He made his debut with the French national team against South Africa in 2001.
Rougerie sued Phil Greening of England for a hand off during a European game in 2002 that left him with a throat injury forcing him to undergo 3 larynx surgeries. Greening was ordered to pay £29,000 in compensation.
In 2007, he won the European Challenge Cup with Clermont against Bath at the Stoop of Twickenham (22-16).
Then he captained the Clermont Auvergne side that won the French championish, the Bouclier de Brennus, after 10 unlucky chances, against Perpignan in a one way final (19-6) on the 29th of May 2010.