Aurangabad, Maharashtra

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Aurangabad
اورنگ‌آباد
Metropolitan City
Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad
Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad
Nickname(s): The City of Gates, The Historic City, The capital of Marathwada, Tourism capital of Maharashtra
Aurangabad is located in Maharashtra
Aurangabad
Aurangabad
Coordinates: 19°53′N 75°19′E / 19.88°N 75.32°E / 19.88; 75.32Coordinates: 19°53′N 75°19′E / 19.88°N 75.32°E / 19.88; 75.32
Country India
State Maharashtra
Region Marathwada
District Aurangabad
Established 1610 A.D
Government
 • Divisional Commissioner of Aurangabad Sanjeev Jaiswal
 • Mayor Kala Ojha
Area
 • Total 300 km2 (100 sq mi)
Elevation 568 m (1,864 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 11,71,330
 • Rank 31
 • Density 3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi,Urdu & Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 431 XXX
Telephone code 0240
Vehicle registration MH 20
Website auruangabad.nic.in

Aurangabad , Marathi: औरंगाबाद, Urdu: اورنگ‌آباد‎, About this sound pronunciation , Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. Aurangabad (meaning "Built by the Throne") is named after the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, a well known Mughal Muslim ruler. The city is a tourist hub, surrounded with many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara. The administrative headquarters of the Aurangabad Division or Marathwada region, Aurangabad is said to be a City of Gates and the strong presence of these can be felt as one drives through the city. Recently, Aurangabad has been declared as Tourism Capital of Maharashtra.[2] It is also one of the fastest growing cities in the world.[3] Population wise it is the 5th largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur and Nashik.

History[edit]

Zeb-un-Nisa's palace, Aurangabad 1880s.

Khadki (Today's Aurangabad) was the original name of the village which was made in 1610 A.D.[citation needed] a capital city by a Muslim Minister Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar. He made it his capital and the men of his army raised their dwellings around it. Within a decade, Khadki grew into a populous and imposing city. Malik Ambar cherished strong love and ability for architecture. Aurangabad was Ambar's great architectural achievement and creation. Malik Ambar died in 1626.[4] He was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan, who changed the name of Khadki to Fatehnagar. With the capture of Daulatabad by the imperial troops in 1633, the Nizam Shahi dominions, including Fatehnagar, came under the possession of the Moghals.

In 1653 when Prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad. Aurangabad is sometimes referred to as Khujista Bunyad by the Chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign.

Bibi Ka Maqbara was built in 1678 by Aurangzeb's son, Azam Shah, as a loving tribute to his mother, Rabia-ul-Daurani alias Dilras Bano Begam. In 1756, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asif Jah, a distinguished General of Aurangzeb with the intention of founding his own dynasty in the Deccan, arrived at Aurangabad and made it his capital. He paid a visit to Delhi in 1723, but returned in 1724, Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II transferred his capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763.[5] It was ceded by Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, Nizam of Hyderabad to Maratha Empire with Daulatabad and Solapur after Battle of Kharda in 1795[6] with paying indemnity of 30 million rupees. However, Marathi rule was lasted only 8 years and Nizam regained lost territories except Solapur with help of Arthur Wellesley, British general during Second Anglo-Maratha War.

Aurangabad was a part of Nizam's princely Hyderabad State until its annexation into Indian Union and thereafter a part of Hyderabad state of India until 1956. In 1956 it became a part of newly formed bilingual Bombay state and in 1960 it became a part of Maharashtra state.

Indian Rebellion of 1857[edit]

The Indian Mutiny: General Woodburn's Moveable Brigade Aurangabad 1857.

The year 1857 was eventful in the history of Aurangabad with the rest of the country. The British moved the first cavalry from Mominabad (Ambejogai) to Aurangabad to relieve 3rd cavalry which had marched to Malegaon, and was the first regiment to show signs of disaffection. The 2nd Infantry also came under suspicion. The authorities at Hyderabad were kept informed of the course of events by express. Upon this, a column of t

File:Modudi house
syed abu ala modudi house

roops was ordered to march from Pune to Aurangabad. In the meanwhile, the artillery was also showing signs of rebellion, but the rumour of Bombay troops marching towards Aurangabad had a quieting effect. The men of the cavalry also returned to their posts.

A dafadar named Mir Fida Ali, fired a shot at his commanding officer, Captain Abbott. For this act of his, he was tried by a drum-head, court-martialed and hanged.[5]

Photographs taken by Lala Deen Dayal & others in the 19th century, sourced from the British Library, Views of HH the Nizam's Dominions, Hyderabad, Deccan.

Geography and climate[edit]

Climate data for Aurangabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.1
(84.4)
31.7
(89.1)
35.5
(95.9)
38.6
(101.5)
39.5
(103.1)
34.7
(94.5)
30.5
(86.9)
29.2
(84.6)
30.4
(86.7)
32.0
(89.6)
30.1
(86.2)
28.3
(82.9)
32.47
(90.45)
Average low °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
12.9
(55.2)
17.5
(63.5)
21.7
(71.1)
23.6
(74.5)
22.6
(72.7)
21.5
(70.7)
20.9
(69.6)
20.4
(68.7)
17.8
(64)
13.7
(56.7)
10.8
(51.4)
17.86
(64.14)
Precipitation mm (inches) 3.4
(0.134)
3.4
(0.134)
6.6
(0.26)
3.1
(0.122)
27.5
(1.083)
110.0
(4.331)
150.9
(5.941)
152.2
(5.992)
145.3
(5.72)
61.9
(2.437)
33.1
(1.303)
13.3
(0.524)
710.7
(27.981)
Source: IMD CLIMATOLOGICAL TABLE PERIOD: 1961-1990

The co-ordinates for Aurangabad are N 19° 53' 47" – E 75° 23' 54". The city is surrounded by hills on all directions.

Climate Classification: Aurangabad features a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification.

Temperature: Annual mean temperatures in Aurangabad range from 17 to 33 °C, with the most comfortable time to visit in the winter – October to February. The highest maximum temperature ever recorded was 46 °C (114 °F) on 25 May 1905. The lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on 2 February 1911. In the cold season, the district is sometimes affected by cold waves in association with the eastward passage of western disturbances across north India, when the minimum temperature may drop down to about 2 °C to 4 °C (35.6 °F to 39.2 °F).[7]

Rainfall: Most of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season from June to September.Thunderstorms occur between November to April. Average annual rainfall is 710 mm.

Geology[edit]

Station Road, Aurangabad

The entire area is covered by the Deccan Traps lava flows of Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age. The lava flows are overlain by thin alluvial deposits along the Kham and Sukhana river. The basaltic lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap is the only major geological formation occurring in Aurangabad. The lava flows are horizontal and each flow has two distinct units. The upper layers consist of vesiculara and amygdaloidal zeolitic basalt while the bottom layer consists of massive basalt.The lava flows are individually different in their ability to receive as well as hold water in storage and to transmit it. The difference in the productivity of groundwater in various flows arises as a result of their inherent physical properties such as porosity and permeability. The groundwater occurs under water table conditions and is mainly controlled by the extent of its secondary porosity i.e. thickness of weathered rocks and spacing of joints and fractures. The highly weathered vesicular trap and underlying weathered jointed and fractured massive trap constitutes the main water yielding zones. The soil is mostly formed from igneous rocks and are black, medium black, shallow and calcareous types having different depths and profiles.[8]

Demographics[edit]

Predominantely Hinduism, with substantial population of Islam believers are two major religions in Aurangabad with 59.1%, 38.0%, of the population following them. And others are 1.5% 52.5% of Aurangabad's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Religions in Aurangabad
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
52.0%
Muslims
  
44.0%
Buddhist
  
0.05%
Jains
  
3.0%
Christian
  
1.1%
Others†
  
1.9%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (1.0%), Buddhists (<0.5%).

[[

File:Modudi house
syed abu ala modudi home

]] The city, including the cantonment area, had a population of 1,171,330 in 2011.Marathi and Urdu are the principal languages of the city. According to 2011 census, the percentage of residents speaking Marathi were 56.60 percent and residents speaking Urdu were 30.69 percent. Hindi speakers were third with 11.99 percent.and remaining speak other languages.[9]

Economy[edit]

There is evidence to believe that Aurangabad was developed as a trading hub four centuries ago. Aurangabad is the one the fastest developing cities in Asia. It tops the chart among the developing cities. It lies on a major trade route that used to connect north-west India's sea and land ports to the Deccan region. Recently Aurangabad was in news for placing single largest order for Mercedes Benz cars in a single transaction in India — 150 Mercedes Benz cars worth Rs 65 crore.[10][11] Without a local Mercedes-Benz showroom and encountering an indifferent Mercedes-Benz dealer in the nearest city, a group of successful citizens pooled their orders and negotiated a record agreement with the firm. Soon after that, bulk purchase order of 101 BMW cars was also placed.

Industry[edit]

Himroo Shawl

The city was a major silk and cotton textile production centre. A fine blend of silk with locally grown cotton was developed as Himroo textile. Paithani silk saris are also made in Aurangabad. With the opening of the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways in the year 1900 several ginning factories were started.[12] After 1960, Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) began acquiring land and setting up industrial estates. Aurangabad is now classic example of efforts of state government towards balanced industrialisation of state.[13]

Major Industrial areas of Aurangabad are Chikhalthana MIDC, Shendra MIDC and Waluj MIDC. A new industrial belt namely Shendra - Bidkin Industrial Park is being developed under DMIC.[14] The Maharashtra Centre For Entrepreneurship Development's main office is in Aurangabad. Many renowned Indian and MNCs have established themselves in the Industrial Estates of Aurangabad:


Recently Aurangabad became the third city in Maharashtra (after Pune & Nashik) to host an auto cluster namely Marathwada Auto Cluster(MAC).[15] Electrical goods major Siemens has set up a plant for manufacturing of superior quality bogies for locomotives, electric multiple units and metro coaches at Shendra MIDC Aurangabad.[16]

Modern Retail Industry has made its presence felt in the forms of Malls. Prozone Mall spread over 1 million square feet is the biggest in the region. The industry is a big employment generator. Prozone alone created direct employment opportunities for 4000 people.[17]

Financial services[edit]

Modern banking in the district may be said to have begun when the Central Bank of India was established in Hyderabad State on 19 February 1932, at Jalna, and in next year i.e., on 20 December 1933, at Aurangabad. Later on in 1945 the Bank of Hyderabad was established under the Hyderabad State Bank Act of 1350 Fasli.[18]

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, Aurangabad has seen a spurt in financial activities, with almost all public sector and private banks have opened up branches including the State Bank of India, Union Bank of India,State Bank of Hyderabad, Bank of Maharashtra, Citibank India, Deutsche Bank, ICICI Bank, Bank of India, HDFC Bank, etc. Also Regional Rural Bank viz. Maharashtra Gramin Bank has its regional head office in Aurangabad city.

Administration and politics[edit]

Local administration[edit]

Kranti Chowk

Aurangabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) is the local civil body. It is divided into six zones. The Municipal Council was established in 1936, the Municipal Council area was about 54.5 km2. It was elevated to the status of Municipal Corporation from 8 December 1982, and simultaneously including eighteen peripheral villages, making total area under its jurisdiction to 138.5 km2 extended its limits.

The city is divided in 99 electoral wards called as Prabhag, and each ward is represented by a Corporator elected by the people from each ward. There are two Committees, General Body and Standing Committee headed by the Mayor and the Chairman respectively. AMC is responsible for providing basic amenities like drinking water, drainage facility, road, street lights, healthcare facilities, primary schools, etc. AMC collects its revenue from the urban taxes which are imposed on citizens. The administration is headed by the Municipal Commissioner; an I.A.S. Officer, assisted by the other officers of different departments.

State and central administration[edit]

Aurangabad division is one of the six administrative divisions of Maharashtra state in India. Aurangabad divisions almost completely coincides with the Marathwada region of Maharashtra.

Aurangabad contributes one seat to the Lok SabhaAurangabad (Lok Sabha constituency). The seat is currently held by Mr. Chandrakant Khaire, MP of the Shiv Sena party. It also holds the seat for the Assembly – Aurangabad West. Mr Rajendra Darda of (Indian National Congress) is the MLA from Aurangabad East constituency and holds the portfolio of Cabinet Minister for Education, Government of Maharashtra.[19] In latest constituency arrangements made by,[20] Aurangabad will conrtibute one Loksabha seat, and three state assembly seats namely Aurangabad East, Aurangabad West and Aurangabad Central. The latest MLAs being – Aurangabad (East) – Rajendra Darda of Congress(I), Aurangabad (Central) – Pradeep Jaiswal (Independent) and Aurangabad (West) Sanjay Shirsat of Shiv-Sena.[21]

Bombay High Court Aurangabad Bench, ITC Welcomgroup's The Rama International, Ajanta Ambassador & Cidco Town Center – Aerial view

Judiciary[edit]

The Aurangabad bench of the Bombay High Court was established in 1982. Initially only a few districts of Maharashtra were under this bench. Subsequently in 1988, Ahmednagar and others districts were attached to the bench. The jurisdiction of the Aurangabad Bench is over the districts of Aurangabad, Ahmednagar, Dhule, Jalna, Jalgaon, Beed, Parbhani, Latur and Osmanabad. The Aurangabad bench has now 15 judges. The first phase of centrally located magnificent High Court edifice, having 6,202.18 square metres built up area was opened in the month of June 1995.

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

Aurangabad Airport (Chikkalthana Airport) is an airport serving the city and has connecting flights to Hyderabad, Delhi, Udaipur, Mumbai, Jaipur, Pune, Nagpur. Recently[when?] flights were made available to the people travelling to the Hajj pilgrimage.[22]

Rail[edit]

Aurangabad (station code:AWB) is a station located on the Secunderabad-Manmad section of the Nanded Division of South Central Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Aurangabad has rail connectivity with Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad. It is also connected to Nanded, Shirdi, Parli, Nagpur, Nasik, Pune, Amritsar, Ambala,Nizamabad, Kurnool, Renigunta, Vishakapatnam, Kakinada, Erode, Madurai, Bhopal, Gwalior, Vadodra, Narsapur, Chennai, Tirupati, Rameswaram, Ahmedabad, Okha and Rajkot. But there is still a demand for direct rail connectivity to other major cities of India. The Aurangabad Jan Shatabdi Express is the fastest train connecting it with Mumbai.

Road[edit]

The busy Jalna road

Aurangabad is well connected by roads with various major cities of Maharashtra and other states. National Highway 211 from Dhule to Solapur passes through the city. Aurangabad has road connectivity to Jalna, Pune, Ahmednagar, Nagpur, Beed, Mumbai and the route is currently being upgraded into four lane road of National Highway standard. A new Nagpur–Aurangabad–Mumbai express highway is also being developed.

Local transport

The Maharashtra State Road transport Corporation (MSRTC) and numerous other private bus operators provide bus service connecting the city to all parts of the state. (MSRTC) also operates an intra-city bus service called 'Aurangabad City Bus' which connects different parts of the city together along with connecting the city to its nearby suburbs.

Education[edit]

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (BAMU) is located in Aurangabad city. Most of the colleges of the region are affiliated to it. The University has 101 Colleges affiliated in Aurangabad and similarly 99 Colleges in Beed, 53 & 55 Colleges affiliated in Jalna & Osmanabad.[23] Aurangabad has schools run by the Aurangabad Municipal Corporation and private schools owned and run by trusts and individuals.

Aurangabad Cantonment[edit]

Aurangabad Cantonment is the greenest area of the Aurangabad city. It also has a nine hole golf course, the only such course in Marathwada region. Aurangabad Cantonment was formed in the year 1819 with European Officers to train the Nizam Army. In 1903, a treaty was signed between British and the Nizam, and it was decided to establish a proper Cantonment. Today the Cantonment is spread across 2,584 acres (10.46 km2) with civil population of 19274 as per 2001 census.[24]

Tourist attractions[edit]

Bibi Ka Maqbara see in the aerial view
Bhadkal Gate built by Malik Ambar in commemoration of his victory against the Mughals.

The Aurangabad city is known for the Bibi Ka Maqbara situated about 3 km (2 mi) from the city which is the burial place of Emperor Aurangzeb's wife, Dilras Banu Begum also known as Rabia-ud-Daurani. It is an imitation of the Taj Mahal at Agra and due to its similar design, it is popularly known as the "Taj of the Deccan".[25] The 17th-century water mill (Panchakki) situated at a distance of 1 km from the city is known for its underground water channel, which traverses more than 8 km. to its source away in the mountains. The channel culminates into an artificial waterfall that powers the mill. The city is also famous for the 52 gates built in Mughal era which gives it a name as "City of Gates".[26] Aurangabad Caves, situated at a distance of 5 km (3 mi), nestled amidst the hills are 12 Buddhist caves dating back to 3 A.D. Of particular interest are the Tantric influences evident in the iconography and architectural designs of the caves. The Salim Ali Lake & Bird Sanctuary, popularly known as Salim Ali Talab is located near Delhi Gate, opposite Himayat Bagh. It is located in the northern part of the city. During the Mughal period it was known as Khiziri Talab. It has been renamed after the great ornithologist and naturalist Salim Ali. It also has a bird Sanctuary and a garden maintained by the Aurangabad Municipal Corporation. The Shuli bhanjan is a nearing hill station with Dattatreya temple. Daultabad (Earlier Devgiri), 11km north-west of Aurangabad, is a famous for its formidable hill fort. The fort is situated on an isolated cone-shaped hill rising abruptly from the plain to the height of about 190 metres. The fortification constitutes of three concentric lines of defensive walls with large number of bastions. The noteworthy features of the fort are the moat, the scarp and the sub-terranean passage, all hewn of solid rock. The upper outlet of the passage was filled with an iron grating, on which a large fire could be used to prevent the progress of the enemy. The Chand Minar, the Chini Mahal and the Baradari are the important structures within the fort. The Chand Minar, about 63 metres in height, was erected by Alauddin Bahman Shah in 1435 AD to conquest of Daulatabad. Opposite the Minar is the Jumma masjid, whose pillars originally belonged to a temple. Close to it, there is a large masonry tank. The Chini Mahal at the end of the lower for is the place where Abdul Hasan Tana Shah, the last king Golconda, was confined by Aurangzeb in 1687 AD. Nearby is a round bastion topped with a huge canon with ram’s head, called Kila Shikan or Fort breaker. The Baradari, octagonal in shape, stands near the summit of the fort. The principal bastion at the summit also carries a large canon. Though the city of Devagiri was founded in 1187 AD by the Yadava king Bhillan V, the fort was constructed during the reign of Singhana II (1210-46 AD). It was captured by Ala-ud-Din Kalji in 12 94 AD, marking the first Muslim invasion of the Deccan. Finally in 1318 AD, Malik Kafur killed last Yadava Raja, Harapal. Then in 1327 AD, Muhammed-bin-Tughluq sought to make it his capital, by transferring the entire population of Delhi and changing the name from Devagiri to Daulatabad. Then it was in the possession of the Bhamanis till 1526 AD. The fort remained in Mughal control till Aurangzeb’s death in 1707 AD., when it passed on to the Nizam of Hyderabad. The famous Ellora Caves are just 16km from Devagiri-Daulatabad.

Culture and cuisine[edit]

Culture[edit]

The culture of Aurangabad city is heavily influenced by Hyderabad. The old city still retains the cultural flavour and charms of Muslim culture of Hyderabad. Its influence is reflected in the language and cuisine of the locals. Although Marathi and Urdu are the principal languages of the city, they are spoken in DakhniHyderabadi Urdu dialect.[27]

Cuisine[edit]

Naan Qalia, Aurangabad

Aurangabadi food is much like Mughlai or Hyderabadi cuisine with its fragrant pulao and Biryani. Meat cooked in fresh spices and herbs is a speciality, as are the delectable sweets. The local cuisine is a blend of Mughlai and Hyderabadi cuisine, with an influence of the spices and herbs of the Marathwada region.[32] Naan Qalia is a dish that is associated with Aurangabad in India. It is a concoction of mutton and a variety of spices. Naan is the bread made in tandoor (Hot furnace) while Qalia is a mixture of mutton and various spices.

The dish originated in the army camp of Muhammad bin Tughlaq when he shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in the year 1327. Later the dish was used in the army camps of the Mughals who had their base in and around Daulatabad and Aurangabad in the deccan. Soldiers and camp followers settled in Aurangabad patronised the dish and the tradition continues to this day.

Tahri or Tahari is similar to pulaoBiryani and is very popular in Aurangabad and Marathwada. Tahri is prepared by adding the meat to the rice, as opposed to traditional Biryani where the rice is added to the meat.[33]

Aurangabad / Marathwada / Dakhni cuisine is a blend of the Puneri and the Hyderabadi cuisine (which beautifully blends the use of typical South Indian ingredients such as curry leaves, tamarind and coconut into their celebrated culinary practices).[34] Distinctively different from the Hyderabadi cuisine, the Deccani cuisine (Marathwada, North Karnataka and Telangana) is a simple yet sumptuously wholesome affair. The stress is on the powdered masalas and their right proportions while cooking, unlike the Mughlai items where emphasis is on opulent garnishing and seasoning. While Mughlai is mostly prepared by low-simmer in dum-style, Deccani food is not as time consuming and spicy as its royal counterpart.[35]

The availability of staple, easily used ingredients and some derivatives such as the Vadis (dried rice/lentil nuggets), vegetables of the season – Vangi (brinjals) appear on most menus while the other lentils from the region make their presence felt in the Jhunkas and Pitlas (raw tomato curry made thick with besan). The use of groundnut with garlic, chillies and kopra are seen in the creation of the Chutney, thecha and pastes/gravy (with the onion as the main ingredient). The mutton and fowl are celebrated for their tenderness and taste (locally, the Gavran Chicken though fibrous as compared to the broiler is a hot favourite for its robust taste). The accompanying bread is of Jwarichi bhaakri, or Bajrichi Bhakari, Poli and variations such as 'Dhapate' are well known, the Thalipeeth, which is made from a combination of various grains and partaken with butter.[34]

Local arts[edit]

  • Paithani Textiles: The Paithani sarees from Paithan are considered to be priced possession by one and all. One can get an opportunity to witness this age old art of weaving Paithani sarees. The yarn used is of pure silk and the zari or gold threads drawn from pure gold.

Mashru and Himroo[edit]

Aurangabad is sometimes known for cheap Mashru and Himroo fabrics made of cotton and silk with the lustre of satin. Himru is an age-old weaving craft, and was originally known as kum khuab.

  • Himroo: The fabric is associated with the times of Mohammad Tughlaq who ruled in the 14th century. Himroo weaving is very characteristic and distinctive. [36]
  • Bidriware : A unique form of gold and silver inlays on copper is preserved here. This ancient art still finds expression in the modern items like cufflinks, nameplates and more. Typical bidri items include plates, bowls, vases, ashtrays, trinket boxes, huqqa bases and jewellery.
  • Kaghzipura: [36]

Sister Cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Paper 2 – Cities having population 1 million and above – 2011 census
  2. ^ Maharashtra Tourism Minister declared Aurangabad as the tourism capital of the state.
  3. ^ "11 Indian cities among world's fastest growing - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2007-10-23. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  4. ^ Qureshi Dulari, "Tourism Potential in Aurangabad," p.6
  5. ^ a b Govt of Maharashtra – Aurangabad Gazetteer[dead link]
  6. ^ "Hyderabad Rulers with their Coinage details". Chiefacoins.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  7. ^ Maharashtra government web site[dead link]
  8. ^ Aher K.R. 'Groundwater Quality studies of Chikalthana area of Aurangabad',Ph.D Thesis, Dr.B.A.M.University,Aurangabad(Maharashtra State),India,2012 page-38
  9. ^ a b [Govt of Maharashtra Aurangabad Gazetteer. Section – The People (population)]
  10. ^ (Mercedes Benz gets order of 150 cars worth Rs 65 crore from Aurangabad).
  11. ^ (Biggest Mercedes-Benz deal in a day in Aurangabad).[dead link]
  12. ^ "Hyderabad" by Mirza Mehdy Khan, Imperial Gazetteer of India, Government Printing Press, Calcutta, 1909.
  13. ^ TOI (12 April 2009). "History revisited at Aurangabad". The Times Of India. Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  14. ^ Sandeep Ashar (15 October 2011). "Share on emailShare on printShare on redditMore Sharing Services Four mega industrial towns". THE TIMES OF INDIA. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  15. ^ Mahesh Joshi (22 November 2009). "Finally, Aurangabad gets its auto cluster". The Indian Express Limited. The Indian Express Limited. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "Siemens bogie facility at Aurangabad commences operations". Siemens India. Siemens Ltd. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  17. ^ Prozone.
  18. ^ Maharashtra government web site Banking and Finance Aurangabad[dead link]
  19. ^ Ministers in Government of Maharashtra.[dead link]
  20. ^ Election Commission of India Archived 13 June 2009 at WebCite
  21. ^ Map of Aurangabad Loksabha and Assembly seats
  22. ^ Aurangabad Airport AAI website
  23. ^ Information from official website of BAMU
  24. ^ "Aurangabad". Aurangabad Cantonment Board. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  25. ^ Bhaskar P. "The Taj of Deccan". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  26. ^ Rajiv Banerjee (12 April 2009). "History revisited at Aurangabad the 'city of gates'". The Economic Times. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  27. ^ DAKHNI The Language in which the Composite Culture of India was Born by T. Vijayendra.
  28. ^ (Wali Dakhni) The Language in which the Composite Culture of India was Born by T. Vijayendra.
  29. ^ Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi. Official website of the Jamaat-e-Islami.[dead link]
  30. ^ Adams, p.100-101
  31. ^ [1] Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ The cuisine of Auguranbad[dead link]
  33. ^ Types of Biryani – Adibah.co.uk
  34. ^ a b Upper Crust
  35. ^ The Hindu – Plateau palate
  36. ^ a b Qureshi, Dulari (1 January 1999). Tourism Potential in Aurangabad. Delhi: Bhartiya Kala Prakashan. p. 65. ISBN 978-81-86050-44-6. 
  37. ^ "Aurangabad News | Discussions | Events - Page 4". SkyscraperCity. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 

External links[edit]