The Yuaikai, later called the Nihon Rōdō Sodomei or Japan Federation of Labor, was founded by Bunji Suzuki. At its peak, it would have 100,000 workers in its ranks.
A train accident at Rio de Janeiro killed 10 and injured 50.
The Progressive Party announced that it would not allow African-Americans from Southern states to be delegates at its organizing convention in Chicago, with the approval of former President Roosevelt. Roosevelt emphasized that from Northern states, "there would be a number of negro delegates; more, in fact, than ever before figured in a National convention".
The throwing of a bomb in the Ottoman Empire city of Kotschana (now Kočani, Republic of Macedonia), led to a riot by the residents there, with 140 killed by Turkish soldiers who suppressed it. Eleven people were killed when a bomb went off in the town square, followed a few minutes later by another fatal attack.
The U.S. Senate voted 51-4 to extend the Monroe Doctrine to protect the Americas from foreign corporations.
Tibetans were routed by Chinese soldiers at Lhasa.
The gunboat USS Tacoma was ordered to proceed from Guantanamo to Bluefields, Nicaragua.
"Baby Seals Blues" was published in the form of sheet music; according to historian Rudi Blesh, the song by Arthur "Baby" Seales was the first blues song to use the word "blues" in its title, with "Dallas Blues" appearing the next month on September 28, while other sources describe "Dallas Blues" as having been introduced in March 1912.
An attack by soldiers of Montenegro, against a Turkish border post, killed 30 Turks and 12 Montenegrins.
Turkey's Parliament was dissolved after a vote of no confidence.
Nine members of an English boy scout troop, between the ages of 11 and 14, drowned along with their scoutmaster, when their boat capsized in the sea near the Isle of Sheppey, off the coast of the county of Kent. The deaths of the scouts were mourned as a national tragedy, and then-First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill had the destroyer HMS Fervent bring their flag-draped coffins to London for the funeral.
Physicist Victor Hess of the Vienna Institute for Radium Research, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, became the first person to discover cosmic rays. Hoping to build upon the research of Theodor Wulf, who had found that radioactive emission from Earth decreased measurably at higher altitudes, Hess sought to measure the decrease by venturing to greater heights in a balloon. On his seventh flight, he lifted off with a pilot and a meteorologist from Aussig (now Ústí nad Labem in the Czech Republic). To his surprise, the electroscopes on his balloon began measuring an increase in radiation at 5,350 feet, after a steady decrease during the ascent, and at 15,000 feet the amount doubled, showing that penetrating radiation was entering the atmosphere from a source other than the Sun. Hess called the rays Höhenstrahlung, radiation from above.
The Progressive Party nominated Theodore Roosevelt as its candidate for President of the United States and California Governor Hiram Johnson for vice-president.
Three employees of the Union American Cigar Company at 28th and Smallman in Pittsburgh were killed, and 12 seriously injured, after a 24 ton water tank fell through the roof and the sixth floor, then into the fifth.
Woodrow Wilson accepted the Democratic nomination for president, which had offered the previous month at the convention in Baltimore. The New Jersey Governor spoke at his home in Sea Girt, New Jersey, before a group of other Democrats who were state governors, and a crowd of 6,000 supporters. New technology was used to capture the moment on phonographic records and films, so that American voters could see and hear the candidate.
A mine explosion in the German village of Gerthe, near Bochum in Westphalia killed 103 men at the Lothringen Coal Company.
Friederich Krupp AG, the Krupp family armaments company, celebrated its centennial with the Kaiser giving the address. Accompanying the Kaiser to the ceremony at Essen were the Chancellor and many of his cabinet, and Prince Henry.
Died:Cincinnatus Leconte, President of Haiti, was killed in an accidental explosion at the presidential palace in Port-au-Prince. The President shared his residence with an arsenal of gunpowder in the basement, and the first blast occurred after an early morning fire had started. The legislature named General Tancrède Auguste as the new President that afternoon.
Died:Ross Winn, 40, American anarchist and newspaper publisher
1912 Mürefte earthquake: An earthquake in Turkey near the Dardanelles killed thousands of people. There were 300 dead in Myriophito, 80 in Ganos-Hora, and a total destruction of the towns of Shar-Koi and Chorlu. Chorlu was consumed by fire, reportedly by a lantern being toppled by the quake.
Kosovo Albanian rebel leaders presented a list of 14 demands to one of the viziers of the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish leadership would agree to most of the proposals.
The Panama Canal bill passed the U.S. Senate 47-15.
The Republic of China's provisional government enacted its election law, creating a lower house of parliament, and limiting voting rights to male citizens who were at least 21, had two years residency in their district, and met property and educational restrictions.
Major league baseball star Ty Cobb was in Detroit when he was jumped by three hoodlums while on his way to catch a train to Syracuse, New York, to appear for the Tigers in an exhibition game against the minor league Syracuse Stars, and cut on the back by a knife. He played the next day while wearing "a blood-soaked, makeshift bandage", and would later tell biographer Al Stump that he had beaten one of his attackers to death. However, lawyer and baseball fan Doug Roberts researched coroner records and press reports, and found no record of a body being found with head trauma during the summer of 1912, nor of mention in the Detroit newspapers, although Cobb was treated for a half inch long knife wound.
An attack by Zapatista rebels on a train near Mexico City killed 35 soldiers and 20 civilians.
An army of 15,000 Kosovar Albanians marched on the Üskub (now Skopje in the Republic of Macedonia), at the time one of the European outposts of the Ottoman Empire, and expelled the Turkish administrators and Serbian residents there. Serbia would send troops in response, retaking the city and driving out the remaining Ottomans from Macedonia after the Battle of Kumanovo on October 23.
A military aviation branch was created for the Russian Army, beginning what would become the Soviet Air Forces.
A record seven convicts were put to death in the electric chair at Sing Sing, the New York penetentiary at Ossining, New York, in the space of a little more than an hour, with the first being executed at 5:09 am and the last at 6:14 am. Five were Italian-Americans who had burglarized a house at Griffin's Corners, New York in November, during which a sixth man, Santo Zanzara, had stabbed an occupant to death. Zanzara had been executed earlier, and the other five were put to death as accessories.
Captain W. Stanley Lord of the SS Californian issued his statement to explain the ship's failure to come to the aid of the RMS Titanic. Lord said that the ship, which his Second Officer had seen firing a rocket, was not the Titanic because it steamed away; that Morse code signals from the Californian to the other ship were ignored; and that if the ship had been the Titanic, it would have been seen by the RMS Carpathia at the same time.
Sixteen year old Virginia Christian was executed in Richmond, Virginia, for the March 18 murder of her employer, Mrs. Ida Belote, in Hampton, despite pleas for clemency made to Governor Mann. Despite being a minor, the African-American girl, was described in reports as "the first woman to be put to death in the electric chair in Virginia."
Clarence Darrow, the famous American lawyer, was successful in winning another verdict of acquittal in a criminal trial—his own. Darrow had been charged with having attempted to bribe a juror in the Los Angeles Times bombing case.
The United Kingdom, by its ambassador, Sir John Jordan, sent a message to the Republic of China, announcing that Britain would accept China's suzerainty over Tibet as long as Chinese troops remained out of the Buddhist state in the Himalayan Mountains. Britain's objective was to make Tibet a buffer state between China and British India.
The U.S. Plant Quarantine Act was signed into law, giving the federal government the power to regulate the importation and interstate shipment of plant products that might carry with them insects and diseases. The law was effective in curtailing the spread of the gypsy moth beyond the New England area, where the population of the pest had increased over the previous seven years.
Four year old Bobby Dunbar disappeared while his parents were on a fishing trip to a lake near their home in Opelousas, Louisiana. After an eight-month search by Bobby's father, police in Mississippi would announce that they had found the child under the care of handyman William Cantwell Walters, who said that he had been entrusted to take care of Bruce Anderson by Bruce's mother. In a dispute between the Dunbars and Mrs. Anderson, a court would award the boy to the Dunbars, while Walters would be convicted of kidnapping Bobby and serve two years before the verdict was reversed. In 2004, a DNA test would show that Walters had been right—the child returned to the Dunbars had not been Bobby. It was presumed that the child raised by the Dunbars had been Bruce Anderson, who lived until 1966, and that Bobby Dunbar had died more than 91 years earlier.
The Panama Canal bill was signed into law, providing that, on the opening of the Canal in 1914, "no tolls shall be levied upon vessels engaged in the coastwise trade of the United States". The discrimination in favor of American vessels would be repealed on June 15, 1914.
The Lloyd–La Follette Act was passed, amending the U.S. Post Office Appropriations Act by prohibiting federal employees from being removed except for inefficiency, and not without written notice or a right to appeal.
Alaska was made a United States territory by passage of the Second Organic Act, and given limited self-government. The U.S. government still controlled Alaska's natural resources. Although an elected Territorial Legislature was created, it could not pass any laws related to fishing, wildlife, soil, divorce, gambling or liquor.
The collierUSS Jupiter, first electrically propelled ship in the U.S. Navy, was launched. In 1922, after being decommissioned and refurbished, it would be commissioned as the first American aircraft carrier, the USS Langley.
Italian Army Aviation Corps Lt. Piero Manzini became the first pilot to die in warfare. As part of the Italo-Turkish War, Manzini had taken off on a reconnaissance mission, when his plane's engine failed, causing him to crash into the Mediterranean Sea.
The once-prosperous copper-mining town of Eholt, British Columbia, suffered a fire that destroyed most of its business district. The Canadian Pacific Railway then moved its facilities to another location, and when the town's post office closed in 1949, there were only 17 residents left. The area is now a ghost town.
Born:Erich Honecker, East German Prime Minister 1976-89, Communist SED First Secretary 1971-89; in Neunkirchen (d. 1994); and Ted Key, American cartoonist best known for creating the comic panel Hazel (d. 2008)
Walter Johnson, pitcher for baseball's Washington Senators, was credited with a loss after coming in as a relief pitcher in a 4-3 defeat by the St. Louis Browns, ending his streak of consecutive games won at 16. Under modern rules, the loss would have listed as a failed save; however, Johnson's streak would still have been ended at 16 because he lost his next start in a game against the Philadelphia Athletics.
Died:Feng Ru, 30, Chinese-American engineer and pilot dubbed the "Pioneer of Chinese Aviation", in a crash during a demonstration flight of the first airplane manufactured in China.; and José María Velasco Gómez, 72, Mexican painter
The structure for the new Parliament of the Republic of China was set up by regulations issued by President Yuan Shikai. The new, bicameral legislature consisted of 596 representatives and 274 Senators.
The recently deceased Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito was, posthumously, proclaimed the Emperor Meiji.
Brusilov Expedition: Russian explorer Georgy Brusilov began the disastrous Northern Sea Route expedition, setting out from Arkhangelsk in late summer on the Svyataya Anna (St. Anna), with a crew of 24. The ship would become trapped in the Arctic ice as it went north, then remained trapped through all of 1913. Only two crewmen, Valerian Albanov and Alexander Konrad, survived, by leaving the ship and heading south. The ship and its crew were missing without a trace for almost 98 years, but in July 2010, explorers found the crew's remains and pages from a sailor's log.
Born:Tarzán López, professional wrestler who held that Mexican national championship as a welterweight luchador (1936–1939), and four American NWA world middleweight titles between 1940 and 1952; in Jerez de García Salinas (d. 1975)
Rebel Mexican General Jose Inez Salazar began a campaign of forcing American residents to leave Mexico, ordering the residents of the American Mormon settlement in Colonia Morelos, in the State of Sonora, to leave the country within two weeks. General Morelo's forces would destroy the American settlements on September 12.