|Audie L. Murphy|
Audie Murphy publicity photograph, taken in 1948
June 20, 1925|
Kingston, Hunt County, Texas, U.S.
|Died||May 28, 1971
Brush Mountain Catawba Near Roanoke, VA, U.S.
|Buried at||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Years of service||
|Other work||Actor; songwriter|
|Website||Audie L. Murphy|
Audie Leon Murphy (June 20, 1925 – May 28, 1971) was one of the most famous and decorated American combat soldiers of World War II. He was awarded every U.S. military combat award for valor available from the U.S. Army, and was decorated by France and Belgium. He served in the Mediterranean and European Theater of Operations. Murphy received the Medal of Honor for his defensive actions against German troops on January 26, 1945, at the Colmar Pocket near Holtzwihr, France. During an hour-long siege, he stood alone on a burning tank destroyer firing a machine gun at attacking German soldiers and tanks. Wounded and out of ammunition, Murphy climbed off the tank, refused medical attention, and led his men on a successful counterattack.
Murphy was born into a large sharecropper family in Hunt County, Texas. His father abandoned the family, and his mother died when he was a teenager. Murphy dropped out of school in fifth grade to pick cotton and find other work to help support his family and his skill with a hunting rifle was a necessity for feeding them. His older sister helped him falsify documentation about his birth date in order to meet the minimum age requirement for enlisting in the military.
Murphy enlisted in the Army after being turned down by the Navy and Marine Corps and attended training at Camp Wolters, Texas, Fort Meade, Maryland, and Arzew, Algeria. He first saw action in the Allied invasion of Sicily and Anzio, and was part of the 1944 liberation of Rome. In the Allied invasion of southern France that began August 15, 1944, Murphy saw action at Montélimar and led his men on a successful assault at the L'Omet quarry near Cleurie in northeastern France in October 1944. Murphy was only 19 years old when he was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Colmar Pocket and always maintained that his medals belonged to his entire military unit. Suffering what would in later years be labeled post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), he slept with a loaded handgun under his pillow and looked for solace in addictive sleeping pills. The Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio is named for him.
After the war, Murphy enjoyed a 21-year career as an actor. He played himself in the 1955 autobiographical To Hell and Back based on his 1949 memoirs of the same name. Most of his 44 films were Westerns. He made guest appearances on celebrity television shows and starred in the series Whispering Smith. As a songwriter, he penned the successful "Shutters and Boards". Murphy bred quarter horses in California and Arizona, and became a regular participant in horse racing. In the last few years of his life, he was plagued with money problems. He remained aware of his role model influence and refused offers for alcohol and cigarette commercials. Murphy died in a plane crash in Virginia in 1971, 23 days before his 46th birthday. He was interred with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Military service
- 3 Post-war military service
- 4 Post-war trauma
- 5 Civilian life
- 6 Filmography
- 7 Discography
- 8 Honors and awards
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
Audie Leon Murphy was born the seventh of twelve children to Emmett Berry Murphy and his wife Josie Bell Killian on June 20, 1925, in Kingston, Hunt County, Texas.[a] The Murphys were sharecroppers of Irish descent.
Murphy would later say that even in his youth he was a loner with an explosive temper, subject to mood swings. He grew up in Texas, around Farmersville, Greenville and Celeste, where he attended elementary school. His father drifted in and out of the family's life and eventually deserted the family for good. Murphy dropped out of school in fifth grade and got a job picking cotton for $1 a day to help support the family and became skilled with a rifle, hunting small game to help feed them. After his mother died in 1941, he worked at a radio repair shop and at a combination general store, garage and gas station in Greenville. Hunt County authorities placed his three youngest siblings in Boles Children's Home, a Christian orphanage in Quinlan. After the war, he bought a house in Farmersville for his oldest sister Corrine and her husband Poland Burns. His other siblings briefly shared the home.
The loss of his mother stayed with him throughout his life.
She died when I was sixteen. She had the most beautiful hair I've ever seen. It reached almost to the floor. She rarely talked; and always seemed to be searching for something. What it was I don't know. We didn't discuss our feelings. But when she passed away, she took something of me with her. It seems I've been searching for it ever since.—Audie Murphy
Enlistment and initial training
Murphy had wanted to be a soldier all his youth and dreamed about combat. The death of his mother in May 1941 added even more impetus to his desire to achieve that goal. When he heard the news of Japan's December 7 attack on Pearl Harbor he tried to enlist in the Marines, the Navy and the Army, but was turned down for being underweight and underage. He added weight with a change in diet, and gave the Army a sworn affidavit from his sister Corrine that falsified his birth date by a year. Murphy enlisted on June 30, 1942 in Dallas. During his physical examination his height was registered as 5 feet 5.5 inches (1.66 m) and his weight as 112 pounds (50.8 kg).[b]
Assigned to the infantry, during basic training at Camp Wolters, Texas, Murphy earned the Marksman Badge with Rifle Clasp and the Expert Badge with Bayonet Clasp. While participating in a close-order drill during that hot Texas summer, he passed out. His company commander thought his build was too slight for service in the infantry, and tried to have him transferred to a cook and bakers' school, but Murphy insisted on becoming a combat soldier. He completed the 13-week basic training course, and in October he was given leave to visit his family. At the end of his leave, he was sent to Fort Meade, Maryland, for advanced infantry training that lasted until January 1943.
In January 1943, Murphy was processed through Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, and he arrived at Casablanca, in French Morocco on February 20. On arrival, he was assigned to Company B, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division.
As part of Operation Torch on November 8, 1942, the United States seized Port Lyautey in French Morocco. The 3rd Infantry Division was sent there on March 7, 1943, coming under the command of Major General Lucian Truscott, who took them through rigorous training at Arzew in Algeria, for an amphibious landing at Sicily. Private Murphy participated with his division in 30 mile (48 km) 8-hour marches, known as the "Truscott Trot". For the first hour, the men marched at a pace of 5 mph (8.0 km/h), and slowed to 4 mph (6.4 km/h) for the second hour, taking the final 21 miles (34 km) at a pace of 3.5 mph (5.6 km/h). They also performed bayonet and land mine drills, obstacle course training and other exercises. In Algeria, Murphy was promoted to private first class on May 7. After the May 13 surrender of the Axis forces in French Tunisia, the division was put in charge of the prisoners. They returned to Algeria on May 15 for "Operation Copycat", training exercises in preparation for the assault landing in Sicily.
Truscott's 3rd Infantry Division, as part of the Seventh United States Army under the command of Lieutenant General George S. Patton, sailed from Tunisia on July 7,1943, for the Allied invasion of Sicily, landing at Licata on July 10. Murphy was promoted to the rank of corporal on July 15. Company B later took part in fighting around Canicattì, during which Murphy killed two fleeing Italian officers.
They arrived in Palermo on July 20, and Murphy was sidelined by illness for a week. Allied capture of the transit port of Messina was crucial to taking Sicily from the Axis. En route there, Company B was assigned to a hillside location protecting a machine-gun emplacement, while the rest of the 3rd Infantry Division fought at San Fratello. Benito Mussolini was removed from power and arrested on July 25 by King Victor Emanuel III and exiled to the Gran Sasso d'Italia region. The Axis began their evacuation of Messina on July 27, completed when the 3rd Infantry Division's 7th Infantry Regiment secured the port on August 17. During the fighting in Sicily, Murphy became realistic about military duty: "I have seen war as it actually is, and I do not like it. But I will go on fighting."
With Mussolini removed from power and Sicily secured from Axis forces, Supreme Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower made the decision to invade Italy in early September 1943. The German Gran Sasso raid on September 12 rescued Mussolini and returned him to power. As part of the Salerno landings, the 3rd Infantry Division came ashore at Battipaglia. One of the early skirmishes recounted by author Don Graham involved Murphy, his best friend Lattie Tipton (referred to as "Brandon" in Murphy's book To Hell and Back) and an unnamed soldier in their unit as they traveled along the Volturno River. The trio were near a bridge when the third soldier was killed by German machine-gun fire. Tipton tossed hand grenades in the direction of the fire and Murphy responded with a Thompson submachine gun, killing five German soldiers.
Allied forces entered Naples on October 1. The 3rd Division became part of the Allied assault on the Volturno Line. Near Mignano Monte Lungo Hill 193, Company B repelled an attack by seven German soldiers, taking four prisoners. Platoon soldier Swope wounded the other three who took days to die under the watch of the platoon.
The wounded must be got under cover. The peculiar ethics of war condone our riddling the bodies with lead. But then they were soldiers. Swope's gun transformed them into human beings again; and the rules say that we cannot leave them unprotected against a barrage of their own artillery.—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back
The 3rd Infantry Division was notified in December 1943 of the January 1944 storming of Anzio beachhead, the beginning of the liberation of Rome. The division began training near Naples and practiced an amphibious landing at Salerno. Murphy was promoted to staff sergeant in January. He was hospitalized in Naples with malaria on January 21, and was unable to participate in the initial landing commanded by Major General John P. Lucas. One of the eighty-four 3rd Infantry Division casualties suffered during the landing was Private Joe Sieja, given the alias "Little Mike Novak" in To Hell and Back. Sieja was a Polish-born American soldier in Murphy's unit he had grown to admire and one of the two people to whom Murphy dedicated his book.
Lucas delayed sending the troops inland from the beachhead, allowing the Axis to reinforce their strength. Murphy returned to his unit from his hospital stay and took part in the unsuccessful First Battle of Cisterna, which was fought between January 30 and February 1. It was the most fierce and sustained fighting Murphy had experienced to date.
If the suffering of men could do the job, the German lines would be split wide open. Replacements cannot begin to keep pace with the slaughter. Some of the companies have been reduced to twenty men. Not a yard of ground has been gained by the murderous three days of assault. A doomlike quality hangs over the beachhead.—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back
When Lieutenant Colonel Michael Paulick took command of Company B, the battle had cost the lives of all but 30 of the men. Murphy was the only non-commissioned officer (NCO) remaining, and as such became Company B platoon sergeant. Lucas was replaced in February by Truscott. The men were forced back to Anzio and remained there for months.
Taking shelter in an abandoned farmhouse on March 2, the platoon killed the crew of a passing German tank. Murphy then crawled out alone close enough to destroy the tank with rifle grenades. For this action, he received the Bronze Star with "V" Device. Murphy continued to make scouting patrols to take German prisoners. He was hospitalized for a week on March 13 with a second bout of malaria. In April, the 3rd Infantry Division was sent for more training. Sixty-one infantry officers and enlisted men of Company B, 15th Infantry, including Murphy, were awarded the Combat Infantryman Badge on May 8. Murphy was also awarded a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Bronze Star. The Second Battle of Cisterna began on May 23, resulting in an Allied victory on May 25. The 3rd Infantry Division marched towards Valmontone. American forces liberated Rome on June 4. Murphy remained bivouacked in Rome with his platoon through July.
Southern and southeastern France
The U.S. Seventh Army under the command of Lieutenant General Alexander Patch was the initial amphibious landing force for the August 15, 1944, Allied invasion of southern France, known as Operation Dragoon. The 3rd Infantry Division was now under the command of Major General John W. O'Daniel. At 0800 military time, they came ashore on Yellow Beach near Ramatuelle with the first wave of the assault. They began to move inland through a vineyard. As the 3rd Platoon progressed toward an incline, one of their own light machine-gun squads got detached. German soldiers began firing at them, initially killing one and wounding another. Murphy ran out alone to locate the lost squad and led them back to the unit. He then used the retrieved machine gun to return fire at the German soldiers, killing two and wounding one. When he relinquished the machine gun back to his own men and took up a new position, he was joined by his best friend Lattie Tipton. At that moment, two Germans exited a house about 100 yards (91 m) away, and feigned surrender by waving a white flag. Tipton believed it to be a real surrender gesture, and made himself visible, beckoning to the German soldiers to come towards him. He was immediately killed by machine-gun fire coming from within the house.
I remember the experience as I do a nightmare. A demon seems to have entered my body. My brain is coldly alert and logical. I do not think of the danger to myself. My whole being is concentrated on killing.—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back
Murphy advanced alone on the house, impervious to the German fire being directed at him. He wounded two, killed six, and took the others as prisoners. His actions that day took approximately one hour, during which he had killed eight German soldiers, wounded three and taken eleven prisoners. Murphy received the Distinguished Service Cross.
During August 27–28, at Montélimar, Murphy and the 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, along with the 36th Infantry Division, engaged in an offensive battle to secure the area from the Germans. The 3rd and 36th divisions took 500 prisoners in the city on August 29. The actions of the 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment during the offense earned them the Presidential Unit Citation. Murphy, for his part in the event, was included as one of the soldiers who received the citation.
The 3rd Infantry Division was part of an offensive plan to break through German resistance in northeastern France, as far as Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. In the area of Genevreuille on September 15, 1944, Murphy narrowly escaped death from a mortar shell hit that killed two others and wounded three. His resulting heel wound from the blast was not serious but earned him his first Purple Heart. By this point, all but Murphy and two others of Company B's original group had either been killed or taken off the lines with wounds. General O'Daniel moved the 15th Infantry, 3rd Division to the Moselle and the Cleurie river valley in late September. Stone quarries dotted the hills and provided good defensive positions for the Germans. The 15th was met with fierce resistance north of St. Ame at the heavily fortified multi-tunneled L'Omet quarry. On October 2 at L'Omet, Murphy crawled alone to the location of a machine gun manned by a unit of German officers. Within 15 yards (14 m) of the machine gun nest, he rose to his feet. "The Germans spot me instantly", he recalled. "The gunner spins the tip of his weapon toward me. But the barrel catches in a limb, and the burst whizzes to my right". Murphy lobbed two hand grenades at the men, killing four and wounding three. He was awarded the Silver Star for this action. The 15th achieved success in its continued attack when Germans began evacuating the quarry on October 5. On that date, Murphy crawled alone carrying a SCR436 radio for 50 yards (46 m) towards the Germans while they continually fired directly at him. Around 200 yards (180 m) from the German location, he relayed firing orders by radio to the artillery, and remained at his position alone for an hour directing his men. When Murphy's men finally took the hill, 15 German combatants were killed and 35 wounded. Murphy's actions earned him a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Silver Star.
Murphy was awarded a battlefield commission to second lieutenant on October 14, which elevated him to platoon leader. Operation Dogface was the 3rd Infantry Division's support role for the VI Corps in securing Bruyères and Brouvelieures, with the goal of getting the Sixth United States Army Group through the Belfort Gap by November. While en route to Brouvelieures on October 26, the 3rd Platoon of Company B was attacked by a German sniper group. Murphy captured two before being shot in the hip by a sniper whom he in return shot between the eyes.
Because of the rain and the mud, we cannot be evacuated for three days. We lie on cots, six to a pyramidal tent, while the fever spreads through our flesh. Delirious men moan and curse.—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back
He was taken to 3rd General Hospital at Aix-en-Provence. The removal of gangrene from the wound caused partial loss of his hip muscle, and kept him out of combat until January. The injury earned Murphy the first Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Purple Heart.
The Colmar Pocket was 850 square miles (2,200 km2) in the Vosges Mountains and had been held by German troops since November 1944. Murphy was still in the hospital on December 15 when General O'Daniel moved the 3rd Infantry Division into the area. Murphy described it as "..a huge and dangerous bridgehead thrusting west of the Rhine like an iron fist. Fed with men and materiel from across the river, it is a constant threat to our right flank; and potentially it is a perfect springboard from which the enemy could start a powerful counterattack." He rejoined his platoon on January 14, 1945, the date Lieutenant General Jacob Devers ordered the 3rd Division reinforced by the 28th Infantry Division. The 3rd Division was responsible for securing bridgeheads at the Colmar Canal, and Devers added support with a Third Army bridge company. After crossing the Ill river through the Riedwihr Woods on January 24, the 3rd Division was ordered to the town of Holtzwihr, where they were met with a strong German counterattack. Two officers in the division were killed by mortar shells in a January 25 attack. Murphy was wounded in both legs, earning him a Second Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Purple Heart.
From its peak of 235 men, disease, injuries and casualties had reduced Company B's fighting strength to 18 men. Murphy being the only officer remaining on January 26 was made the company commander. The company awaited reinforcements as Murphy watched the approaching Germans, "I see the Germans lining up for an attack. Six tanks rumble to the outskirts of Holtzwihr, split into groups of threes, and fan out toward either side of the clearing. Then wave after wave of white dots, barely discernible against the background of snow, start across the field. They are enemy infantrymen ..." Other eyewitness accounts  also attest to the counterattack consisting of artillery fire, six Panzerkampfwagen VI Tiger Ausf.E tanks pulling 88 mm anti-tank artillery guns and hundreds of foot soldiers. The Germans made a direct hit into a M10 tank destroyer, setting it on fire and causing its crew to abandon it. Murphy ordered his men to retreat to positions in the woods. He remained at his post alone shooting his M1 carbine and relaying orders with his telephone, all the while the Germans aimed fire directly at his position. Murphy mounted the abandoned, burning tank destroyer and began firing its .50 caliber machine gun at the advancing Germans, killing a squad crawling through a ditch towards him.
It was like standing on top of a time bomb ... he was standing on the TD chassis, exposed to enemy fire from his ankles to his head and silhouetted against the trees and the snow behind him.—Eyewitness account of Pvt. Anthony V. Abramski
For an hour, Murphy stood on the tank returning German fire from foot soldiers and advancing tanks, during which he sustained a leg wound. He stopped only after he ran out of ammunition.
As if under the influence of some drug, I slide off the tank destroyer and, without once looking back, walk down the road through the forest. If the Germans want to shoot me, let them. I am too weak from fear and exhaustion to care.—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back
He rejoined his men with complete disregard for his own wound, leading them back to successfully repel the Germans. Only afterwards would he allow treatment of his leg wound, and still insisted on remaining with his men.
... during his indomitable one-man struggle, Lieutenant Murphy broke the entire attack of the Germans and held hard-won ground that it would have been disastrous to lose.—Eyewitness account of Sergeant Elmer C. Brawley
Murphy killed or wounded 50 Germans while standing on the burning tank. For his actions that day he was awarded the Medal of Honor. O'Daniel positioned the 7th and 15th regiments to take Neuf Brisach on January 29. Devers reinforced the depleted and exhausted 3rd Infantry Division, already supported by the 28th Infantry Division, with the 75th Infantry Division and the French 5th Armored Division, for the final assault on Neuf-Brisach. The 3rd Division crossed over the Colmar Canal on January 30 for the February 6 capture of Neuf-Brisach, completing its participation in the liberation of the Colmar Pocket, which was completely under Allied control by February 9. The 3rd Infantry Division was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for its actions at the Colmar Pocket, giving Murphy a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for the emblem.
Murphy was promoted to first lieutenant on February 16. Murphy was awarded the Legion of Merit for his service January 22, 1944 – February 18, 1945. He was removed from the front lines to Regimental Headquarters and made a liaison officer, and was on authorized leave in France when he was informed of the surrender of Germany on May 7. The United States additionally honored Murphy's war contributions with the American Campaign Medal, the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with arrowhead device and campaign stars, the World War II Victory Medal, and the Army of Occupation Medal with Germany Clasp. France recognized Murphy's service with the French Legion of Honor – Grade of Chevalier, the French Croix de guerre with Silver Star, the French Croix de guerre with Palm, the French Liberation Medal and the French Fourragère in Colors of the Croix de guerre which was authorized for all members of the 3rd Infantry Division who fought in France during World War II. Belgium awarded Murphy the Belgian Croix de guerre with 1940 Palm.
Medal of Honor
Brigadier General Ralph B. Lovett and Lieutenant Colonel Hallet D. Edson recommended Murphy for the Medal of Honor. Near Salzburg, Austria on June 2, 1945, Patch presented Murphy with the Medal of Honor and Legion of Merit for his actions at Holtzwihr. When asked after the war why he had seized the machine gun and taken on an entire company of German infantry, he replied simply, "They were killing my friends."
The official U.S. Army citation for Murphy's Medal of Honor reads:
Second Lt. Murphy commanded Company B, which was attacked by six tanks and waves of infantry. 2d Lt. Murphy ordered his men to withdraw to a prepared position in a woods, while he remained forward at his command post and continued to give fire directions to the artillery by telephone. Behind him, to his right, one of our tank destroyers received a direct hit and began to burn. Its crew withdrew to the woods. 2d Lt. Murphy continued to direct artillery fire, which killed large numbers of the advancing enemy infantry. With the enemy tanks abreast of his position, 2d Lt. Murphy climbed on the burning tank destroyer, which was in danger of blowing up at any moment, and employed its .50 caliber machine gun against the enemy. He was alone and exposed to German fire from three sides, but his deadly fire killed dozens of Germans and caused their infantry attack to waver. The enemy tanks, losing infantry support, began to fall back. For an hour the Germans tried every available weapon to eliminate 2d Lt. Murphy, but he continued to hold his position and wiped out a squad that was trying to creep up unnoticed on his right flank. Germans reached as close as 10 yards, only to be mowed down by his fire. He received a leg wound, but ignored it and continued his single-handed fight until his ammunition was exhausted. He then made his way back to his company, refused medical attention, and organized the company in a counterattack, which forced the Germans to withdraw. His directing of artillery fire wiped out many of the enemy; he killed or wounded about 50. 2d Lt. Murphy's indomitable courage and his refusal to give an inch of ground saved his company from possible encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy's objective.
Post-war military service
An inquiry originating from the 3rd Infantry Division was sent as a "Classified Message" to the Allied Expeditionary Forces, Main, Versailles, France on May 24, 1945, inquiring as to the feasibility of Murphy's enrolling in the United States Military Academy for classes beginning July 2. The June 1 reply from Colonel R. R. Coursey, assistant to the Chief of Staff of the War Department, advised against enrollment for that particular term at the academy due to the short time span available to prepare for the entrance exams. Coursey noted that should Murphy apply for the 1946 classes, the United States Congress was working on legislation to raise the maximum age limit for entrance to the Academy, in order to make it possible for returning war veterans to be eligible for application. Legislation enacted by the Congress for this purpose raised the maximum limit to twenty-four years of age. Prior to that, the age limit had been twenty-two, which still would have allowed Murphy entrance based on the Army records that showed his birth date as 1924. Author Don Graham wrote about this as having been initiated by Murphy and dropped by him, possibly when he realized the extent of academic preparation needed to pass the entrance exam.
Murphy was one of several other military personnel who received orders on June 8, 1945, to report to Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas, for temporary duty and reassignment. Upon arrival on June 13, he was one of four who were assigned to Fort Sam Houston Army Ground & Services Redistribution Station. All four were sent home for 30 days of recuperation, with permission to travel anywhere within the United States during that period. They were to report back for duty at the post on July 17. While on leave, he was feted with parades, banquets, and speeches.
He received a belated Good Conduct Medal on August 21. Murphy was discharged from active duty with the U.S. Army with the rank of first lieutenant, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio on August 17. He was given 50% disability classification on September 21.
After the June 25, 1950, commencement of the Korean War Murphy wanted to fight in the conflict and enlisted in July in the 36th Infantry Division of the Texas National Guard with the rank of captain. During his service he granted the Guard permission to use his name and image in recruiting materials. Although he actively participated in training activities in between continuing with his film career, Murphy was never sent to Korea. He requested to transfer to inactive status on October 1, 1951, due to his film commitments with MGM Studios. Murphy was promoted to the rank of major by the Texas National Guard. He received his service separation from the Texas National Guard effective 1966, and transferred to Standby Reserve. Murphy retired from the U.S. Army Reserve in 1969.
Murphy was plagued by insomnia and bouts of depression, related to his military service and slept with a loaded pistol under his pillow. A post-service medical examination on June 17, 1947, revealed symptoms of headaches, vomiting, and nightmares about war. His medical records indicated that he took sleeping pills to help prevent nightmares. During the mid-1960s, he recognized his dependence on Placidyl, and locked himself alone in a hotel room for a week to successfully break the addiction. Post-traumatic stress levels exacerbated his innate moodiness, and surfaced in episodes that friends and professional colleagues found alarming. His first wife, Wanda Hendrix, stated that he once held her at gunpoint. She witnessed her husband being moved to tears by newsreel footage of German war orphans, guilt-ridden that his war actions might have been the cause of their having no parents. Murphy briefly found a creative stress outlet in writing poetry after his Army discharge. His poem "The Crosses Grow on Anzio" appeared in his book To Hell and Back, but was attributed to the fictitiously named Kerrigan.
In an effort to draw attention to the problems of returning Korean War and Vietnam War veterans, Murphy spoke out candidly about his own problems with post-traumatic stress disorder. It was known during Murphy's lifetime as "battle fatigue" and "shell shock", terminology that dated back to World War I. He called on the government to give increased consideration and study to the emotional impact of combat experiences, and to extend health care benefits to war veterans. As a result of legislation introduced by U.S. Congressman Olin Teague five months after Murphy's 1971 death, the Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio was dedicated in 1973 and is now a part of the South Texas Veterans Health Care System.
After the war, they took Army dogs and rehabilitated them for civilian life. But they turned soldiers into civilians immediately, and let 'em sink or swim.
Murphy's film career path started in 1945 after actor and producer James Cagney saw the July 16 issue of Life magazine depicting him as the "most decorated soldier". The veteran actor invited Murphy to live at a guest house on his Beverly Hills estate while training as a contract player with the production company Cagney and his brother William operated. He remained under the tutelage of the Cagneys until 1947 when he had a falling out with William. At that point, Murphy moved into Terry Hunt's Athletic Club in Hollywood where he became a boxing partner of director Budd Boetticher. The club allowed veterans to sleep inside on cots, and it was Murphy's home until 1948.
While he was living at the club, he met writer David "Spec" McClure, who had arranged to meet him and eventually collaborated as a writer on Murphy's 1949 autobiographical book To Hell and Back. McClure began to act as his unpaid agent, and got the war hero a $500 bit part in Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven. By the time Murphy got a contract for the book, he had his own apartment in Hollywood, which served as the workplace for the manuscript. As Murphy related his experiences, McClure took notes and wrote most of the prose. They worked with reference materials to trigger Murphy's memories. When shown a map of a given area, he would recall the battles in detail. Murphy did write a small portion himself, including some of the material on the Colmar Pocket. He directed that the book be written from the perspective of the men who fought the battles. To Hell and Back has had multiple printings and been translated into Dutch, Italian,  French, and Slovene.
Murphy was visiting Texas in December 1946, and gave a ride to hitchhiker John Thomas Daniels in McKinney County. The 25-year-old hitchhiker, who outweighed Murphy by over 50 pounds (23 kg) and was several inches taller, struck Murphy and demanded his car. According to the actor, "We fought all over the place for about 10 minutes," before Murphy broke free and called the police. The police and Murphy apprehended the suspect who by then was trying to rob a local woman.
He married actress Wanda Hendrix on January 8, 1949, and their divorce became final on April 19, 1951. Four days later he married former airline stewardess Pamela Archer on April 23, 1951. Son Terrance Michael "Terry" Murphy was born in 1952. Son James Shannon "Skipper" Murphy was born in 1954.
Murphy bred quarter horses at the Audie Murphy Ranch in Perris, California, and the Murphy Ranch in Pima County, Arizona.[c] His horses raced at the Del Mar Racetrack and he invested large sums of money in the hobby. Murphy had a gambling habit that left his finances in a poor state. In 1968, he stated that he lost $260,000 in an Algerian oil deal and was dealing with the Internal Revenue Service over unpaid taxes. In spite of his financial difficulties, Murphy refused to appear in commercials for alcohol and cigarettes, mindful of the influence he would have on the youth market.
On May 18, 1970, Murphy's involvement in a dispute between a female friend and David Gofstein, her dog trainer, led to Murphy's arrest. Gofstein said that Murphy arrived with the client and a man identified as a former boxer. He stated further that Murphy roughed up Gofstein's wife and stuck a gun in Gofstein's stomach in an effort to abduct him. Gofstein said he broke free, and Murphy shot at him. Murphy was arrested ten days later by police in Burbank, California and charged with suspicion of assault and attempt to commit murder. When Murphy came to trial in October 1970, he entered a plea of innocent to possession of a blackjack, in addition to battery and assault. He was acquitted of all charges.
Death and commemorations
On May 28, 1971, Murphy was killed when the private plane in which he was a passenger crashed into Brush Mountain, near Catawba, Virginia, 20 miles (32 km) west of Roanoke in conditions of rain, clouds, fog and zero visibility. The pilot and four other passengers were also killed. The aircraft was a twin-engine Aero Commander 680 flown by a pilot who had a private-pilot license and a reported 8,000 hours of flying time, but who held no instrument rating. The aircraft was recovered on May 31. After her husband died, Pamela Murphy was obligated to pay his debts. She moved into a small apartment and got a clerk position at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Los Angeles, where she remained employed for 35 years. In 1975, a court awarded Murphy's widow and two children $2.5 million in damages due to the accident.
On June 7, 1971, Murphy was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. In attendance were George H.W. Bush, William Westmoreland and many of the 3rd Infantry Division. Murphy's grave site is in Section 46, headstone number 46-366-11, located across Memorial Drive from the Amphitheater. A special flagstone walkway was later constructed to accommodate the large number of people who visit to pay their respects. It is the second most-visited grave site, after that of President John F. Kennedy.
The headstones of Medal of Honor recipients buried at Arlington National Cemetery are normally decorated in gold leaf. Murphy previously requested that his stone remain plain and inconspicuous, like that of an ordinary soldier. The 100th United States Congress, as part of Public Law 100-456, The National Defense Authorization Act 1989, enacted on September 29, 1988, authorized erecting a monument at Arlington National Cemetery to honor members of the 3rd Infantry Division who served in World War I, World War II and the Korean Conflict. The 9-ton obelisk sits to the north of Audie Murphy's grave.[d] In 1974, a large granite marker was erected just off the Appalachian Trail at at 3,100' elevation, near the crash site.
He appeared in 44 films throughout his career. During the 1950s and 1960s, he was cast primarily in Westerns. Murphy helped publicize his 1949 World War II memoir To Hell and Back with a radio appearance on This Is Your Life. In 1955, he played himself in the film To Hell and Back which became the biggest hit in the history of Universal Studios at the time. He performed in a handful of television productions and was the star of the Whispering Smith series.
Murphy saw some success as a country music songwriter. He teamed up with musicians and composers Guy Mitchell, Jimmy Bryant, Scott Turner, Coy Ziegler, Ray and Terri Eddlemon. His songs were recorded and released by Dean Martin, Eddy Arnold, Charley Pride, Jimmy Bryant, Porter Waggoner, Jerry Wallace, Roy Clark, and Harry Nilsson. His two biggest hits were "Shutters and Boards" and "When the Wind Blows in Chicago".
|1962||"Shutters and Boards"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Numerous artists, including Jerry Wallace, Dean Martin, Porter Waggoner, Jimmy Dean, Johnny Mann Singers, and Teresa Brewer|||
|"Please Mr. Music Man Play a Song for Me"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Harry Nilsson and Dick Contino|||
|"Foolish Clock"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Harry Nilsson|||
|"The Only Light I Ever Need is You"||Audie Murphy, Guy Mitchell and Scott Turner||Jerry Wallace and Harry Nilsson|||
|1963||"When the Wind Blows in Chicago"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Bobby Bare, Roy Clark, Eddy Arnold and Jerry Wallace|||
|"Willie the Hummer"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Jerry Wallace|
|"My Lonesome Room"||Audie Murphy, Guy Mitchell and Scott Turner||Roy Clark|
|1964||"Leave the Weeping to the Willow Tree"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Bonnie Guitar|||
|Shortcut to Nowhere||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Dorsey Burnette|||
|Shudders and Screams||Audie Murphy, Scott Turner and Sheb Wooley|||
|"Pedro's Guitar"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Jimmy Bryant|
|"Big, Big Day Tomorrow"||Audie Murphy, Coy Ziegler and Scott Turner||Jerry Wallace (unreleased)|
|"Elena, Goodbye"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Jimmy Bryant|
|1965||"Go On and Break My Heart"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner||Wilton and Welcon|||
|Old Heartaches is Laughing at Me||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner|||
|"Round and Round She Goes"||Audie Murphy, Coy Ziegler and Scott Turner||Jerry Wallace|
|1966||"Rattle Dance"||Audie Murphy, Scott Turner and Ivan J. Bryant||Jimmy Bryant|
|1969||"Dusty Old Helmet"||Audie Murphy and Scott Turner|
|1970||"Was It All Worth Losing You"||Audie Murphy||Terry Eddleman, Charlie Pride|||
Honors and awards
Murphy received every U.S. military combat award for valor available from the U.S. Army, as well as foreign recognitions from both France and Belgium for his World War II service.[e] In 2013, he was honored by his home state with the Texas Legislative Medal of Honor.[f] Civilian honors were bestowed upon him both during his lifetime and posthumously, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
- Murphy's son Terry is the President of the Audie Murphy Research Foundation, which in both its biographical sketch and Murphy Family Tree list his year of birth as 1925. Murphy's date of birth has been given as both 1925 and 1924 by Murphy himself. He seemed to go back and forth on the dates for the rest of his life. His sister Corrine Burns as his nearest living kin signed a notarized document attesting to the birth date of June 20, 1924 that Murphy put on his enlistment application, falsifying his year of birth in order to make him appear old enough to meet the U.S. Army age qualification for enlistment. His California driver's license showed a birth date of 1925.
- Conflicting information exists as to Murphy's date and place of enlistment. The Audie L. Murphy Memorial website has scanned documents from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration that include Corrinne Burns' statement and Murphy's "Induction Record", which shows him "Enlisted at Dallas, Texas" on June 30, 1942, and the line above it says "Accepted for service at Greenville, Texas". The National Register of Historic Places Listing added the Greenville post office as historic site number 74002081 in 1974, citing it as Murphy's place of enlistment, possibly referring to the act the military termed "Accepted for service". The NRHP also shows his enlistment date as June 20, 1942 which might be the date he was accepted for service.
- The Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website has user-generated information on an Arizona quarter horse ranch Murphy purchased in 1956 and sold to Guy Mitchell in 1958. While not stating that the use of Murphy's name and image were authorized by his estate, the website of the Menifee, California residential development named "Audie Murphy Ranch" does claim it is the location of the ranch Murphy owned in San Bernardino County, California. Menifee was incorporated in 2008 and borders the community of Perris.
- Arlington National Cemetery's web page on the monument erroneously states "The 3rd Infantry Division monument was approved by President George Bush on 29 September 1988 in Public Law 100-456." George H W Bush was not sworn into office until Jan 20, 1989; George W Bush was not sworn into office until Jan 20, 2001.
- Murphy's war service was combat-related. Therefore, he did not receive the non-combat Soldier's Medal. Act of Congress (Public Law 446–69th Congress, 2 July 1926 (44 Stat. 780)) established the Soldier's Medal for heroism "as defined in 10 USC 101(d), at the time of the heroic act who distinguished himself or herself by heroism not involving actual combat with the enemy." At the end of his World War II service, Murphy became known as America's most decorated soldier.
- The actual award was presented by Governor Rick Perry to Murphy's family on October 29, 2013 at a ceremony in Farmersville, Texas.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. "User-generated short biographical sketch". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. "Scan of original Application for Degrees, N. Hollywood Freemasons". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. "Scan of charred California driver's license for Audie Murphy, recovered from crash site after his death". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Scan of service records 1942–1971". Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Graham 1989, p. 5.
- Murphy 2002, pp. 4–7.
- Texas Historical Commission. "Celeste, Texas". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Murphy 2002, p. 7.
- Minor, David. "Boles Home". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Tate 2006, pp. 152–163.
- Murphy 2002, p. 143.
- Graham 1989, pp. 23,24.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. "Scan of Audie Murphy's Service Record book".
- "NRHP Greenville Post Office". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "The Old Greenville Post Office". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Graham 1989, p. 29.
- Simpson 1975, p. 49.
- Graham 1989, p. 33.
- Graham 1989, pp. 33–34.
- Graham 1989, p. 36.
- Champagne 2008, p. 41.
- Champagne 2008, p. 42.
- Champagne 2008, p. 43.
- Graham 1989, p. 37.
- U.S. Army Center of Military History. "To Bizerte with the II Corps, 23 April-13 May 1943, the Second Phase". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Champagne 2008, p. 45.
- Champagne 2008, pp. 45–47.
- Champagne 2008, pp. 47.
- "Sicily 1943". CMH Pub 72-16. Center of Military History United States Army. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Graham 1989, p. 39.
- Graham 1989, p. 40.
- Graham 1989, p. 43.
- Graham 1989, p. 44.
- Moseley 2004, pp. 6–7.
- Murphy 2002, p. 15.
- "Naples-Foggia 1943 1944". CMH Pub 72-17. Center of Military History United States Army. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Graham 1989, p. 47.
- Graham 1989, pp. 47,48.
- Atkinson 2008, p. 239.
- Graham 1989, pp. 48.49.
- Murphy 2002, p. 41.
- Champagne 2008, p. 106.
- Graham 1989, p. 49.
- Graham 1989, p. 50.
- Kingseed 2006, p. 126.
- Champagne 2008, p. 54.
- Graham 1989, p. 51.
- "The Allied Offensive (30 January-1 February)". Anzio Beachhead CMH Pub 100-10. Center of Military History United States Army. pp. 28–36. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Murphy 2002, pp. 108,109.
- Champagne 2008, pp. 111–112.
- Graham 1989, p. 59.
- Tanber, George G. (May 5, 2005). "Who Had More Medals? Depends on Who's Counting". Toledo Blade. p. 3. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Simpson 1975, p. 102.
- Simpson 1975, p. 276.
- Military Times. "Hall of Valor". Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Graham 1989, pp. 64.65.
- "Southern France". CMH Pub 72-31. Center of Military History United States Army. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Hollen, Staff Sergeant Norman (December, 1944). "Statement describing Murphy's August 15, 1944 actions near Ramatuelle, France". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299779. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Murphy 2002, p. 177.
- Brinkley 2004, p. 191.
- Champagne 2008, p. 161.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 166.
- Simpson 1975, p. 124.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, pp. 285–296.
- Graham 1989, p. 72.
- Simpson 1975, p. 128.
- Murphy 2002, p. 209.
- Simpson 1975, pp. 131–135.
- Fredriksen 2010, p. 279.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, pp. 295–311.
- Murphy 2002, p. 226.
- Graham 1989, p. 81–83.
- Graham 1989, p. 82.
- Simpson 1975, p. 137.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 533.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 489.
- Murphy 2002, p. 228.
- Graham 1989, p. 86.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 534.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 536, 537.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 543,544.
- Simpson 1975, p. 153.
- Graham 1989, p. 88.
- Murphy 2002, p. 238.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, pp. 546–547.
- Brawley, Sergeant Elmer C. (March 4, 1945). "Statement describing Murphy's January 26, 1945 actions at Holtzwihr". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299776. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Abramski, Pvt. First Class Anthony V. (February 27, 1945). "Statement describing Murphy's January 26, 1945 actions at Holtzwihr". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299775. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Weispfenning, First Lieutenant Walter W. (April 18, 1945). "Statement describing Murphy's January 26, 1945 actions at Holtzwihr". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299785. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Ware, Kenneth L. (April 18, 1945). "Statement describing Murphy's January 26, 1945 actions at Holtzwihr". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299784. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Murphy 2002, p. 243.
- U.S. Army Center of Military History. "World War II Medal of Honor Recipients M-S". United States Army. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Clarke & Smith 1993, pp. 547–551.
- Simpson 1975, p. 164.
- Graham 1989, p. 95.
- Simpson 1975, pp. 175–176.
- Graham 1989, p. 96.
- Graham 1989, p. 99.
- Dept. of Defense. "Award of the "Au Grade De Chevalier" for Murphy's exceptional services rendered during operations to liberate France., 07/19/1948". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299781. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Dept. of Defense (April 16, 1945). "De La Croix De Guerre Award for Murphy's services rendered during operations to liberate France". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299782. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Simpson 1975, p. 410.
- Edson, Lt. Colonel Hallet D.. (February 17, 1945). "Recommendation from Lt. Colonel Hallet D. Edson, 15th Infantry, to Award of Medal of Honor to Lieutenant Audie L. Murphy". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299777. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Lovett, Brigadier General R.B.. (April 12, 1945). "Recommendation from Brigadier General R.B. Lovett, to Lieutenant General A.M. Patch, for Audie L. Murphy to be awarded the Medal of Honor and General Patch's approval". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration ARC Identifier 299783. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Willbanks 2011, p. 234.
- "War" excerpt about Staff Sgt. Salvatore Giunta's actions. Stars and Stripes. September 10, 2010. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2010.Oettinger, Callie (January 26, 2011). "Focus On Audie Murphy". Command Posts (MacMillan).
- "Scan of service records 1953–1971". Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Betros 2012, p. 350.
- Graham 1989, p. 127.
- Spiller & Dawson 2010, pp. 137–154, chpt Man Against Fire: Audie Murphy and His War.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website (August 21, 1945). "Scan of Audie L. Murphy signed request for his Good Conduct Medal, addressed to the Commanding Officer at Fort Sam Houston". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Simpson, Harold B. "Audie Leon Murphy". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Simpson 1975, p. 341.
- Simpson 1975, p. 342.
- Graham 1989, p. 194.
- Tate 2006, pp. 157–158.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website (April 18, 1969). "Scan of Retired Reserve request". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Champagne 2008, p. 300.
- Murphy 2002, pp. 122–124.
- Whiting 2001, p. 224.
- Redfern 2007, pp. 67, 68.
- Redfern 2007, pp. 65, 67, 68.
- Curtis & Golenbock 2009, p. 119.
- Graham 1989, p. 183.
- Murphy 2002, p. 125.
- Simpson 1975, pp. 373–376.
- Redfern 2007, p. 60.
- Rosen Ph.D. 2012, pp. 149–151.
- O'Reilly 2010, pp. 163–165.
- U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs. "About the South Texas Veterans Health Care System (STVHCS)". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Teague, Congressman Olin (October 13, 1971). "Designating the Veteran's Administration Hospital in San Antonio Texas As the Audie L. Murphy Veterans' Memorial Hospital". Congressional Record. Washington, D.C.: Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Thomas, Bob (November 21, 1960). "Post-war Story Kept on Ice". Park City Daily News. AP. p. 10. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Graham 1989, pp. 128–147.
- Graham 1989, pp. 147,148.
- Nott 2005, pp. 1–3, 42–57, 111–112.
- Graham 1989, p. 149.
- Graham 1989, pp. 150–151.
- Graham 1989, pp. 155–157.
- Murphy 1956a.
- Murphy 1956b.
- Murphy 1956c.
- Murphy 1959.
- Graham 1989, pp. 143, 144.
- Graham 1989, p. 174.
- Billboard (April 28, 1951). "Divorces". The Billboard (The Billboard Publishing Company): 48. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Billboard (May 5, 1951). "Marriages". The Billboard (The Billboard Publishing Company): 48. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Billboard (March 22, 1952). "Births". The Billboard (The Billboard Publishing Company): 55. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Graham 1989, p. 250.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. "Homes Owned or Lived in By Audie Murphy". Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Graham 1989, pp. 256–258.
- Graham 1989, p. 307.
- Scott, Vernon (September 22, 1968). "One-Time Hero Audie Murphy is Now Broke and In Debt". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 8. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Eugene Register-Guard (May 29, 1970). "Movie Actor Faces Charges of Assault". p. 4A. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Pittsburgh Press (October 5, 1970). "Audie Murphy Goes on Trial". p. 6. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Lodi News-Sentinel (October 17, 1970). "Audie Murphy is Acquitted of Assault". pp. 1–2. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Palm Beach Post (January 6, 1971). "War Hero is Exonerated". p. C10. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Landon, Tom (June 9, 2013). "Audie Murphy crash site now well marked". The Roakoke Times. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Baskerville, Bill (May 31, 1971). "Audie Murphy, five others, found dead". The Prescott Courier. p. 1. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Maslowski & Winslow 2005, p. 420.
- McCarthy, Dennis (April 14, 2010). "Pam Murphy, widow of actor Audie Murphy, was veterans' friend and advocate". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Colorado Court of Appeals. "Murphy v. Colorado Aviation Inc.". Leagle. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Graham 1989, p. 338.
- Team Lee Audie Murphy Club. "Audie Murphy Biography". U.S. Army Fort Lee, Virginia. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Arlington National Cemetery. "Biography of Audie Murphy". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Arlington National Cemetery. "3rd Infantry Division Monument". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Public Law 100-456 100th Congress, Sept 29, 1988 H.R. 4481". The National Defense Authorization Act 1989 (National Institute of Health). Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Cavileer 2013, p. 290.
- Davidson, Jim. "This Is Your Life Radio and TV Episode List". Jim Davidson's Classic TV Info. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Gossett 1996, p. 15.
- Niemi 2006, p. 90.
- Library of Congress. "Whispering Smith LC control no. 2012605754". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. "User-generated list of songs written by Audie Murphy". Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- AllMusic. "Shutters and Boards". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Shutters and Boards". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- AllMusic. "Please Mr. Music Man Play a Song for Me". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- AllMusic. "Foolish Clock". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- AllMusic. "The Only Light". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- AllMusic. "When the Wind Blows in Chicago". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "When the Wind Blows in Chicago". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Leave the Weeping to the Willow Tree". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Shortcut to Nowhere". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Shudders and Screams". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Go on and Break My Heart". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Old Heartaches is Laughing at Me". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- AllMusic. "Was It All Worth Losing You". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Was It All Worth Losing You?". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office.
- U.S. Army Regulation 600-8-22 (June 23, 2013). "2, section II, 3–14". Military Awards. Department of the Army Administrative Publications. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Life cover story (July 16, 1945). Life Visits Audie Murphy. pp. 94–97. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Gov. Perry Awards Audie Murphy Texas Legislative Medal of Honor". Press Release. Office of Governor Rick Perry. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Texas Legislature. "Bill HCR3 Legislative Medal of Honor". State of Texas. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Root, Jay (June 20, 2013). "Audie Murphy, a Texas Hero Still Missing One Medal". The New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Hollywood Walk of Fame. "Inducted to the Walk of Fame on February 8, 1960 with 1 star". Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Atkinson, Rick (2008). The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943–1944. New York, NY: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-8861-8.
- Betros, Lance (2012). Carved from Granite: West Point since 1902. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 978-1-60344-787-4.
- Brinkley, Douglas (2004). The World War II Desk Reference. New York, NY: Collins Reference. ISBN 978-0-06-052651-1.
- Cavileer, Sharon (2013). Virginia Curiosities, 3rd: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Pres. ISBN 978-0-7627-9520-8.
- Champagne, Daniel R (2008). Dogface Soldiers: The Story of B Company, 15th Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division: from Fedala to Salzburg, Audie Murphy and His Brothers in Arms. Bennington, VT: Merriam Press. ISBN 978-1-4357-5767-7.
- Clarke, Jeffrey J; Smith, Robert Ross (1993). Riviera to the Rhine. United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. ISBN 978-0-16-025966-1.
- Curtis, Tony; Golenbock, Peter (2009). American Prince: A Memoir. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-307-40856-3.
- Gossett, Sue (1996). The Films and Career of Audie Murphy. Madison, NC: Empire Publishing. ISBN 978-0-944019-22-1.
- Graham, Don (1989). No Name on the Bullet. New York, NY: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-81511-1.
- Fredriksen, John C. (2010). The United States Army: A Chronology, 1775 to the Present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-344-6.
- Kingseed, Cole C. (2006). Old Glory Stories: American Combat Leadership in World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-440-3.
- Maslowski, Peter; Winslow, Don (2005). Looking for a Hero: Staff Sergeant Joe Ronnie Hooper and the Vietnam War. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-3244-0.
- Moseley, Ray (2004). Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce. Dallas, TX: Taylor Trade. ISBN 978-1-58979-095-7.
- Murphy, Audie (1956a). Terug uit de Hel. Amsterdam: Scheltens & Giltay. OCLC 63280859.
- Murphy, Audie (1956b). All'inferno e Ritorno. Milano: Longanesi. OCLC 799639929.
- Murphy, Audie (1956c). Audie Murphy. L'Enfer des Hommes : ["To hell and back"], traduit de l'anglais par R. Jouan. France: Empire. OCLC 459748173.
- Murphy, Audie (1959). V Pekel in Nazaj. Slovenia: Mladinska knjiga. OCLC 440282935.
- Murphy, Audie (2002). To Hell and Back. New York: Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-0-8050-7086-6.
- Niemi, Robert (2006). History in the Media: Film And Television. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2.
- Nott, Robert (2005). Last of the Cowboy Heroes: The Westerns of Randolph Scott, Joel McCrea, and Audie Murphy. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-2261-6.
- O'Reilly, Bill (2010). Pinheads and Patriots: Where You Stand in the Age of Obama. New York, NY: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-195071-1.
- Redfern, Nick (2007). Celebrity Secrets Official Government Files on the Rich and Famous. New York: Paraview Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-2866-1.
- Rosen Ph.D., David M (2012). Child Soldiers. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO,. ISBN 978-1-59884-526-6.
- Simpson, Harold B. (1975). Audie Murphy, American Soldier. Hillsboro, TX: Hill Jr. College Press. ISBN 978-0-912172-20-0.
- Spiller, Roger J; Dawson, Joseph G (2010). The Texas Military Experience: From the Texas Revolution Through World War II. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-60344-197-1.
- Tate, J. R (2006). Walkin' with the Ghost Whisperers. Philadelphia, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-4544-4.
- Whiting, Charles (2001). America's forgotten army: the story of the U.S. Seventh. Rockville Centre, NY: St. Martin's Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-312-97655-2.
- Willbanks, James H (2011). America's heroes: Medal of Honor Recipients from the Civil War to Afghanistan. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-394-1.
Media related to Audie Murphy at Wikimedia Commons