Aura Herzog was born in Egypt to a Jewish family originating in Russia, the daughter of an engineer. She was one of four children, and her sister, Suzy, would go on to marry Israeli diplomat Abba Eban. She was educated in French schools in Ismaïlia, and later studied in South Africa, completing a B.Sc. degree in mathematics and physics from the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. After graduating, she emigrated to Mandatory Palestine and joined the Haganah. She married Herzog in 1947.
During the Israeli War of Independence, she served as an officer in the Science Corps. She was wounded during the siege of Jerusalem. She accompanied her husband, during his service in the United States, when he was the military attache (1950–1954), and Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations (1975–1978).
She initiated and established the Annual Bible Contest (1959), which has become an integral part of the tradition and culture of Israel and was a member of the Council of Culture and Art (1959–1968). She established the "Council for a Beautiful Israel" (1968)  and serves as its international President.
Aura Herzog is a member of the board of trustees of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art.
The Herzogs have four children: Yoel, Michael, Isaac, and Ronit, and grandchildren.