Augsburg

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Augsburg
View of Augsburg City Hall and other historical buildings in Augsburg
View of Augsburg City Hall and other historical buildings in Augsburg
Coat of arms of Augsburg
Coat of arms
Augsburg   is located in Germany
Augsburg
Augsburg
Coordinates: 48°22′N 10°54′E / 48.367°N 10.900°E / 48.367; 10.900Coordinates: 48°22′N 10°54′E / 48.367°N 10.900°E / 48.367; 10.900
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Schwaben
District Urban district
Government
 • Lord Mayor Kurt Gribl (CSU)
Area
 • Total 146.93 km2 (56.73 sq mi)
Elevation 446-561 m (−1,395 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 272,699
 • Density 1,900/km2 (4,800/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 86150–86199
Dialling codes 0821
Vehicle registration A
Mixed Imperial City of Augsburg
Paritätische Reichsstadt Augsburg
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire

1276–1803


Coat of arms of Augsburg
before 1985

Capital Augsburg
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Bishopric established 4th century
 -  Bishopric gained
Imperial immediacy
c. 888 1276
 -  City gained immediacy 1276
 -  Diet of Augsburg:
Confessio Augustana
1530
 -  Joined Schmalkadic League 1537
 -  Peace of Augsburg 1555
 -  Occupied by Sweden 1632–35 1803
 -  Mediatised to Bavaria 1803

Augsburg (German pronunciation: [ˈʔaʊ̯ksbʊʁk] ( )) is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It was a Free Imperial City for over 500 years.

It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria (after Munich and Nuremberg) with a population exceeding 270,000 citizens. After Neuss and Trier, Augsburg is Germany's third oldest city.

Augsburg is the only German city with its own legal holiday, the Augsburger Hohes Friedensfest, celebrated on August 8 of every year. This gives Augsburg more legal holidays than any other region or city in Germany.[2]

Augsburg was the home of two patrician families that rose to great prominence internationally, replacing the Medicis as Europe's leading bankers, the Fugger and the Welser families.

History[edit]

The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, on the orders of their stepfather Emperor Augustus. The name "Augusta Vindelicorum" means "Augusta of the Vindelici". This garrison camp soon became the capital of the Roman province of Raetia.

Early development was due to a 400-year affiliation with the Roman Empire, especially because of its excellent military, economic and geographic position at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, and with direct access to most important Alpine passes. Thus, Augsburg was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which later evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages.[3]

Territories of the Free Imperial City and the Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg

Around 120 AD Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia. Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity.

Historical spellings of the name of the city include "Ausburch" and "Ausbourch."

Augsburg Confession[edit]

Augsburg was granted the status of a Free Imperial City on March 9, 1276 and from then until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however, particularly after Augsburg became Protestant and curtailed the rights and freedoms of Catholics.

With a strategic location as intersection of trade routes to Italy, the Free Imperial City became a major trading center. Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods, cloth and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to great prominence, the Fuggers and the Welsers. The Fugger family donated the Fuggerei part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516, which remains in use today.

Panorama of Augsburg, 1493
Perlach market place in 1550.

In 1530, the Augsburg Confession was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg. Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be legally protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population; see Paritätische Reichsstadt.

Thirty Years' War[edit]

Religious peace in the city was largely maintained despite increasing Confessional tensions until the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1629, Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored the legal situation of 1552 which again curtailed the rights of the Protestant citizens. The inequality of the Edict of Restitution was rescinded when in April 1632, the Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus captured Augsburg without resistance.

In 1634, the Swedish army was routed at nearby Nördlingen. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg. The Swedish garrison refused to surrender and a siege ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. According to J. N. Hays, "In the period of the Swedish occupation and the Imperial siege the population of the city was reduced from about 70,000 to about 16,000, with typhus and plague playing major roles."[4]

Nine Years' War[edit]

In 1686, Emperor Leopold I formed the League of Augsburg, termed by the English as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689: a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Savoy, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. It was formed to defend the Palatinate from France. This organization fought against France in the Nine Years War.

Augsburg's peak boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to the bank and metal businesses of the merchant families Fugger and Welser, who held a local near total monopoly on their respective industries. Augsburg's wealth attracted artists seeking patrons and rapidly became a creative centre for famous painters, sculptors and musicians notably birthplace of : the Holbein painter family. In later centuries the city was the birthplace of the composer Leopold Mozart and the playwright Berthold Brecht. Rococo became so prevalent that it became known as “Augsburg style” throughout Germany.

End of Free Imperial City status and Industrial Revolution revival[edit]

A map of Augsburg in 1800.

In 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, Augsburg lost its independence and was annexed to the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1817, the city became an administrative capital of the Oberdonaukreis, then administrative capital in 1837 for the district Swabia and Neuburg.

During the end of the 19th century, Augsburg's textile industry again rose to prominence followed by the connected machine manufacturing industry.

Military[edit]

Augsburg was historically a militarily important city due to its strategic location. During the German re-armament before the Second World War, the Wehrmacht enlarged Augsburg's one original Kaserne (barracks) to three: Somme Kaserne ((housing Wehrmacht Artillerie-Regiment 27)); Arras Kaserne ((housing Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 27)) and Panzerjäger Kaserne (housing Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 27 (later Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27). Wehrmacht Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27 was later moved to Füssen.

During World War II, one subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp was located outside Augsburg, supplying approximately 1300 forced labourers to local military-related industry, most especially the Messerschmitt AG military aircraft firm headquartered in Augsburg.[5][6]

In 1941 Rudolf Hess without Hitler's permission secretly took off from a local airport and flew to Scotland to meet the Duke of Hamilton, and crashed in Eaglesham in an attempt to mediate the end of the European front of World War II and join sides for the upcoming Russian Campaign.

The Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 was stationed in Augsburg and became the base unit for the Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 40, a subsection of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27 (which later became the Wehrmacht Panzerdivision 17). Elements of Wehrmacht II Battalion of Gebirgs-Jäger-Regiment 99 (especially Wehrmacht Panzerjäger Kompanie 14) was composed of parts of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27. The Infanterie Regiment 40 remained in Augsburg until the end of the war, finally surrendering to the United States when in 1945, the U.S. Army occupied the heavily bombed and damaged city. .

Following the war, the three Kaserne would change hands confusingly between the American and Germans, finally ending up in US hands for the duration of the Cold War. The former Wehrmacht Kaserne became the three main US barracks in Augsburg: Reese;, Sheridan and FLAK. US Base FLAK had been an anti-aircraft barracks since 1936 and US Base Sheridan "united" the former infantry barracks with a smaller Kaserne for former Luftwaffe communications units.

The American military presence in the city started with the 11th Airborne Division, followed by the 24th Infantry Division, U.S. Army Seventh Corps Artillery, 701st Military Intelligence Brigade and finally the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, which returned the former Kaserne to German hands in 1998. Originally the Heeresverpflegungshauptamt Südbayern and an Officers' caisson existed on or near the location of Reese-Kaserne, but was demolished by the occupying Americans.

Politics[edit]

Municipality[edit]

From 1266 until 1548, the terms Stadtpfleger (head of town council) and Mayor were used interchangeably, or occasionally, simultaneously. In 1548 the title was finally fixed to Stadtpfleger, who officiated for several years and was then awarded the title for life (though no longer governing), thus resulting confusingly, in records of two or more simultaneous Stadtpfleger.

After the transfer to Bavaria in 1806, Augsburg was ruled by a Magistrate with two mayors, supported by an additional council of "Community Commissioners": the Gemeindebevollmächtige.

As of 1907, the Mayor was entitled Oberbürgermeister, as Augsburg had reached a population of 100,000, as per the Bavarian Gemeindeordnung.

Town Council[edit]

Election results of the Town Council since 1972 in percent
Year CSU SPD FDP Grüne ödp DKP/PDS REP NPD other
1972 44.9 46.5 2.3 0.7 0.9 4.7
1978 46.8 44.5 2.7 0.4 0.6 4.9
1984 32.9 44.9 1.3 4.2 0.2 0.7 15.8
1990 43.1 28.4 2.5 10.8 10.0 5.2
1996 44.1 29.4 1.7 10.5 2.8 11.5
2002 43.5 36.4 3.5 8.7 1.8 1.2 4.9
2008 40.1 30.1 2.7 10.3 1.5 3.5 11.8
Seats 20081 25 19 1 6 22 73

1 Local elections on March 2, 2008     22008: Die Linke     3 Pro Augsburg: 6, Freie Wähler: 1

Members of the Bundestag[edit]

Augsburg is located in the Wahlkreis 253 Augsburg-Stadt constituency, which includes Königsbrunn and the District of Augsburg (Landkreis Augsburg).

Christian Ruck of the CSU was directly elected to the Bundestag with 49.2% of the vote in the 16th German Bundestag.

Indirectly elected to the Bundestag to adhere to the Landesliste were Miriam Gruß for the FDP, Heinz Paula for the SPD and Claudia Roth for Bündnis 90/Die Grünen.

Main sights[edit]

Fünfgratturm tower
Ring of Mercy on the Dom (Cathedral) St. Maria
Augsburg Synagogue
St. Ulrich and St. Afra Cathedral

Incorporations[edit]

Year Municipality Area
July 1, 1910 Meringerau 9.5 km²
January 1, 1911 Pfersee 3.5 km²
January 1, 1911 Oberhausen 8.6 km²
January 1, 1913 Lechhausen 27.9 km²
January 1, 1913 Hochzoll 4.4 km²
April 1, 1916 Kriegshaber 59 km²
July 1, 1972 Göggingen
July 1, 1972 Haunstetten
July 1, 1972 Inningen

Historical population development[edit]

Year Population
1635 16,432
1645 19,960
1806 26,200
1830 29,019
December 1, 1871 ¹ 51,220
December 1, 1890 ¹ 75,629
December 1, 1900 ¹ 89,109
December 1, 1910 ¹ 102,487
June 16, 1925 ¹ 165,522
June 16, 1933 ¹ 176,575
May 17, 1939 ¹ 185,369
September 13, 1950 ¹ 185,183
June 6, 1961 ¹ 208,659
May 27, 1970 ¹ 211,566
June 30, 1975 252,000
June 30, 1980 246,600
June 30, 1985 244,200
May 27, 1987 ¹ 242,819
December 31, 1990 256.877
December 31, 1991 259.884
December 31, 1992 264.852
December 31, 1993 264.764
December 31, 1994 262.110
December 31, 1995 259.699
December 31, 1996 258.457
December 31, 1997 256.625
December 31, 1998 254.610
December 31, 1999 254.867
December 31, 2000 254.982
December 31, 2001 257.836
December 31, 2002 259.231
December 31, 2003 259.217
December 31, 2004 260.407
December 31, 2005 262.676
December 31, 2006 262.512
December 31, 2007 262.992
December 31, 2008 263.313
December 31, 2009 263.646
December 31, 2010 264.708
December 31, 2011 266.647

¹ Census result

Partner cities[edit]

Information on the partner cities can also be found at www.augsburg.de

Transport[edit]

Roads[edit]

The main road link is autobahn A 8 between Munich and Stuttgart.

Public transport[edit]

Public transport is very well catered for. It is controlled by the Augsburger Verkehrsverbund (Augsburg transport union, AVV) extended over central Swabia. There are seven rail Regionalbahn lines, five tram lines, 27 city bus lines and six night bus lines, as well as, several taxi companies.

The Augsburg tramway network is now 35.5 km-long after the opening of new lines to the university in 1996, the northern city boundary in 2001 and to the Klinikum Augsburg (Augsburg hospital) in 2002. Tram line 6, which runs 5.2 km from Friedberg West to Rotes Tor, opened in December 2010.[7]

Rail services[edit]

The front of the station

Augsburg has six stations, the Central Station (Hauptbahnhof), Hochzoll, Oberhausen, Morellstraße and Messe. The Central Station, built from 1843 to 1846, is Germany’s oldest main station in a large city still providing services in the original building. It is currently being modernized and an underground tram station is built underneath it. Hauptbahnhof is on the Munich–Augsburg and Ulm–Augsburg lines and is connected by ICE and IC services to Munich, Berlin, Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Stuttgart. As of December 2007, the French TGV connected Augsburg with a direct High Speed Connection to Paris. In addition EC and night train services connect to Amsterdam, Paris and Vienna and connections will be substantially improved by the creation of the planned Magistrale for Europe.

The AVV operates seven Regionalbahn lines from the main station to:

Starting in 2008, the regional services are planned to be altered to S-Bahn frequencies and developed long term as integrated into the Augsburg S-Bahn.

Air transport[edit]

Until 2005 Augsburg was served by nearby Augsburg Airport (AGB). In that year all air passenger transport has been relocated to Munich Airport. Since then the Airport only serves for General aviation and business aviation.

Economy[edit]

Statue of Archangel Michael in Augsburg
KUKA's industrial robots

Augsburg is a vibrant industrial city. Many global market leaders namely MAN, EADS or KUKA produce high technology products like printing systems, large diesel engines, industrial robots or components for the Airbus A380 and the Ariane carrier rocket. After Munich, Augsburg is considered the high-tech centre for Information and Communication in Bavaria and takes advantage of its lower operating costs, yet close proximity to Munich and potential customers.

Major companies[edit]

Education[edit]

Augsburg is home to the following universities and colleges:

Media[edit]

The local newspaper is the Augsburger Allgemeine first published in 1807. There are also several local radio stations and a local TV station (a.tv).

Notable people[edit]

Holbein's house

Sports[edit]

FC Augsburg is a football team based in Augsburg and plays in the SGL arena. FC Augsburg was promoted to Bundesliga in 2011. The new stadium (opened in July 2009) also hosted games of the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup.

The city is home to a DEL (first-division) ice hockey team, the Augsburger Panther. The original club, AEV, was formed in 1878, the oldest German ice sport club and regularly draws around 4000 spectators, quite reasonable for German ice hockey. Home games are played at the Curt Frenzel Stadion: a recently rebuilt (2012-2013) indoor rink and modern stadium. Also Augsburg is home to one of the most traditional German Baseball clubs, the Augsburg Gators.

For the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, a Lech River dam protective diversionary canal for river ice was converted into the world's first artificial whitewater slalom course: the Eiskanal and remains a world-class venue for whitewater competition and served as prototype for two dozen similar foreign courses.

Local city nicknames[edit]

While commonly called Fuggerstadt (Fuggers' city) due to the Fuggers residing there, within Swabia it is also often referred to as Datschiburg: which originated sometime in the 19th century refers to Augsburg's favorite sweet: the Datschi made from fruit, preferably prunes, and thin cake dough.[11] The Datschiburger Kickers charity football team (founded in 1965) reflects this in its choice of team name.[12][13]

Among the younger people, the city is commonly called "Aux" as a short form.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). 31 December 2012. 
  2. ^ http://www2.augsburg.de/
  3. ^ http://www2.augsburg.de/index.php?id=12356
  4. ^ "Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history". J. N. Hays (2005). p.98. ISBN 1-85109-658-2
  5. ^ Wolfgang Sofsky, William Templer, The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp: Princeton University Press: 1999, ISBN 0-691-00685-7: 352 pages: pp 183
  6. ^ Edward Victor. Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps. http://www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List%20of%20camps.htm
  7. ^ "Railway Gazette: Urban rail news in brief". Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  8. ^ www.uni-augsburg.de
  9. ^ "Oskar Schindler's collaborator, Mietek Pemper, has died". Agence France-Presse (The Gazette (Montreal)). 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  10. ^ Martin, Douglas (2011-06-18). "Mietek Pemper, 91, Camp Inmate Who Compiled Schindler’s List". New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  11. ^ Augsburger Stadtlexikon – Datschiburg (German) accessed: 18 November 2008
  12. ^ Datschiburger Kickers website accessed: 18 November 2008
  13. ^ Augsburger Stadtlexikon – Datschiburger Kickers (German) accessed: 18 November 2008

References[edit]

  • Die Chroniken der schwäbischen Städte, Augsburg, (Leipzig, 1865–1896).
  • Werner, Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg, (Augsburg, 1900).
  • Lewis, "The Roman Antiquities of Augsburg and Ratisbon", in volume xlviii, Archæological Journal, (London, 1891).

External links[edit]