Film career of Audie Murphy

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Audie Murphy (20 June 1925 – 28 May 1971) was a highly decorated American soldier and Medal of Honor recipient who turned actor. He portrayed himself in the film To Hell and Back, the account of his World War II experiences. During the 1950s and 1960s he was cast primarily in westerns. While often the hero, he proved his ability to portray a cold-blooded hired gun in No Name on the Bullet. A notable exception to the westerns was The Quiet American in which he co-starred with Michael Redgrave. Murphy made over 40 feature films and often worked with directors more than once. Jesse Hibbs who directed To Hell and Back worked with the star on six films, only half of which were westerns. When promoting his 1949 book To Hell and Back he appeared on the radio version of This Is Your Life. To promote the 1955 film of the same name, he appeared on Ed Sullivan's Toast of the Town. He was a celebrity guest on television shows such as What's My Line? and appeared in a handful of television dramas. Murphy's only television series Whispering Smith had a brief run in 1961. For his cooperation in appearing in the United States Army's Broken Bridge episode of The Big Picture television series he was awarded the Outstanding Civilian Service Medal.

Early career[edit]

Audie Murphy publicity photo

Murphy became a national celebrity following his World War II military service when Life magazine proclaimed him America's "most decorated soldier" in its 16 July 1945 issue cover story.[1] That magazine cover brought him to the attention of veteran actor James Cagney who invited him to Hollywood. When Murphy arrived in California after his military discharge, Cagney cancelled the hotel reservations he'd made for Murphy and instead took him into his own home, "I got the shock of my life. Audie was very thin. His complexion was bluish-gray." Commenting years later on his first impression, Cagney said, "[Murphy was] in such a nervous condition that I was afraid he might jump out of a window. I took him home and gave him my bed."[2] He spent three weeks as a guest of Cagney and then returned to Texas before finally agreeing to an offer from brothers James and William Cagney of $150 a week as a contract player with their production company. The Cagneys gave Murphy personal attention on acting techniques.[3] He also took lessons at the Actors' Lab on Sunset Boulevard. Murphy studied voice techniques, learned judo, and trained with choreographer John Boyle, Cagney's dance coach for Yankee Doodle Dandy.[4] A 1947 disagreement with William Cagney ended his association with the brothers without having been cast in a film production.[5]

He moved into Terry Hunt's Athletic Club and survived on his Army pension of $113 a month. In 1948 he became acquainted with writer David "Spec" McClure who got him a $500 bit part in Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven.[6] He began dating actress Wanda Hendrix in 1946.[7] Her agent got Murphy a bit part in the 1948 Alan Ladd film Beyond Glory directed by John Farrow.[8] Murphy and Hendrix married in 1949 and divorced in 1951.[9]

His 1949 film Bad Boy gave him his first leading role.[10] Murphy became acquainted in Texas with Interstate Theatre executive James "Skipper" Cherry,[11] who was best man at Murphy's 1951 marriage to Pamela Archer and the namesake of the couple's second son.[12][13] Murphy's association with Cherry brought him to the attention of Texas independent producer Paul Short.[11] With financing from Texas theater owners and the children's charitable organization Variety Clubs International, Short cast Murphy in Bad Boy to help promote the charity's work with troubled children.[14] Murphy performed well in the screen test, but Steve Broidy, president of the project's production company Allied Artists did not want to cast someone in a major role with so little acting experience. Cherry, Short, and the theater owners refused to finance the film unless Murphy played the lead.[15] The 1933 Thames Williamson novel The Woods Colt caught Murphy's attention during this period of his career. He secured the rights to the story in the 1950s, and Marion Hargrove was hired to write the script. The film was never made.[16]

Universal Studios signed Murphy to a seven-year studio contract at $2,500 a week.[17][18] His first film for them in 1950 was as Billy the Kid inThe Kid from Texas. He wrapped up that year making Sierra starring his wife Wanda Hendrix,[19] and Kansas Raiders as outlaw Jesse James. He and director Budd Boetticher become acquainted through Terry Hunt's Athletic Club where Murphy would request to be his boxing partner.[20] Murphy appeared in the 1951 title role of Boetticher's first westernThe Cimarron Kid.[21]

Audie Murphy tackles the role, and probably better fits the original Brand conception than his predecessors.

Variety review of Destry [22]

The only film Murphy made in 1952 was Duel At Silver Creek with director Don Siegel. Murphy would team with Siegel one more time in 1958 for The Gun Runners. He only worked one time with director Frederick de Cordova, who later became producer of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Murphy and de Cordova made Column South in 1953.[23] George Marshall directed Murphy in the 1954 Destry, based on a character created by author Max Brand. Two previous versions, one in 1932 with Tom Mix and one in 1939 with Jimmy Stewart and Marlene Dietrich, were both titled Destry Rides Again.[24]

The only screenplay John Meredyth Lucas ever did for a Murphy film was the 1953 Tumbleweed, an adaptation of the Kenneth Perkins novel Three Were Renegades .[25] Murphy played Jim Harvey, whose horse Tumbleweed displayed a talent for getting the hero out of any scrape.[26] Director Nathan Juran oversaw Tumbleweed, as well as Gunsmoke and Drums Across the River.[27]

As Murphy's film career began to progress, so did his efforts to improve his skills. He continually practiced his fast draw with a gun.[28] He took both private and classroom acting lessons from Estelle Harman, and honed his diction by reciting dialogue from William Shakespeare and William Saroyan.[29]

The Red Badge of Courage[edit]

Murphy was lent to MGM at a salary of $25,000[30] to appear in the 1951 The Red Badge of Courage directed by John Huston and adapted from the Stephen Crane novel. At the urging of Spec McClure and celebrity columnist Hedda Hopper, over the misgivings of producer Gottfried Reinhardt and studio executives Louis B. Mayer and Dore Schary, director Huston cast Murphy in the lead of The Youth (Henry Fleming in the novel).[31] The preview screening audiences were not enthusiastic, causing Schary to re-edit Huston's work, eliminating several scenes and adding narration by James Whitmore.[32] MGM trimmed advertising efforts on what they believed was an unprofitable film. What eventually hit the theaters was not a commercial success, and it was also not the film both Murphy and Huston believed they had made. Murphy unsuccessfully tried to buy the rights to the film in 1955 in an attempt to re-edit and re-release it. Huston tried to buy it in 1957, but was told the original negative of what he had filmed was destroyed forever.[33]

To Hell and Back[edit]

To Hell and Back – Audie Murphy and Susan Kohner

Although Murphy was initially reluctant to appear as himself in To Hell and Back, the film version of his book, he eventually agreed to do so. Terry Murphy portrayed his brother Joseph Preston Murphy at age four. The film was directed by Jesse Hibbs with an on-screen introduction by General Walter Bedell Smith. Susan Kohner, daughter of Murphy's agent Paul Kohner,[34] made her acting debut in the film. The finale shows Murphy being awarded the Medal of Honor while images of his unit's casualties pass across the screen.[35] It became the biggest hit in the history of Universal Studios at the time.[36][37]

Both Murphy and Universal gave serious considerations to a follow-up version of his post-war life. Murphy rejected the Richard J. Collins script The Way Back which created the fictional scenario that filming To Hell and Back had been so therapeutic for Murphy that it cured him of his combat fatigue. Spec McClure scripted a second unused version of The Way Back[38] that incorporated Murphy's real-life friends into the storyline and ended with the star living happily ever after with Pamela and their two sons. A third version by an unknown writer focused on the Murphy-McClure friendship and was rejected by the threat of a lawsuit from McClure. Desi Arnaz offered to bankroll a 1965 project titled Helmets in the Dust.[39] At Murphy's request McClure wrote a film treatment, but the project never came to fruition.[40]

Later films[edit]

The Hibbs-Murphy team proved so successful in To Hell and Back[41] that the two worked together on a total of five subsequent films. Hibbs directed Murphy in Ride Clear of Diablo in 1954.[42] The partnership resulted in the commercially unsuccessful non-traditional 1956 western Walk the Proud Land.[43] Hibbs and Murphy teamed with each other for non-westerns Joe Butterfly[44] and World in My Corner.[43] They worked together a final time in the 1958 western Ride a Crooked Trail.[45] Veteran character actor Dan Duryea who portrayed villain Whitey Kincaide in Ride Clear of Diablo played a second lead in two more Murphy vehicles, Night Passage[46] and Six Black Horses. The Story of Charles Russell with Murphy as the lead was under development at Universal but shelved after the disappointing receipts of Walk the Proud Land. Murphy, however, was enthusiastic enough about a biopic of Charles Marion Russell to give serious consideration tor his own production that would star Guy Mitchell in the lead, but no such film was made.[47][48]

Murphy was hired by Joseph L. Mankiewicz to play the role of The American (Alden Pyle in the book) in the 1958 version of The Quiet American, replacing Montgomery Clift when the latter dropped out. Michael Redgrave replaced Laurence Olivier who dropped out when Clift withdrew. The cold-war drama filmed in Vietnam was a departure from the genre in which Murphy had normally been cast.[49]

Murphy formed a partnership with Harry Joe Brown to make three films, the first of which was the 1957 The Guns of Fort Petticoat. The partnership fell into disagreement over the remaining two projects, and Brown filed suit against Murphy.[50] Although Murphy was to co-star with Robert Mitchum in the 1957 film Night Riders, scheduling conflicts prevented him from doing so.[43] Springing from his skin diving hobby, Murphy hired diving expert Paul Kazear to write the script Skin Diver with a Heart . Murphy reneged on the deal and the film was never made. Kazear sued Murphy in 1958.[51]

The 1950s decade ended with Murphy doing three westerns. He co-starred with 14-year-old Sandra Dee in the 1959 film The Wild and the Innocent. The film's cast was rounded out with respected talent of the era in Gilbert Roland, Joanne Dru and Jim Backus.[52] His collaboration with Walter Mirisch on the black and white Cast a Long Shadow included an uncredited stint as co-producer. The film co-starred Terry Moore.[53] His performance in No Name on the Bullet was well received. The storyline follows the cool, jaded hired gun as the townspeople are gripped with fear by his presence.[54]

Murphy ... uncorks a toughness and maturity that is a powerful aid to the story.

Hollywood Reporter review of The Unforgiven[55]

Murphy continued to make films in the 1960s. Murphy and Huston worked together one more time in the 1960 film The Unforgiven, in which Murphy took second billing as Burt Lancaster's racist kid brother who was bent on the destruction of the Kiowa.[56]Writer Clair Huffaker had success in a number of his works being adapted for the films, including his 1958 novel Flaming Lance being filmed as the Elvis Presley western Flaming Star. Two of his works retained their original titles when Huffaker wrote the screenplays for them as Murphy's films in 1961, Seven Ways from Sundown and Posse from Hell.[57] Author Bob Herzberg deemed the scripts two of the best Murphy worked with in that decade.[58] Herbert Coleman directed Posse from Hell as well as the black and white World War II drama Battle at Bloody Beach set in the Philippines.[59]

Willard W. Willingham and his wife Mary Willingham were friends of Murphy's from his earliest days in Hollywood and who worked with him on a number of projects.[60][61][62] Williard was a producer on Murphy's 1961 television series Whispering Smith.[63] He additionally collaborated on Bullet for a Badman [64] in 1964 and Arizona Raiders in 1965. The latter was based on activities of Quantrill's Raiders and a remake of the George Montgomery 1951 film The Texas Rangers . Moving the setting from Texas to Arizona, the film also featured veteran actor Buster Crabbe.[65] Willard was a co-writer on the screenplay for Battle at Bloody Beach.[66] The Willinghams as a team wrote the screenplays for Gunpoint[67] as well the script for Murphy's last starring lead in a western 40 Guns to Apache Pass .[68] Released through Columbia Pictures in May 1967, the storyline centered around Murphy's character retrieving a cache of stolen rifles sold to Apache leader Cochise.[69]

Apache Rifles in 1964 was another formula Murphy western. He stayed at Universal for a few more years, then left to work at Columbia and Allied Artists before making several films in Europe. In 1966, he made Trunk to Cairo in Israel. He felt the film was, "the worst James Bond parody I've ever seen," but was unable to get out of the commitment.[70]

I feel like a prostitute who is a little over the hill. I get all kinds of promotional offers for movies. But instead of my usual price of $100,000 per picture, they offer $20,000 and a percentage of the profit you never see. When people find you need the money in this town, they cut their offer by 80 percent. And I keep turning down liquor and cigarette commercials. I don't believe they're good for kids. I guess it's a matter of not being 100 percent prostitute.[71]

—Audie Murphy, 1968

His own company FIPCO Productions[72] produced his last film A Time for Dying . He had a cameo role as Jesse James, and his sons Terry and James were given small roles. Willard W. Willingham played Frank James.[73] Budd Boetticher wrote the script, and agreed to the production as a return favor for an earlier time when Murphy had bailed him out of financial setbacks. The production was beset with financial problems, and the set burned down twice. The film opened in France in 1971, but was not shown in the United States until its limited release in 1982.[72] Two other projects that Murphy and Boetticher planned to produce, A Horse for Mr Barnum and When There's Sumpthin' to Do, never came to fruition.[74] He made over 40 feature films in his career.[ALM 1]

Films[edit]

Year Title Role Director Producer Studio Other cast members Refs.
1948 Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven Copy Boy William Castle Robert Golden United Artists James Dunn, William Frawley, Margaret Hamilton, Roscoe Karns, Diana Lynn, Guy Madison, Irene Ryan, Lionel Stander [17][77]
Beyond Glory Cadet Thomas John Farrow Robert Fellows Paramount Alan Ladd, Donna Reed [78]
1949 Bad Boy Danny Lester Kurt Neumann Paul Short Monogram James Gleason, Jimmy Lydon, Lloyd Nolan, Martha Vickers, Rhys Williams, Jane Wyatt [10][77]
1950 Kid from Texas, TheThe Kid from Texas William Bonney Kurt Neumann Paul Short Universal Albert Dekker, Will Geer, Gale Storm, William Talman, Ray Teal, Frank Wilcox [ALM 2]
Sierra Ring Hassard Alfred E. Green Michael Kraike Universal James Arness, Tony Curtis, Wanda Hendrix, Burl Ives, Dean Jagger, Elliott Reid, Roy Roberts [81][19][82]
Kansas Raiders Jesse James Ray Enright Ted Richmond Universal Richard Arlen, James Best, Scott Brady, Tony Curtis, Brian Donlevy, Richard Long [83][19]
1951 Red Badge of Courage, TheThe Red Badge of Courage The Youth[ALM 3] John Huston Gottfried Reinhardt MGM Royal Dano, Andy Devine, Douglas Dick, John Dierkes, Arthur Hunnicutt, Bill Mauldin [85]
Cimarron Kid, TheThe Cimarron Kid Bill Doolin aka The Cimarron Kid Budd Boetticher Ted Richmond Universal Noah Beery Jr, James Best, Leif Erickson, Hugh O'Brian, Roy Roberts, Frank Silvera [86][19]
1952 Duel at Silver Creek, TheThe Duel at Silver Creek Luke Cromwell aka The Silver Kid Don Siegel Leonard Goldstein Universal Susan Cabot, Faith Domergue, Lee Marvin, Gerald Mohr [19][87]
1953 Gunsmoke Reb Kittredge Nathan Juran Aaron Rosenberg Universal Susan Cabot, Jack Kelly, Jesse White [88][89]
Column South Lt. Jed Sayre Frederick De Cordova Ted Richmond Universal James Best, Ray Collins, Joan Evans, Russell Johnson, Jack Kelly, Bob Steele, Robert Sterling, Dennis Weaver [90][91]
Tumbleweed Jim Harvey Nathan Juran Ross Hunter Universal King Donovan, Russell Johnson, Lori Nelson, Roy Roberts, Lyle Talbot, Lee Van Cleef, Chill Wills [92][91]
1954 Ride Clear of Diablo Clay O'Mara Jesse Hibbs John W. Rogers Universal Susan Cabot, Dan Duryea, Jack Elam, Abbe Lane, Russell Johnson, Denver Pyle [93][91]
Drums Across the River Gary Brannon Nathan Juran Melville Tucker Universal Morris Ankrum, Lane Bradford, Walter Brennan, Lisa Gaye, Howard McNear, Jay Silverheels, Bob Steele [94][91]
Destry Tom Destry George Marshall Stanley Rubin Universal Edgar Buchanan, Mari Blanchard, Wallace Ford, Alan Hale, Jr., Thomas Mitchell, Lori Nelson, Mary Wickes [95][91]
1955 To Hell and Back Audie Murphy Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universal Charles Drake, David Janssen, Jack Kelly, Susan Kohner, Denver Pyle, Marshall Thompson [36][91]
1956 World in My Corner Tommy Shea Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universal John McIntire, Jeff Morrow, Barbara Rush [96][91]
Walk the Proud Land John Philip Clum Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universal Morris Ankrum, Anne Bancroft, Anthony Caruso, Pat Crowley, Charles Drake, Jay Silverheels [97][98]
1957 Joe Butterfly Pvt. Joe Woodley Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universal John Agar, Fred Clark, Burgess Meredith, George Nader, Keenan Wynn [96][98]
Guns of Fort Petticoat, TheThe Guns of Fort Petticoat Lt. Frank Hewitt George Marshall Harry Joe Brown
Audie Murphy
Columbia Kathryn Grant, Sean McClory, Jeanette Nolan, Ray Teal [99][98]
Night Passage Lee McLaine aka The Utica Kid James Neilson Aaron Rosenberg Universal Hugh Beaumont, Ellen Corby, Brandon deWilde, Dan Duryea, Jack Elam, Jay C. Flippen, James Stewart [100][98]
1958 Quiet American, TheThe Quiet American The American[ALM 4] Joseph L. Mankiewicz Joseph L. Mankiewicz United Artists Bruce Cabot, Claude Dauphin, Richard Loo, Giorgia Moll, Michael Redgrave [102][98]
Ride a Crooked Trail Joe Maybe Jesse Hibbs Howard Pine Universal Leo Gordon, Walter Matthau, Mort Mills, Joanna Cook Moore, Gia Scala, Henry Silva [103][104]
Gun Runners, TheThe Gun Runners Sam Martin Don Siegel Herbert E. Stewart
Clarence Greene
Seven Arts Eddie Albert, Jack Elam, Richard Jaeckel, Patricia Owens, Everett Sloane [105][106]
1959 No Name on the Bullet John Gant Jack Arnold Jack Arnold
Howard Christie
Universal R.G. Armstrong, Charles Drake, Joan Evans, Virginia Grey, Warren Stevens, Karl Swenson [107][108]
Wild and the Innocent, TheThe Wild and the Innocent Yancy Hawks Jack Sher Sy Gomberg Universal Jim Backus, Peter Breck, Sandra Dee, Joanne Dru, Strother Martin, Gilbert Roland [109][108]
Cast a Long Shadow Matt Brown Thomas Carr Walter Mirisch
Audie Murphy
United Artists James Best, John Dehner, Terry Moore, Denver Pyle [110][108]
1960 Unforgiven, TheThe Unforgiven Cash Zachary John Huston James Hill United Artists Charles Bickford, Lillian Gish, Audrey Hepburn, Burt Lancaster, Doug McClure, Albert Salmi, John Saxon, Joseph Wiseman [111][112][108]
Hell Bent for Leather Clay George Sherman Gordon Kay Universal Malcolm Atterbury, Felicia Farr, Allan Lane, Robert Middleton, Herbert Rudley, Bob Steele [113][108]
1961 Seven Ways from Sundown Seven Ways from Sundown Jones[ALM 5] Harry Keller Gordon Kay Universal Don Collier, Jack Kruschen, John McIntire, Venetia Stevenson, Barry Sullivan [115][108]
Posse from Hell Banner Cole Herbert Coleman Gordon Kay Universal Rodolfo Acosta, Royal Dano, Zohra Lampert, Allan Lane, Vic Morrow, John Saxon, Ray Teal, Lee Van Cleef [116][117]
Battle at Bloody Beach Craig Benson Herbert Coleman Richard Maibaum 20th Century Fox Gary Crosby, Ivan Dixon, Dolores Michaels, Alejandro Rey [59][118]
1962 Six Black Horses Ben Lane Harry Keller Gordon Kay Universal Dan Duryea, Joan O'Brien, Bob Steele [119][118]
War is Hell Narrator Burt Topper Burt Topper Allied Artists Baynes Barron [120][121]
1963 Showdown Chris Foster R.G. Springsteen Gordon Kay Universal Kathleen Crowley, Charles Drake, Skip Homeier, L. Q. Jones, Strother Martin, Harold J. Stone [122][118]
Gunfight at Comanche Creek Bob Gifford aka Judd Tanner Frank McDonald Ben Schwalb Allied Artists Ben Cooper, DeForest Kelley, Susan Seaforth [123][118]
1964 Quick Gun, TheThe Quick Gun Clint Cooper Sidney Salkow Grant Whytock Columbia Merry Anders, James Best, Ted de Corsia, Frank Ferguson, Mort Mills [118][124]
Bullet for a Badman Logan Keliher R.G. Springsteen Gordon Kay Universal Alan Hale Jr., Skip Homeier, Ruta Lee, Darren McGavin, Beverley Owen, George Tobias [125][118]
Apache Rifles Captain Jeff Stanton William Witney Grant Whytock 20th Century Fox John Archer, Michael Dante, L. Q. Jones, Linda Lawson, Ken Lynch [126][118]
1965 Arizona Raiders Clint William Witney Grant Whytock Columbia Ben Cooper, Buster Crabbe, Michael Dante, Gloria Talbott [121][127]
1966 Gunpoint Chad Lucas Earl Bellamy Gordon Kay Universal Edgar Buchanan, Royal Dano, Denver Pyle, Joan Staley, Warren Stevens, Morgan Woodward [128][121]
Texican, TheThe Texican Jess Carlin Lesley Selander John Champion
Bruce Balaban
Columbia Broderick Crawford [129][121]
Trunk to Cairo Mike Merrick Menahem Golan Menahem Golan American International Marianne Koch, George Sanders [70][121]
1967 40 Guns to Apache Pass Captain Coburn William Witney Grant Whytock Columbia Laraine Stephens [130][121]
1969 Time for Dying, AA Time for Dying Jesse James Budd Boetticher Audie Murphy FIPCO Productions Burt Mustin, Victor Jory [121][131]

Television[edit]

Audie Murphy as Whispering Smith

The only television series Murphy starred in was the 1961 Whispering Smith in which he played the title character. Based on the film of the same name, the show was about a 19th-century Denver railroad investigator. Episodes were gleaned from real-life cases of the Denver Police Department. The United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was concerned about the violent content in the show and leveled charges against the network. 26 episodes had been filmed, but not all of them aired.[132]

The cooperation of the United States Army and the United States Defense Department was extended for Murphy's media appearances to publicize the film To Hell and Back.[133] Among the 1955 celebrity television shows on which Murphy appeared to promote the film was Toast of the Town hosted by Ed Sullivan.

The Man 1960 suspense episode of Startime was based on an original Broadway play written by Mel Dinelli.[134] Murphy played a mentally unbalanced stranger who posed as a student and handyman and terrorized homeowner Thelma Ritter.

Outstanding Civilian Service Certificate

In 1960, he was awarded the Outstanding Civilian Service Medal for his cooperation in the production of The Big Picture television series episode Broken Bridge.[ALM 6]

Year Title Role Notes Refs.
1954 The Easter Seals Teleparade of Stars Self 18 April 1954 [137]
1955 What's My Line? Mystery Guest Episode 3 July 1955 [ALM 7]
Toast of the Town Self Promotion of To Hell and Back film, with cooperation of the Dept. of the U.S. Army and the Dept. of Defense [133]
Colgate Comedy Hour Self Episode 5.36 [ALM 8]
1957 Suspicion Steve Gordon The Flight [63]
1958 You Asked for It Self [ALM 9]
General Electric Theater Tennessee Incident, a Civil War drama [63]
1959 Dinah Shore Chevy Show Self Episode 3.52 [139]
Unknown The Big Picture Self The Third Division in Korea [ALM 10]
1960 The Big Picture Self Broken Bridge [ALM 11]
1963 The Big Picture Self Beyond the Call, Part II [ALM 12]
1960 Startime Howard Wilton The Man [144]
1961 Whispering Smith Tom "Whispering" Smith[ALM 13] 26 episodes [132]

Radio[edit]

Year Title Role Notes Refs.
1947 Hollywood Fights Back Self 26 October 1947 [ALM 14]
1949 This Is Your Life Self 8 March 1949 episode (recorded on 7 March), hosted by Ralph Edwards [ALM 15]
1951 Cavalcade of America Walter Carlin 9 October 1951, Episode 713 The Fields are Green [ALM 16]

Public Service Announcements[edit]

Year Title Role Notes Refs.
1955 Medal of Honor with Audie Murphy Self Savings bond promotion [ALM 17]

See also[edit]

Book icon

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The exact count on the number of feature films Murphy made varies by source. The Hollywood Walk of Fame and other sources put his total number of feature films at 44.[75] The film table in this article sources 45 films. IMDb has recently added a 46th film, Rock 'Em Cowboy (1958), but it is so far not verifiable for this article.[76]
  2. ^ The Kid From Texas is the final movie shown at the local theater in Larry McMurty's novel The Last Picture Show.[79][80][19]
  3. ^ Henry Fleming is the Youth in Stephen Crane's novel. In the 1951 film, Fleming is played by Murphy shown in the cast listing as the unnamed character "The Youth". However, Fleming is addressed by name when other characters are speaking to him.[84]
  4. ^ Alden Pyle is the American in Graham Greene's novel. In the 1958 film, Pyle is played by Murphy as the unnamed character "The American".[101]
  5. ^ The parents of Seven Ways from Sundown Jones gave their children numbers for names. Murphy's character was the last of seven children. The storyline has him seeking the killer of his brother Two Jones.[114]
  6. ^ Murphy received no monetary compensation for his services on the documentary.[135][136]
  7. ^ YouTube has several uploaded versions of the 5-minute What's My Line segment that features Murphy as the mystery guest. Listed as Episode dated 3 July 1955 at the Internet Movie Database
  8. ^ 56-minute uploaded on YouTube as Audie Murphy Attends Beverly Hilton Grand Opening 1955. He appears at 28:48 and briefly talks with Hedda Hopper about how he once gave his medals away but had them replaced by the U. S. Army.
  9. ^ You Asked for It ran 1951–1959 on the Dumont and ABC television networks, with hosts Art Baker and Jack Smith. The episodes were in response to requests submitted by viewers.[138] Murphy's episode features the star talking with host Jack Smith about his interest in quarter horses. Uploaded on YouTube.
  10. ^ The Third Division in Korea is an episode of The Big Picture series of United States Army self-promotional documentaries offered at no cost to American television networks, beginning during the Korean War and continuing through the Vietnam War.[140] The 27-minute documentary of the 3rd Infantry Division's involvement in the Korean War is introduced by Sergeant Stuart Queen and Murphy. At the end of the documentary, Murphy is seen in dress uniform speaking from a dais to the Division at the Port of New Orleans.[141][142] Uploaded on YouTube.
  11. ^ Broken Bridge is an episode of The Big Picture series. In this episode the United States Army escorts Murphy to Germany, Italy, Turkey and the U.S. state of New Mexico to demonstrate their missile weaponry. Uploaded on YouTube. Listed as Audie Murphy in Nuremberg at the Internet Movie Database.[135]
  12. ^ Part of The Big Picture series, Beyond the Call is a black and white docudrama about Medal of Honor winners. Although the heroic actions are depicted, and each soldier's personal background is detailed, none of them are mentioned by name, including Murphy. Footage from the color film To Hell and Back depicting Murphy's actions at Holtzwihr is converted to black and white. Uploaded on YouTube.[140][143]
  13. ^ When Frank H. Spearman wrote the 1906 Whispering Smith novel, he appropriated the sobriquet already attached to real-life railroad detective James L. Smith. The 1948 film version with Alan Ladd changed the name to Luke Smith. Murphy's character in the television series became Tom Smith.[145][146]
  14. ^ Hollywood Fights Back was produced as two 30-minute specials by the First Amendment Committee in 1947 for broadcast 26 October and 2 November on the ABC radio network. Numerous major film stars of the era appeared in the specials to express their opposition to the activities of the House Un-American Activities Committee. Murphy spoke in the 26 October broadcast.[147]
  15. ^ Publicity for To Hell and Back. The Audie Murphy Research Foundation has a user-generated reproduction of the full transcript of Murphy's appearance that was published in the June 1954 issue of Photoplay magazine.[148]
  16. ^ Dramatization of the real life story of Walter and William Carlin, who as teenagers turned an old farm into a success. It was broadcast in honor of the Future Farmers of America, and co-starred Bob Hastings, best known for his later recurring role in McHale's Navy.[149][150]
  17. ^ This public service announcement was written by Oscar Brodney and produced by Jesse Hibbs through Universal Studios for the U.S. Treasury Department. He talks to actors Barbara Rush, Barney Phillips and John McIntire about savings bonds. Terry Murphy also appears. Uploaded on YouTube as Audie Murphy Promotes Savings Bonds (PSA 1955).[151]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Life Visits Audie Murphy". Life: 94–97. 16 July 1945. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Graham 1989, p. 129.
  3. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 130–131.
  4. ^ Graham 1989, p. 133.
  5. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 128–147.
  6. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 150–151.
  7. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 142,174.
  8. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 145–146.
  9. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 142,174,215.
  10. ^ a b Movies of the Month (April 1949). "Bad Boy". Boys' Life: 50. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Graham 1989, p. 128.
  12. ^ Graham 1989, p. 216.
  13. ^ Graham 1989, p. 250.
  14. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 161–162.
  15. ^ Tate 2006, pp. 162–163.
  16. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 265,280.
  17. ^ a b Young & Young 2010, pp. 493–495.
  18. ^ Graham 1989, p. 177.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Graham 1989, p. 348.
  20. ^ Nott 2005, pp. 1–2.
  21. ^ Rausch 2008, pp. 38, 39.
  22. ^ "Review: Destry". Variety. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  23. ^ Roberts 2009, pp. 125–126.
  24. ^ Yoggy 1998, p. 101.
  25. ^ Lucas 2004, pp. 175–177.
  26. ^ Nott 2005, pp. 51–22.
  27. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 231–232.
  28. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 220–221.
  29. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 222–223.
  30. ^ Ross 1997, p. 100.
  31. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 196–197.
  32. ^ Tracey 2001, pp. 16–18.
  33. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 204–205.
  34. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 241,349.
  35. ^ Huebner 2007, pp. 140–143.
  36. ^ a b Gossett 1996, p. 15.
  37. ^ Niemi 2006, p. 90.
  38. ^ "The Way Back". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Helmets in the Dust". U.S. Copyright Records Database. United States Copyright Office. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  40. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 261–262.
  41. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 241–242, 244–246,261.
  42. ^ Graham 1989, p. 233.
  43. ^ a b c Graham 1989, p. 263.
  44. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 266–267.
  45. ^ Graham 1989, p. 268.
  46. ^ Herzberg 2005, p. 97.
  47. ^ Dippie 1999, pp. 208–209.
  48. ^ Graham 1989, pp. 263–264.
  49. ^ O'Connor & Rollins 2008, pp. 407, 414- 415.
  50. ^ Graham 1989, p. 264.
  51. ^ Graham 1989, p. 265.
  52. ^ Cozad 2006, pp. 221–222.
  53. ^ Mirisch 2008, p. 97.
  54. ^ Maltin 2008, pp. 994–995.
  55. ^ Graham 1989, p. 290.
  56. ^ Nott 2005, pp. 113–117.
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References[edit]

  • American Film Institute (1997). The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1961–1970. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20970-1. 
  • Basinger, Jeanine; Arnold, Jeremy (2003). The World War II Combat Film: Anatomy of a Genre. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0819566232. 
  • Boggs, Johnny D (2011). Jesse James and the Movies. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-4788-6. 
  • Bristow, Allen P. (2007). Whispering Smith His Life and Misadventures. Santa Fe, NM: Sunstone Press. ISBN 978-0-86534-551-5. 
  • Cozad, W. Lee (2006). More Magnificent Mountain Movies. Lake Arrowhead, CA: Sunstroke Media. ISBN 978-0-9723372-3-6. 
  • DiLeo, John (2004). 100 Great Film Performances You Should Remember – But Probably Don't. New York, NY: Limelight Editions. ISBN 978-0-87910-972-1. 
  • Dippie, Brian W (1999). Charlie Russell Roundup: Essays on America's Favorite Cowboy Artist. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-917298-46-2. 
  • Edwards, Paul M (1997). A Guide to Films on the Korean War. Westport, CT: Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-30316-6. 
  • Fagen, Herb (2003). The Encyclopedia of Westerns. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0816044573. 
  • Gossett, Sue (1996). The Films and Career of Audie Murphy. Madison, NC: Empire Publishing. ISBN 978-0-944019-22-1. 
  • Graham, Don (1989). No Name on the Bullet. New York, NY: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-81511-1. 
  • Herzberg, Bob (2005). Shooting Scripts. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-2173-2. 
  • Hoffman, Henryk (2012). Western Movie References in American Literature. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-6638-2. 
  • Huebner, Andrew J (2007). The Warrior Image: Soldiers in American Culture from the Second World War to the Vietnam Era. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3144-1. 
  • Lewis, C. Jack (2002). White Horse, Black Hat: A Quarter Century on Hollywood's Poverty Row. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-4358-5. 
  • Lucas, John Meredyth (2004). Eighty Odd Years in Hollywood: Memoir of a Career in Film and Television. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-1838-1. 
  • Maltin, Leonard (2008). Leonard Maltin's 2009 Movie Guide. New York, NY: Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-28978-9. 
  • Mirisch, Walter (2008). I Thought We Were Making Movies, Not History. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-22640-4. 
  • Niemi, Robert (2006). History in the Media: Film And Television. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2. 
  • Nott, Robert (2005). Last of the Cowboy Heroes: The Westerns of Randolph Scott, Joel McCrea, and Audie Murphy. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-2261-6. 
  • O'Connor, John E.; Rollins, Peter C (2008). Why We Fought: America's Wars in Film and History. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2493-3. 
  • Pitts, Michael R. (2012). Western Movies: A Guide to 5,105 Feature Films. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786463725. 
  • Rausch, Andrew J; Dequina, Michael (2008). Fifty Filmmakers: Conversations With Directors from Roger Avary to Steven Zaillian. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-3149-6. 
  • Roberts, Jerry (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Film Directors. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6378-1. 
  • Ross, Lillian (1997). Picture. New York, NY: Modern Library. ISBN 978-0-679-60254-5. 
  • Simpson, Harold B. (1975). Audie Murphy, American Soldier. Hillsboro, TX: Hill Jr. College Press. ISBN 978-0-912172-20-0. 
  • Smith, Ronald L (2010). Horror Stars on Radio: The Broadcast Histories of 29 Chilling Hollywood Voices. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-5729-8. 
  • Spearman, Frank H. (1906). Whispering Smith. New York, NY: Scribner. OCLC 858276051. 
  • Starr, Kevin (2003). Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940–1950. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516897-6. 
  • Tate, J. R (2006). Walkin' with the Ghost Whisperers. Philadelphia, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-4544-4. 
  • Terrace, Vincent (1985). Encyclopedia of Television: Series, Pilots and Specials 1974–1984. New York, NY: Zoetrope. ISBN 978-0-918432-61-2. 
  • Terrace, Vincent (2013). Television Specials: 5,336 Entertainment Programs, 1936–2012. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-7444-8. 
  • Tracey, Grant (2001). Filmography of American History. Westport, CT: Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-31300-4. 
  • Yoggy, Gary A. (1998). Back in the Saddle: Essays on Western Film and Television Actors. Jefferson, NC: Mcfarland & Co Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-0566-4. 
  • Young, William H; Young, Nancy K (2010). World War II and the Postwar Years in America: A Historical and Cultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35652-0. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Williamson, Thames (1933). The Woods Colt : a Novel of the Ozark Hills. Harcourt, Brace and Company. OCLC 1399074. 
  • Hargrove, Marion; Williamson, Thames (c. 1955). Final script : "The Woods Colt". Audie Murphy Productions. OCLC 40402371. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Audie Murphy at Wikimedia Commons