Thompson was born in Union, Maine on November 25, 1835. In the early part of the American Civil War, he joined the Union Army forces as captain of Company G, 28th Maine Volunteer Infantry. He saw action in the Siege of Port Hudson in Donaldsonville, Louisiana as well as minor action at Fort Pickens in Pensacola, Florida. Later in life he was granted the rank of lieutenant colonel through an act of Congress.
After the war ended, he went on to attend Hahnemann Homeopathia College and graduated with honors at the head of his class. Upon graduation he settled in Lowell, Massachusetts where he set up his medical practice in 1867. By 1885, Dr. Thompson's practice had become highly successful and he was said to have one of the largest patient lists in New England. However it was at this time he gave up his $15,000 (over $350,000 by 2009 standards) to begin the marketing and sale of his Moxie nerve tonic.
The tonic, based upon his original patent medicine "Nerve Food" created in 1876, was first released as a syrup in 1884. In 1885, he received a trade mark for the term and released it as a carbonated beverage.
There had been a lawsuit in 1907 complained by The Moxie Nerve Food Company of New England against Modox Company and others for copying the ingredients and using the name of "Modox" which closely resembled "Moxie" and infringing on their patents and trademarks. The complaint was dismissed regretfully by the judge who said the court could not protect the legitimate part of the complainant's business in this case. In a later case in New York, the Moxie Nerve Food Company won the complaint against Modox which subsequently went out of business.
- ""The Road To The Sea" Preserved: The 28th Maine Infantry at Donaldsonville, La.". Department of the Maine Secretary of State. 2000-03-29. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-02.[dead link]
- Frank N. Potter (1981). The Moxie Mystique. Donning Company. ISBN 0-89865-145-X.
- Frank N. Potter (1987). The Book of Moxie. Collector Books. ISBN 0-89145-348-2.
- Modox drink website
- "Moxie Nerve Food Company of New England v. Modox Co. et al. : Circuit Court, District of Rhode Island, February 20, 1907", The Federal Reporter, v.151-152, 1907, pp.493-509.
- Doctor Augustin Thompson. Matthews Museum of Maine Heritage. Published 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
- Bowers, Q. David, The Moxie Encyclopedia, Vestal Press, 1985. ISBN 978-0-911572-43-8
- Grace, Roger M., "Is Hires the Longest Marketed Soft Drink? Or Moxie? Or...?", Metropolitan News-Enterprise newspaper, Los Angeles, Thursday, November 17, 2005, p. 15
- Potter, Frank N., The Book Of Moxie, Paducah, KY : Collector Books, 1987. ISBN 0-89145-348-2.