August Vermeylen (1872 in Brussels – 1945 in Ukkel) was a Belgian writer and literature critic. In 1893 he founded the journal Van Nu en Straks (English: Today and Tomorrow). He studied history at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and became a professor of literature and of art history at the ULB (1901–1923). In addition to many works of literary and art criticism, he wrote poetry and in 1906 a novel, De wandelende Jood (English: The Wandering Jew). A cultural organization, the Vermeylenfonds, was named after him.
Politically, Vermeylen supported both the unitarian Belgian state (to the point of condemning the Flemish Pro-German activists during the first World War) and an equal status for the Dutch language in that state. From 1921 to his death he was a senator for the Belgian Labour Party. In 1930, he became the first rector of the newly Dutchified FlemishUniversiteit Gent. In 1938, he became vice-president of the Senate. In 1940, he was removed from all his official functions by the German occupation force.