendar years; some overlap with predecessor/successor, actual figures slightly lower.
- "Autotest Audi 100 GLS". Autocar. 146 (nbr 4197): pages 26–30. 16 April 1977.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, volume 4 (in German). Motorbuch Verlag. p. 313. ISBN 3-613-02131-5.
- "Jubiläum bei Ausi in Neckarsulm". Auto, Motor und Sport. 1977 Heft 21: Seite 7. 12 October 1977.
- Werner Oswald: Deutsche Autos 1945–1990, vol. 4, ISBN 3-613-02131-5, p. 263
- Mike Covello, Standard Catalog of Imported Cars 1946–2002. Krause Publications, Iola 2002, ISBN 0-87341-605-8, p. 82–85.
- Audi of America Press Site 25 Years of Audi Quattro 22 February 2005
- CAR Magazine Sept 1982
- Autocar 27/4/85
- "SJM Autotechnik Troubleshooting / Performance". SJM Autotechnik (Sourced by Car & Driver + Road & Track).
- "Audi 1980s Scare May Mean Lost Generation for Toyota". Business Week, February 4, 2010, Andreas Cremer and Tom Lavell.
- "A Hard Sell for Audi". The New York Times, John Holusha, July 24, 1988. 1988-07-24. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
- Niedermeyer, Paul (February 7, 2010). "The Audi 5000 Intended Unintended Acceleration Debacle". The Truth About Cars.
- Huber, Peter W. (December 18, 1989). "Manufacturing the Audi Scare". The Wall Street Journal.
- Civil Justice Memo, No. 18 January 1990 Manufacturing the Audi Scare
- Accuracy in Media The CBS “Cold Case” Files
- "#4. Accelerating Audis". Nine Worst Business Stories (of the Last 50 Years). Business & Media Institute. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-10-05.
- HighBeam Research, Inc. Unfair at Any Speed
- "Manufacturing the Audi Scare," Peter Huber.
- Daniel Terris (9 November 1986). "Sunday". How safe is the Audi 5000?. Boston Globe. p. 17.
- "Pedal Application Errors". March 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Study of Mechanical and Driver-Related Systems of the Audi 5000 Capable of Producing Uncontrolled Sudden Acceleration Incidents". September 1988. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Audi Increases Warranty Plan". The New York Times. Reuters. 1988-07-27. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
- Oswald, op. cit., p. 319–329.
- Covello, op. cit., p. 85–89.
- Oswald, op. cit., p. 263. Note: figures given for calendar years, might include late C2 production; figures for 200 not including 1991.
- "Historic Trans-Am Imsa". Historic Trans-Am Imsa. 1986-06-09. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
- Eberhard Kittler: Deutsche Autos seit 1990, Bd. 5 ("German Cars since 1990, vol. 5"). Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02052-1, p.65
- Eberhard Kittler: Deutsche Autos seit 1990, Bd. 5 ("German Cars since 1990, vol. 5"). Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02052-1, p.71
- Covello, Mike, updated by, Standard Catalog of Imported Cars: 1946–2002, Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 2002.
- Werner Oswald: Deutsche Autos 1945–1990, vol. 4. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02131-5 (German).
- This article incorporates information from the revision as of 2008-05-01 of the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia.
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