Augustus Charles Gregory
|Augustus Charles Gregory|
Augustus Charles Gregory, c. 1903
1 August 1819|
|Died||25 June 1905(aged 85)|
|Occupation||Explorer, public servant|
|Known for||Exploration of Australia
Surveyor General of Queensland
|Relatives||Francis Thomas Gregory|
|Awards||Gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society 1858
Clarke Medal 1896
Sir Augustus Charles Gregory, KCMG (1 August 1819 – 25 June 1905) was an English-born Australian explorer. Between 1846 and 1858 he undertook four major expeditions. He was appointed a Member of the Queensland Legislative Council.
Augustus Charles Gregory was born at Farnsfield, Nottingham, England. He was the second of five brothers born to Joshua Gregory and Frances Churchman. Among his brothers were Francis Thomas Gregory, who also became a noted explorer.
- Joshua William Gregory, born 1815, died 20 September 1850 aged 35.
- Augustus Charles Gregory, born 1 August 1819, died 1905 aged 86
- Francis (Frank) Thomas Gregory, born 1821.
- Henry Churcham Gregory, born 1823.
- Charles Frederick Gregory, born 1825.
A. C. Gregory was educated privately by tutors and later by his mother. In 1829, the family emigrated to Western Australia on board the Lotus, arriving at the Swan River Colony only four months after its establishment.
The Gregory family were initially granted land on the left bank of the Swan River, but the soil was poor, and they later obtained two further grants, one at Maylands and another in the Upper Swan district. For much of the 1830s, Augustus took jobs to supplement the family's income. For a while he worked for a chemist, and later in partnership with his brother Joshua William as a contract surveyor. In December 1841, he joined the Government Survey Office.
In 1846, with his two brothers, F. T. Gregory and H. C. Gregory, he made his first exploration. With four horses and seven weeks' provisions they left T. N. Yule's station 60 miles northeast of Perth on 7 August 1846 and explored a considerable amount of the country to the north of Perth, returning after an absence of 47 days during which they had covered 953 miles (1534 km).
Two years later, Gregory lead an expedition to examine the course of the Gascoyne River and, in particular, to look for new pasture-land. The party left on 2 September 1848, crossing the Murchison River 25 September, but the country was very dry and it became difficult to water the horses. Gregory decided to turn south again in the beginning of October, and on 6 October decided to rest the horses by the Murchison River. The party returned to Perth on 12 November after having found good pastures successfully. Despite water supply difficulties, about 1500 miles (2414 km) were covered in a period of 10 weeks.
In 1854 while Assistant Surveyor of Western Australia, Gregory was asked to lead an expedition to the interior, from a rendezvous point at Moreton Bay near Brisbane. Gregory had his brother, H. C. Gregory, as second in command and Baron von Mueller as botanist. There were 19 men altogether, with 50 horses and 200 sheep. The party left Moreton Bay by sea on 12 August 1855, and Port Essington was sighted on 1 September. On the next day their vessel grounded on a reef and it was impossible to float off until 10 September. They proceeded to Pearce Point (Joseph Bonaparte Gulf), and at the end of the month the party reached the estuary of the Victoria River. The party split up, with one group going up the river in a schooner, while Gregory led the other over the range. They were reunited on 20 October, establishing a camp 20 km west of today's Timber Creek. Gregory led several forays up the Victoria River and traced Sturt's Creek for 300 miles (483 km) until it disappeared in the Tanami Desert. The core team returned to the base camp in the dry season of 1856. On 2 July 1856 Gregory left an inscription on a large boab tree (so-called Gregory's Tree), indicating where he left a letter in case the expedition team should get lost. Turning east, the party explored the Elsey, Roper and Macarthur Rivers, then travelled back to Brisbane by way of the Flinders, Burdekin, Fitzroy and Burnett Rivers. They reached Brisbane on 16 December 1856 having surveyed an extensive swath of land. In sixteen months the expedition had journeyed over 2000 miles (3219 km) by sea and 5000 (8047 km) by land.
In September 1857 Gregory was hired by the government of New South Wales to search for traces of Ludwig Leichhardt, a fellow explorer who had disappeared on an earlier expedition. A party of nine was formed with Gregory in command and his brother, C. F. Gregory, as second in command. On 24 March 1858 the expedition left Juandah near the present town of Taroom. On 21 April a tree marked with an L was found in latitude 24 degrees 35 minutes and longitude 146 degrees 6 minutes. The Barcoo River was then followed to its junction with the Thomson. On 15 May the country was so dry the expedition turned south to save the horses. Cooper Creek was followed until it was close to the South Australian border, coming to Strzelecki Creek on 14 June. Continuing his course mostly to the south, on 26 June he decided to proceed to Adelaide, which was reached at the end of July 1858.
Gregory was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1858.
Gregory undertook no further explorations but was appointed Surveyor General of Queensland in 1859. He later clashed with William Alcock Tully (then under-secretary for public lands and chief commissioner of crown lands); in 1875 Tully became acting surveyor-general in place of Gregory. Gregory then became a geological surveyor.
From 1880 to his death in 1905, he served as a councillor of the Shire of Toowong and as an alderman of its successor, the Town of Toowong. He was shire president for 12 years, being 1881 to 1884, 1888 to 1890, 1895, 1898 to 1901 and town mayor in 1904.
With his brother, F. T. Gregory, he published their Journals of Australian Exploration in 1884.
He was interested in scientific research and was a trustee of the Queensland Museum.
He was knighted in 1903.
Gregory died on 25 June 1905 at his residence Rainworth at Rosalie, Brisbane. His funeral was conducted at the Masonic Hall in Alice Street on 29 June 1905, after which he was buried at Toowong Cemetery in Brisbane.
After his death, his home Rainworth was rented to a number of people, including Robert Philp. His farm land was eventually subdivided and, to facilitate this, the house Rainworth was relocated to another site, now 7 Barton Street in the suburb of Bardon. The house was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Gregory has been honoured through the naming of many places in Australia, including:
- Electoral district of Gregory, Queensland, Australia
- the town Gregory, Western Australia, Australia
- the Gregory River in Shire of Burke, Queensland
- the town Gregory, Queensland, Australia
Also his home Rainworth was the origin of the name of:
Robert Logan Jack and Robert Etheridge, Jr.
- "GREGORY, Augustus Charles". Search Australian Honours. Australian Government. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Waterson, D. B. (1972). "Gregory, Sir Augustus Charles (1819–1905)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Duffy, L. J. (1976). "Tully, William Alcock (1830–1905)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Rainworth (entry 15057)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Welch, Melva A, (compiler.); Toowong and District Historical Society (issuing body) (2013), Cradle to grave – Toowong Council, Toowong, [Queensland] Toowong and District Historical Society, ISBN 978-0-9872487-0-1
- "Alphabetical Register of Members of the Legislative Assembly 1860–2012 and the Legislative Council 1860–1922". Queensland Parliament. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Family Notices.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 29 July 1905. p. 4. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Family Notices.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 29 June 1905. p. 2. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Gregory, Augustus Charles". Grave Location Search. Brisbane City Council.
- "Gregory River (entry 14847)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Augustus Charles Gregory". Farnsfield Local History Society. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Rainworth (entry 27941)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Birman, Wendy (1979). Gregory of Rainworth. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-165-7.
- Serle, Percival (1949). "Gregory, Augustus". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
- Works by Augustus Gregory at Project Gutenberg