|Elevation||137 m (449 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Auraiya (Hindi: औरैया, Urdu: اوریہ) is a city and a municipal board in Auraiya district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is district headquarters as well. NH 2 passes through the center of the town.Dibiyapur RS is nearest Railway Station.Kanpur Airport is nearest airport.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Urban Area
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Language and Script
- 6 Religion and Caste
- 7 Festivals and Fairs
- 8 Ornaments
- 9 Food
- 10 Dance and Music
- 11 Dress
- 12 Farming
- 13 Means of Irrigation
- 14 Agriculture
- 15 Transport
- 16 References
- 17 External links
On 17 September 1997, two tehsils named Auraiya and Bidhuna were separated from district Etawah to form the new district named as Auraiya. Ajitmal is the new proposed tehsil of Auraiya district. It is situated on National Highway no. 2 (Mughal Road) and 64 km. in the east of district headquarters of Etawah and 105 km. in west of Kanpur city.
Under the Rohillas In 1760, Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India; he was opposed in 1761 by the Marathas on the field of Panipat and inflicted on them a signal defeat. Among other Maratha chieftains Govind Rao Pandit lost his life in the action. Before his departure from India, the Durrani chief consigned large tracts of country to the Rohilla chieftains, and while Dhunde Khan received Shikohabad, Inayat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan received the district of Etawah. This was then in the possession of the Marathas, and accordingly in 1762 a Rohilla force was sent under Mullah Mohsin Khan to wrest the assigned property from the Marathas. This force was opposed near the town of Etawah by Kishan Rao and Bala Rao Pandits, who were defeated and compelled to seek safety in flight across the Yamuna. Siege was then laid to the fort of Etawah by Mohsin Khan; but the fort was soon surrendered by its commander, and the district fell into the hands of the Rohillas.
The occupation, however, was merely nominal at first; the zamindars refused to pay revenue to Inayat Khan and, secure in their mud forts set his authority at defiance. Strong reinforcements were sent to the Rohillas, including some artillery, under Sheikh Kuber and Mullah Baz Khan, and many of the smaller forts were levelled to the grounds; but in their ravine fortresses the zamindars of Kamait in the trans-Yamuna tract still resisted the authority of Inayat Khan. Hafiz Rahmat and Inayat Khan then came in person to Etawah and operations were vigorously pressed against the refractory zamindars. Ultimately an annual tribute was agreed to by the latter. Hafiz Rahmat then departed to Bareilly, and Rohilla garrisons were established at convenient places in the district. Meanwhile a new minister arose at Delhi called Najib Khan, better known as Najib-ud-daula, Amir-ul-umra, Shuja-ud-daula succeeded Safdar Jang as Nawab Wazir and occupied most of the Bangash possessions as far as Aligarh, with the exception of those granted by the Durrani to the Rohillas after he battle of Pandit. But the wazir's hostility to the Farrukhabad Afghans had not abated one jot, and in 1762 he persuaded Najib-ud-daula to join him in an attack on Farrukhabad. The attack was beaten off by the aid of Hafiz Rahmat Khan and matters once more settled down peacefully.
In 1766, the Marathas under Mulhar Rao, who had been awaiting their opportunity, once more crossed the Jamuna and attacked Phaphund, where a Rohilla force under Muhammad Hasan Khan eldest son of Mohsin Khan, was posted. On receipt of this news Hafiz Rahmat advanced from Bareilly to oppose the Marathas. He was joined near Phaphund by Sheikh Kuber, the Rohilla governor of Etawah, and prepared to give battle; but Mulhar Rao refused to risk an engagement and once more retired across the Jamuna. The ambitions Najib-ud-daula had been considerably irritated by the intervention of the Rohillas on behalf of Ahmad Khan Bangladesh in 1762; and though he had been too busily engaged otherwise to pursue his plans of revenge before, he began in 1770 to plot the downfall of Hafiz Rahmat Khan.
Accordingly a Maratha army was invited to Delhi for the purpose of first wresting Farrukhabad from Ahmad Khan and of afterwards invading Rohikhand. The united forces of Najib-ud-daula and the Marathas advanced from Delhi; but at Koil Najib-ud-daula fell ill and retraced his steps, leaving his eldest son, Zabita Khan to operate with the Marathas. Zabita Khan however, was by no means disposed to fight against his brother Afghans. The Marathas, knowing this, kept him practically a prisoner in their camp and he requested Hafiz Rahmat Khan to obtain his release. Hafiz Rahmat Khan accordingly opened negotiations with the Marathas for the release of Zabita Khan; but the Maratha leaders demanded as their price the surrender of the jagirs of Etawah and Shikohabad. Hafiz Rahmat Khan was not disposed to agree to those terms, and while negotiations were proceeding for buying off the Marathas Zabita Khan escaped. Several desultory engagements now took place between the Marathas and the Afghan forces. Inayat khan was summoned by his father to Farrukhabad in order that he might be consulted regarding the surrendering of his jagirs. But although Dhunde Khan agreed to give up Shikohabad Inayat Khan refused to surrender Etawah.
Ultimately, disgusted with his father's arrangements he returned to Bareilly, and his father on his own responsibility sent orders to Sheikh Kuber, the Rohilla governor of Etawah, to surrender the fort to the Marathas. The Marathas now marched to Etawah, but as the orders had not yet reached him Sheikh Kuber gave them battle. Several desperate assaults were made on the fort of Etawah which were all beaten off, but finally it was handed over to the Marathas in accordance with hafiz Rahmat Khan's orders, and the Rohillas quit the district, leaving it once more in the hands of the Marathas. Later in the same year, 1771, the Marathas advanced to Delhi and reinstated the emperor Shah Alam, who had cast in his lot with them, on the throne. They were now masters of the empire and Zabita Khan determined to oppose them. Assembling his forces, he attacked the Marathas near Delhi but was signally defeated, and in 1772 the Marathas overran a large portion of Rohilkhand and captured Najafgarh, where Zabita Khan's family resided and his treasure lay.
Under the Government of Oudh Zabita Khan then solicited the aid of Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab Wazir of Oudh; but the Nawab declined to interfere unless Hafiz Rahmat Khan applied on his behalf. Negotiations were commenced with Shah Alam and the Marathas for the restoration of Zabita Khan's family and the evacuation of Rohilkhand. The Marathas agreed to accept 40 lakhs of rupees, provided that Shuja-ud-daula made himself responsible for the payment; but Shuja-ud-daula now declined to enter into any such engagement unless Hafiz Rahmat Khan gave him a bond for the money. To this Hafiz Rahmat Khan consented, the bond was signed and the Marathas retired from Rohilkhand. In 1773, the Marathas proposed to attack Shuja-ud-daula and attempted to gain the help of Hifaz Rahmat Khan. The latter refused to him them. Instead he sent information to Shuja-ud-daula concerning what he had done, and on the strength of this requested restoration of his bond. Shuja-ud-daula expressed his approval of Hafiz Rahmat Khan's conduct and promised the restitution of the bond when the Marathas as had been defeated. The Marathas were defeated soon after at Asadpur by the combined forces of Shuja-ud-daula and Hafiz Rahmat Khan, with the result that they quit not only Rohilkhand but Delhi also.
Shuja-ud-daula then returned to Oudh, but denied ever having promised to restore the bond. He next seduced many of the Afghan Rohillas from their allegiance to Hafiz Rahmat Khan, and then proceeded to eject the Maratha garrisons from Etawah and Shikohabad in spite of Rahmat Khan's remonstrance. He ever went further and called on Hafiz Rahmat Khan to discharge the balance of 35 lakhs due on the bond. This was only a pretext for provoking hostilities for which purpose the Nawab had already begun to assemble an army; and Hafiz Rahmat Khan having failed to pay up, the Nawab advanced to the Ganges. The last scene in the tangled history of the period closed with the defeat of Hafiz Rahmat Khan by Shuja-ud-daula who was aided by a British force, at the battle of Miranpur Katra in the Shahjahanpur district on April 23, 1774 Etawah under the Oudh Government.
From 1774 to 1801, the district of Etawah remained under the government of Oudh. Little occurred to disturb it during this period and little is known regarding its history. For many years the administration of the district was in the hands of Mian Almas Ali Khan. Ails were stationed, we know, at Etawah, Kudarkot and Phaphunnd. One of those who held office at the last named placed was Raja Bhagmal or Baramal. The latter was by Caste a Jat and was sister's son to Almas Ali Khan, who was by birth a Hindu but was subsequently made a eunuch and converted to Islam. Raja Bhagmal built the fort at Phaphund and the old mosque which still bears an inscription recording thenamed of donor. Almas Ali Khan was, recording to Colonie Sleeman,"the greatest and best man" Oudh ever produced; be amassed great wealth, but having no descendant, he spent his money for the benefit of the people committed to his charge. He held court occasionally at Kudarkot where he built a fort, of which the massive ruins still remain. At Etawah the amils are said to have resided in the fort; but the building was destroyed by Shuja-ud-daula in consequence of the representations of the Etawah townspeople that, so long as the amils occupied such an impregnable residence, they would never do anything but oppress the people.
Boundaries and Area The district of Auraiya lies in the southwestern portion of Uttar Pradesh 26° 21" and 27° 01" north latitude and 78° 45" and 79° 45" east longitude and forms a part of the Kanpur Division. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Kannauj, western border adjoins tehsil Bharthana of the Etawah district and the district of Gwalior. The eastern frontier marches with the district of Kanpur Dehat, and along the south lie Jalaun. The total area according to the statistics of 1991-92 is calculated to be 2054 square kilometer.
Auraiya lies entirely in the Gangetic plain, but its physical features vary considerably and are determined by the rivers which cross it. The area of Etawah and Auraiya districts is divisible into four portions of district natural characteristics. The first of these consists of the country lying north-east of the Senger river, which runs across it from west to east almost parallel to the Yamuna; it includes the northern portions of tahsils Etawah and Bharthana. The second tract lies south of the Senger and extends as far as the high lands immediately overlooking the Yamuna. It comprises a slightly undulating switch of country covering portions of Etawah and Bharthana and the bulk of an Auraiya Tehsil of Auraiya District. The tract includes the parts of some tehsils that adjoins the river Yamuna. Beyond the Yamuna, stretching from the borders of tahsil Bah in Agra to the confluence of the Sindh, Kuwari, Chambal and Yamuna rivers, lies the high and broken country formerly known as Janibrast. These tracts differ from each other in a very marked degree though each presents general conformity within its own limits.
In the Pachar and Ghar tracts the soils are broadly distinguishable into dumat or loam, matiyar or clay, and bhur or sand. Besides these are found everywhere low-lying beds of clay in which water collects during the rains and rice alone can be grown; these clay beds are known as Jhabar. In the Kurka and trans-Yamuna tract several other classes of soil are met with. In the ravines of the river and the land immediately adjacent to them are found fields full of kankar and gravel, the soil of which is called Pakar; this is in fact a sandy soil mixed with gravel. Below the ravines and in the wider valleys between them the soil that is flooded by the Yamuna is called kachhar; and along the edges of the streams there is a rich strip of alluvial deposit which is known as Tir. Both kachhar and tir vary greatly in quality: some patches of these soils consist of a rich reddish clay which lets at a high rental; other portions are composed of a dark colored loam; and others again are while and sandy in appearance and less fertile.
River System The rivers and streams of the Auraiya and Etawah districts jointly consist of the Yamuna its two large affluent, the Chambal and, the Kuwari; the Sengar, and its tributary Sirsa; The Rind or Arind and its tributaries the Ahenya, the Puraha and the Pandu.
The urban area include Auraiya Town, Dibiyapur Town, Gail Colonies and NTPC Colonies making urban area around 50 km2.
As of 2001[update] India census, Auraiya had a population of 64,598. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Auraiya has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 56% of the males and 44% of females literate. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Ghee and food-grains are main commodities of trade in Auraiya and Etwah. Ghee is transported to as far as Punjab in the west, Bengal in the East and Andhra pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Mumbai in South and South-West. Wheat and oils seeds are the main produce that is transported to the adjoining districts from Auraiya's Wholesale Market.
Language and Script
The language of practically the entire population is what is known as western Hindi. The returns of the census 1981 showed that this language was spoken by about 96.8 per cent of the population. In 1971, the percentage of Hindi speaking persons was 96.4. Western Hindi is split up into several subdivisions. In 1981, the language known as Hindustani or Urdu was spoken by about 3.10 per cent (3.35 per cent in 1961) of the people, representing for the most part the inhabitants of Etawah city, while the bulk of the people spoke Antarbedi, or its variant called Pachharua, so called after the tract of that name. In the trans-Yamuna portion of the district the dialect is known as Bhadauri, which is a form of Bundelkhandi, itself a branch of Hindi. It derives its name from Bhadawar, the home of the Bhadoria Rajputs. A few people also speak Punjabi, Bengali or Sindhi. Devannagri script is being used for Hindi and its allied branches such as Garhwali, Kumauni etc. and the script used for Urdu is Persian. The other languages generally using their own scripts.
Religion and Caste
In 1991, Hindus percentage was 92.79% against the state average of 83.76% and 6.63% of Musalims as compared to the state average of 15.48%. The remaining 0.58% of the district population was Sikhs, Christians, Jains and Buddhists.
Festivals and Fairs
The series of festivals commence with Sheetla Ashtmi, which falls on the 8th day of the first fortnight of Chaitra, the first month of the Hindu calendar, when goddess Sheetla is worshipped. The 9th day of the bright fortnight of that month is called Ram Navmi, when the birthday of Lord Rama is celebrated with great rejoicings and fairs are held at Lakhna and other places. The 10th day of the latter half of Jyaistha is called the Ganga or Jeth Dasahra, when the Hindus take a bath in the river. Nag Panchami falls on the 5th day of the bright half of Sravana, when the Nagas or serpent gods are worshiped by offering of milk, flowers and rice. On Raksha Bandhan, which falls on the 15th day of bright half of the same month, rakhis (thread symbolising protection) are tied by sisters around the right wrist of their brothers and by Brahmana priests to their patrons. Janmashtmi is observed on the 8th day of the dark half of Bhadra to commemorate the birth anniversary of Lord Krishna. The 30th day of Asvina is the Pitra Visarjan Amavasya, when manes are propitiated.
The worship of Durga is continued for nine day during the bright half of Asvina, known as Nav-Ratri and the 9th day of that is known as Durga Naumi. The next day is Dasahra or Vijaya Dashmi, dedicated to the worship of goddess Vijaya, also commemorating the victory of Rama over Ravana. The Ramlila celebrations are held at various places in the district. The 4th day of the bright half of Kartika is called Karva Chauth, when married women keep fast for the well-being of their husbands. Deepawali falls on the last day of the dark fortnight of Kartika, but festivities start two days earlier with Dhan Teras, celebrated as the birth day of Dhanvantri, the divine physician. On the main day of the festival every Hindu house is illuminated and the goddess Lakshmi is worshipped. On the third day of Deepawali, after Goverdhan and Chitragupta or Dawait puja, Bhaiya Dweej is celebrated when ladies put Roli mark (tika) on the forehead of their brothers. On the 8th day of bright half of that month, the Gopasthmi is celebrated when the cow is worshipped. A big bathing festival is organised on Kartika Puranmashi, the full moon day, when people take a bath in the river and fairs are held at different places in the district. The Sakat Chauth falls on the 4th day of the dark half of Magha when the male children cut the figure of a goat made of til and their mothers keep fasts.
A fast observed and the temples of Shiva are specially decorated. For the Arya Samajists, Shivaratri is a memorable day because Dayananda, the son of a devotee of Shiva and the founder of this school got enlightenment on this night. They celebrate the week preceding this day as Rishi-bodha-saptah and arrange discourses by learned scholars for the seven days.
About sixty fairs, big and small, are held annually in the district. Most of the festivals are accompanied by local fairs too. Of these, the exhibition and cattle fair of Etawah is the most important. They are attended by about 2,00,000 persons and heads of cattle sold number between 10,000 and 15,000.
They celebrate almost all the important festivals, but the number of their festivals is limited. The important ones are being given below. Their festivals start with the Ashra (Muharram), which falls on the 10th day of Muharram. The first ten days of the month of Muharram are devoted to commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Husain, the grandson of the Prophet of Islam and His companions on the battle field of Karbala, and are particularly observed as a mourning period by the Shias. On Ashra, the last of the ten days being the most important one, when Imam Husain was killed, the tazias are taken out in procession for burial at Karbala. Chehlum, on the 20th of Safar, failing on the 40th day from Ashra, usually marks the end of the period of mourning. On the 12th of the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal falls Barawafat which marks the birthday of Prophet Muhammad, when alms art distributed and discourses on His life and missions are held. Shabe-barat the 14th day of Shaban, is a festival of rejoicing marking the birth of the 12th Imam. It is celebrated by a display of fireworks, distribution of sweets, and fatiha prayers for the peace of the souls of departed ones. Ramzan is the month of fasting and on its expiry i.e. on visibility of the moon the festival of Id-ul-fitar is celebrated on Shawwal Ist by offering namaz in Idgahs and mosques, and exchanging gifts and greetings. The Id-ul-Zuha their last festival, is celebrated on the 10th of the month of Zilhij, to commemorate the occasion when Prophet Ibrahim resolved to treat his son Ismail as an offering to mark the highest form of the sacrificial spirit which was blessed by God the mercifulo who rewarded him by not busting Ismail and having a sheep to sanctify the altar instead. The Muslims say their namaz (community prayers) in Idgahs and sacrifice sheep and goats. The typical feature of these two festivals is the eating of sewain.
The important festivals of Shikhs are the birthdays of Guru Nanak Deva and Guru Govind Singh when processions are taken out, congregational prayers are held in gurdwaras and extract from the holy Granth are recited. Their festivals are Baisakhi and Lohri, local fairs are held at gurdwaras on each occasion.
The important festivals of the Christians are Christmas, falling on December 25, marking the birthday of Jesus Christ, Good Friday which commemorates his crucifixion, and Easter in memory of his resurrection. New Year's Day (January 1) is also celebrated by them and the Christmas celebrations usually end with new year.
They celebrate the birth and the nirvana anniversaries of the last Tirthankara, Mahavira, the former on the 13th day of the bright half of Chaitra and the latter on the Deepawali day. The Paryushan or the Dashalakshanaparva, during the last days of Kartika, Phalguna and Asadha are the periodical holy days when the devotees observe a fast and perform worship in temples.
The principal festival of the Buddhists is the Buddha Purnima, celebrated on the last day of Vaisakha, which marks the birthday of Buddha as well as his nirvana.
Men are not so fond of ornaments, sometime they wear a gold or silver ring on their finger, and a thin chain around the neck. Women, generally, adorn their wrists with churis (banglse) made of glass, silver or gold, anguthis (finger rings), necklaces, nose-ring, nose-pendent, nose-stud, ear-ring, payal, bichua (only married women) waist girdle and the like. The poor people usually go in for silver ornaments and the rich have gold pieces sometimes studded with precious stones and pearls. The lust for heavy jewellery is, however, on the decline partly due to the high prices of gold and silver, and partly because of social transformation and fear of loss.
The Uttar Pradesh Petrochemical Complex(UPPC) of Gas Authority of India Limited is located at Pata, Distt. Auraiya, U.P. It was set up in accordance with GAILs mission to maximise the value addition from each fraction of Natural Gas.
Wheat constitutes the staple food of the people, other materials commonly consumed here as food being maize, barley, gram and jowar. Chapaties prepared from kneaded wheat or corn flour are generally eaten with dal or gur and milk. The pulses consumed here are urd, arhar, moong, chana, masur etc. One major meal is taken at about 1 P.M. in the day. Breakfast consists of tea and any of the Indian or western stuff. At nightfall the people take a light meal. Among edible fats ghee, vanaspati and mustard oil are more commonly used. The pure ghee of Etawah is quite famous for its thickness and purity. Spicy diet is not preferred though people are quite fond of pickles, chutneys and bari-mangauris.
Dance and Music
Popular varieties of folk music prevalent throughout western U.P. e.g. the Allaha, Phaag, Kajari and Rasiyas, etc. are popular in this district as well, and are sung at different times of the year. Folk songs known as Dhola, Unchari and Langadia are also very common in the villages. Bhajans, Kirtan in a chorus to the accomplishment of musical instruments is very much liked by the inhabitants of the district.
A number of open air performances, combining the rural style of folk music and dancing with a central theme are a regular feature of rural life in the district. The dance named Banjasha is one of the most popular folk dances of villagers of the district. Nautankis and dramas based on mythology are often staged and attract large gatherings, particularly in the villages.
The people of Auraiya have colorful and different attires. The Sari-blouse-petticoat trio is the most favourite dress of ladies of all denominations, though women in Dupatta-kurta-salwar combinations are usually met with.
The best-known Auraiya outfit is the 'Sari'. This graceful attire is a rectangular piece of Cloth, normally 5 to 6 meters in length and over a meter in width. It is worn without any pins or buttons or fastenings. The tightly fitted short blouse worn under a sari draped over the wearer's shoulder, is known as the Pallav or palloo. The style, color and texture of a saree varies from one to another and may be made from cotton, silk or one of several man-made materials. Its ageless charm is provided from the fact that it is not cut or tailored for any particular size, and can fit any woman.
Another form of outfit supported by Indian women is known as Salwar-suit. Kurta is a long tunic worn over pyjama like trousers, drawn in at the waist and ankles, known as 'Salwar', or a tight fitting trouser known as 'Chudidaar'. This dress is popular among the Muslim and Punjabi ladies and unmarried Hindu girls. The collarless or mandarain collared kurta, can be worn over a chudidaar and is popular with both men and women.
The men in village use to wear the traditional attires like kurtas, lungis, dhotis and pyjama. The collerless Khadi (homespun cloth) jackets known as 'Nehru Jackets' are also popular. The Muslim women wear the traditional all enveloping 'Burkha' and the men use to wear a round cap on their head.
Forest land, groves, land prepared for sugar-cane furrows, waste-lands like pastures and grazing land often classified as unculturable due to excess of sand or reh or on account of ravine-scouring or overgrowth of dhak constitutes cultivable land in the district. The area of cultivable land in the district in 1990-91 was 141624 hectares. According to the 1990-91 agricultural survey, the total number of active cultivable lands remained to be 151838. Most of the cultivables are small. The count of cultivables less than 0.5 hectares remained to be 47.65%, and between 0.5 & 1.0 hectares the culivables remained to be 23.76%, and 1.0 to 2.0, it were 17.33%, and 2.0 to 4.0 hectare cultivable land's percentage was 8.54%, and more than 4.0 it were 2.72%.
Multiple Cropping and Rotation of Crops
The practice of growing more than one crop simultaneously in a single field in a single season gives additional harvest. Thus, this practice increases the overall yield and ensures maximum use of the soil and nutrients. If there is danger of loss to any crop due to adverse weather conditions or diseases, there are some better chances for the other crop in the field if the system of multiple cropping is adopted, arhar is almost always sown with bajra, urd or moong, jowar, ground nut, linseed wheat with gram, pea or mustard, barley with gram or peas or both. Potato is generally mixed with methi or onion. The importance of rotation of crops has been fully realised by the farmers of the district. Scientific rotation of crops helps the farmers to maintain the fertility of the fields by growing exhaustive crops in rotation with restorative crops. As such this practice is generally prevalent throughout the whole cultivated area of the district and it has its root in the minds of every cultivator. A particular crop sown in one season restricts the cultivator to sow the other crop in the next season, which is most beneficial for the field and by this practice the turnout also is enhanced to some extent. The practice of green-manuring during kharif is also popular before sowing wheat in Rabi.
The popular rotations followed in the district are Paddy Wheat, Paddy Gram, Paddy Peas, Paddy Berseem, Maize Wheat, Maize Potato-wheat, Bajra Wheat or Peas or Gram or Peas and Gram, on account of being leguminous crops, have restorative qualities, Cultivation of these crops in rotation with exhaustive crops like paddy and bajra helps to maintain the fertility of the fields. The old practice of growing wheat after a fallow period is being replaced by growing wheat after green manuring in Rabi. This practice has been responsible for increasing the yield of wheat by more than one and a half quintals per ha. Sugar-cane is generally sown in three years rotation. The areas, near the help of organic manures and fertilizer. In such areas three to four crops in a year are taken such as maize, early potato, late potato and Sitaphal. In these areas the fertility of the fields is maintained by full manuring.
Means of Irrigation
Auraiya is an agriculture land. The main occupation in the district is agriculture. Thus, the means of irrigation keeps the important role on such lands. To become independent in the production of cereals it is necessary to provide the sufficient means of irrigation in the cultivable lands so that the crops giving more production could be harvested by increasing the agriculture density.
In earlier times the district was almost wholly dependent on wells and, to a small extent, on tanks. The well-irrigation appears to have been largely replaced by canals. The chief sources of irrigation are wells, tanks.
The methods of cultivation in this district are generally the same as those found elsewhere in the Doab. The application of manure and the use of water for irrigation are extensively resorted to. There are the usual harvests known as the Kharif or autumn, the Rabi or spring and Zaid or extra harvest. The Kharif crops are shown in Ashadha- Sravana and reaped in Kuar-Kartika after the cessation of rains usually well before the preparation of fields for the Rabi sowings which begin in October–November i.e. Kartika and Agrahanya and are harvested in March–April and even May. The Zaid consists of vegetables and low grade cereals sown in March or April and reaped before June. The system of double cropping is followed to a considerable extent in the district owing to the facilities for irrigation. The figures of dofasli area for the different tahsils do not exhibit any great variations, but the proportions are highest in Bidhuna and Bharthana and the proportion is lowest in Auraiya.
The Uttar Pradesh Petrochemical Complex(UPPC) of Gas Authority of India Limited is located at Pata, Distt. Auraiya, U.P. It was set up in accordance with GAIL mission to maximise the value addition from each fraction of Natural Gas.
The chief Kharif crops are the millets, known as Bajra and Jowar, paddy and maize. These are sown either alone or in combination with Arhar. Bajra is chiefly grown in light and sandy soil. Between 1903 and 1907 Bajra alone or in combination covered 42.511 ha. or 28.47 per cent of the kharif. In the subsequent year its cultivation in the district increased by nearly 12,900ha. In 1380 Fasli year that is 1973-74 the bajra covered an area of 77.673 ha. Jowar is generally grown in the stiffer and better soils but like bajra it is usually mixed with arhar, the proportion grown alone being only 5per cent. Both Bajra and Jowar are usually sown in June on unirrigated land, the fields being previously prepared by ploughing. They are reaped in November. A considerable amount of Jowar is grown only for fodder especially in Etawah and Bharthana tahsils. Another important Kharif crop is rice. There has been an enormous increase in the extent of rice cultivation during the last hundred years. Several local varieties of rice are grown. In 1973-74 (1380 Fasli year) the area covered by paddy was 2,59,506 ha. The only other Kharif crop that is of any importance is maize which during the period between 1903 and 1907 covered on the average 52.321 acres or 14.18 per cent of the area cultivated in the kharif. The only tahsil however, where it is extensively planted is Bidhuna. Maize is usually sown in the best gauhani dumat soil, close to the village site, where the fields yield two crops a year. The land is generally well manured and the crops are sown as early as possible in Asharh. During the ensuing month the field is carefully weeded and by the middle of Bhadon the plants usually attain a height of four feet and the ears begin to show. Among the Kharif cereals small pulses known as Moth, Urd and Moong, the small millet Mandua, and Hemp or Sanai were largely grown in the past, but new incentives in the field of agriculture have lowered their popularity and more valuable crops like paddy, maize and sugar-cane are gradually replacing them. In 1997-98 the production of pulses was 21977 metric tonnes and by sugar-cane was 80647 Metric tonnes.
Wheat heads the list of Rabi cereals in the district in point of area, which in 1973-74 constituted more than half of the total Rabi sowing. Wheat is grown pure as well as mixed with crops like barley and gram. Wheat when mixed with gram is known as gochani and with barley as gujai. The area under pure wheat has no doubt increased during recent years, but the old practice or sowing mixed crops, a characteristic feature of the district has not disappeared altogether. The wheat crop requires a good soil, and an assured supply of water besides manure. In 1380 Fasli year wheat covered an area of 95,860 hact.
Barley alone or in combination with gram forming the mixed called bejhar to which peas are generally added was the favourite rabi staple in the past, in the area sown with it is due to their replacement with wheat and its combination. Barley flourishes even in soils and in tracts which are not suited to wheat cultivation for lack of irrigation facilities.
Gram is, on the whole, little irrigated and it resists drought well, and for this reason it is acceptable to the inhabitants of the par. It can be grown on inferior soils. It needs only two ploughings and does not usually require manure. The only other Rabi staple which needs mention is peas.
Airways-Kanpur Chakeri Airport is the nearest airport.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.