August W. Eichler
|August Wilhelm Eichler|
A. W. Eichler
|Born||April 22, 1839
|Died||March 2, 1887
August Wilhelm Eichler, also known under his Latinized name, Augustus Guilielmus Eichler (April 22, 1839 – March 2, 1887), was a German botanist who modified the classification system to better reflect the relationships between plants.
Born in Neukirchen, Hesse, Eichler studied at the University of Marburg, Germany, and in 1871 became Professor of Botany at Technische Hochschule (Technical University) of Graz and director of the botanical garden in that city. In 1872 he received an appointment at the University of Kiel, where he remained until 1878 when he became director of the herbarium at the University of Berlin. He died in Berlin on March 2, 1887.
Eichler made important contributions to the study of the comparative structure of flowers (mainly on floral symmetry in his work Blütendiagramme). He wrote extensively on the Coniferae, Cycadaceae and other plant groups of Brazil.
The Eichler System divided the plant kingdom into non-floral plants (Cryptogamae) and floral plants (Phanerogamae). It was the first to accept the concept of evolution and therefore also the first to be considered phylogenetic. Moreover, Eichler was the first taxonomist to separate the Phanerogamae into Angiosperms and Gymnosperms and the former into Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae.
The Eichler system was the foundation for Adolf Engler's System and was widely accepted in Europe and other parts of the world.
- Blütendiagramme, Volume I:1875 and Volume II:1878 (Floral diagrams). (Available online at Botanicus.org Website), (Available online at Biodiversity Heritage Library
- Flora Brasiliensis (Flora of Brazil) editor after death of Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius in 1868 until 1887, succeeded by Ignatz Urban (Available online at Botanicus.org Website)
- Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde (1883) 3rd Edition, Berlin (Register of the lectures about Phanerogamae)
- Beiträge zur Morphologie und Systematik der Marantaceen (1884)
- Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Palmenblätter (1885)
- Caroli Frid. Phil. Martii Flora Brasiliensis, sive
- Flora Brasiliensis, enumeratio plantarum in Brasilia hactenus detectarum :quas suis aliorumque botanicorum studiis descriptas et methodo naturali digestas partim icone illustratas /ediderunt Carolus Fridericus Philippus de Martius et Augustus Guilielmus Eichler ; iisque defunctis successor Ignatius Urban ; with Martius, Karl Friedrich Philipp von, 1794-1868, Endlicher, István László, 1804-1849, Fenzl, Eduard, 1808-1879, Mary, Benj, Oldenburg, R.Urban and Ignaz, 1848-
- ^ Aaron Goldberg (1986). "Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons". Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 58: 1–314.
- ^ G. H. M. Lawrence (1951). Taxonomy of vascular plants.
- ^ Author Details: Eichler, August Wilhelm (1839-1887). International Plant Names Index.
- ^ Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Eichler, August Wilhelm". Encyclopedia Americana.
- Flora Brasiliensis On-Line. In Portuguese and English (launch date 22 March 2006).
- View digitized titles by August Wilhelm Eichler in Botanicus.org