Green toucanet

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Aulacorhynchus
Aulacorhynchus prasinus.jpg
Aulacorhynchus prasinus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Piciformes
Family: Ramphastidae
Genus: Aulacorhynchus
Gould, 1835
Species

6 - 7 see text.

The green toucanets[1] are near-passerine birds from the genus Aulacorhynchus in the toucan family. They are native to Mexico, and Central and South America. All are found in humid forests and woodlands in highlands, but a few also occur in adjacent lowlands.[2] They are relatively small toucans, 30–44 centimetres (12–17 in) long, with colorful, mainly green, plumage.[2] They are typically seen in pairs or small groups, and sometimes follow mixed species flocks.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

A major taxonomy review in 1974 resulted in 6 species in the genus Aulacorhynchus,[4] and this has been followed by virtually all later authorities.[2][5][6][7][8]

In 2001, it was suggested that A. prasinus, as traditionally defined, was a species complex that should be split into 7 different species based on preliminary morphological evidence.[9] This has to some extent been supported by genetic evidence, which suggests that an additional species should be recognized (griseigularis is included in A. albivitta based on morphological evidence, but the two are split based on genetic evidence).[10][11] Additionally, genetic evidence supports splitting A. derbianus into two separate species, but it does not support splitting A. sulcatus into two separate species,[10] as has been recommended earlier.[3]

At present, most authorities maintain that the genus Aulacorhynchus has 7 species (with the remaining treated as subspecies),[7][8] but SACC do recognize the need for a review of the A. prasinus complex, and have split A. derbianus from A. whitelianus.[5]

Species[edit]

  • Blue-banded Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis)
  • Chestnut-tipped Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus derbianus)
  • Whitely's Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus whitelianus)
  • Crimson-rumped Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus haematopygus)
  • Yellow-browed Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus huallagae)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus)
    • Wagler's Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) wagleri)
    • Blue-throated Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) caeruleogularis)
    • Violet-throated or Nelson's Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) cognatus)
    • Santa Marta Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) lautus)
    • (North) Andean or White-throated Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) albivitta)
    • Plumbeous-throated or Grey-throated Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) griseigularis)
    • Black-throated or Peruvian Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) atrogularis)
  • Groove-billed Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus sulcatus)
    • Yellow-billed Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus (sulcatus) calorhynchus)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boyd, J. (2011). Ramphastidae: Toucans. Accessed 20 May 2011
  2. ^ a b c Short, L. L., & Horne, J. F. M. (2002). Toucans (Ramphastidae). pp. 220-272 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. eds. (2002). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 7 Jacamars to Woodpecker. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-37-7
  3. ^ a b Restall, R. L., Rodner, C., & Lentino, M. (2006). Birds of Northern South America. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-7243-9 (vol. 1). ISBN 0-7136-7242-0 (vol. 2).
  4. ^ Haffer, J. (1974). Avian speciation in tropical South America. Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club 14: 1–390.
  5. ^ a b Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, J. Pérez-Emán, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer (2011). A classification of the bird species of South America: Trogoniformes to Piciformes. American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 25 May 2011
  6. ^ Fjeldså, J., and Krabbe, N. (1990). Birds of the High Andes. ISBN 87-88757-16-1
  7. ^ a b Dickinson, E. C., eds. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 3rd edition. ISBN 0-7136-6536-X
  8. ^ a b Clement, J. F. (2007, w. online updates). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World. 6th edition. ISBN 978-0-7136-8695-1
  9. ^ Navarro, A., Peterson, A., López-Medrano, E., and Benítez-Díaz, H. (2001). Species limits in Mesoamerican Aulocorhynchus Toucanets. The Wilson Bull. 113(4): 363-372
  10. ^ a b Bonaccorso, E., Guayasamin, J. M., Peterson, A. T., and Navarro-Sigüenza, A. G. (2011). Molecular phylogeny and systematics of Neotropical toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus (Aves, Ramphastidae). Zoologica Scripta, 40. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00475.x
  11. ^ Puebla-Olivares, F., E. Bonaccorso, A. E. de los Monteros, K. E. Omland, J. E. Llorente-Bousquets, A. T. Peterson, and A.G. Navarro-Siguenza. (2008). Speciation in the Emerald Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) complex. The Auk. 125(1): 39-50.