Aurillac

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Aurillac
Aurillac QuartierStGeraud.jpg
Coat of arms of Aurillac
Coat of arms
Aurillac is located in France
Aurillac
Aurillac
Coordinates: 44°55′34″N 2°26′26″E / 44.9261°N 2.4406°E / 44.9261; 2.4406Coordinates: 44°55′34″N 2°26′26″E / 44.9261°N 2.4406°E / 44.9261; 2.4406
Country France
Region Auvergne
Department Cantal
Arrondissement Aurillac
Canton Capital of 4 cantons
Intercommunality Bassin d'Aurillac
Government
 • Mayor (2013–2020) Pierre Mathonier
Area
 • Land1 28.76 km2 (11.10 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Population2 27,924
 • Population2 density 970/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 15014 / 15000
Elevation 573–867 m (1,880–2,844 ft)
(avg. 622 m or 2,041 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Aurillac (Orlhac in Occitan) is a French commune, capital of the Cantal department, in the Auvergne region of south-central France, .

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aurillacois or Aurillacoises.[1]

Geography[edit]

Aurillac is at 600 metres above sea level and located at the foot of the Cantal mountains in a small Sedimentary basin. The city is built on the banks of the Jordanne, a tributary of the Cère. It is 558 km (347 mi) south of Paris and 223 km (139 mi) north of Toulouse. Aurillac was part of a former Auvergne province called Haute-Auvergne and is only 20 km (12 mi) away from the heart of the Auvergne Volcano Park. Access to the commune is by numerous roads including the D922 from Naucelles in the north, the D17 from Saint-Simon in the north-east, Route nationale N122 from Polminhac in the east which continues to Sansac-de-Marmiesse in the south-west, the D920 to Arpajon-sur-Cère in the south-east, and the D18 to Ytrac in the west.[2] The Figeac-Arvant railway passes through the commune with a station in the centre of town but there is no TGV service. About 50% of the commune is urbanised with farmland to the east and west of the urban area.[2]

Aurillac – Tronquières Airport is located in the south of the commune with its runway extending beyond the commune boundary.[2] It is connected to Paris by two daily flights by the Air France subsidiary HOP!.

The Jordanne river flows through the heart of the commune from north to south where it joins the Cère just south of the commune.[2]

Localities and Dustricts[edit]

  • Boudieu on the N122, which is called the Route de Sansac-de-Marmiesse or de Toulouse, is a farm with a farm house from the 1900s and three farm buildings.
  • Boudieu-Bas on the N122 is a set of houses built in the 1960s with some buildings used commercially or for crafts.
  • Gueret on the N122 is a farm with two houses and two agricultural buildings. This hamlet is traversed by an old country road from a place formerly called Julien from which name for the SNCF Julien Bridge comes. The former Julien is towards the Chateau of Tronquières in the urban area on Avenue Charles de Gaulle opposite the Medico-Surgical Centre (CMC). This farm with its house and barn were absorbed by the city on the creation of a district in the 1970s until the mid 1980s. The agricultural buildings were demolished to make room for a shop.
  • La Sablère on the RN122 is a set of dwellings mostly from the 1980s. Originally there was a farm. This place spreads over two communes: Aurillac and Arpajon-sur-Cere with the majority of the buildings in Arpajon-sur-Cere.
  • Le Barra near the avenue Aristide Briand, also called the Ancienne route de Vic or the old N120. This is a farm and houses.
  • Les Quatre Chemins at the intersection of the D120 and the D922 on the borders of Aurillac, Naucelles, and Ytrac. It is a complex of commercial buildings and residences on the crossroads of the two former National highways.
  • Tronquières on an avenue. Originally it was a farm with a chateau but the chateau and outbuildings were demolished in 2011. Today it is a grouping of housing units specializing in housing assistance for the integration of disabled people (ADAPEI) and the airport. It is the reception area for travellers to the city and a former landfill and rubbish centre. Before the construction of the airport the meadows were areas for summer grazing for nearby farms such as the Boudieu farm.

Neighbouring communes and villages[2][edit]

Climate[edit]

Aurillac has a degraded oceanic climate with cold winters and hot summers due to its distance from the ocean. Rainfall, however, is abundant with 1174mm and 130 days per year with precipitation. Snow is common and sometimes abundant with 31 snow days per year and during some snowfalls the quantity of snow can be high. Frost is very common with 80 days of frost per year with the period of freezing frequently extending from October to May. Despite its altitude, Aurillac still has 8 days of high temperatures. Days with heavy frosts are frequent (21 days). The city also has 2118 sunshine hours per year. The record low temperature was -24.5 °C on 9 January 1985 and the record high was 38.0 °C on 30 July 1983.

Toponymy[edit]

The origin of the name Aurillac is from Aureliacum meaning "Villa of Aurelius" and dates back to the Gallo-Roman era. It is attested in the polygonal Fanum d'Aron which was built in the 1st century and discovered in 1977 at Lescudillier.

History[edit]

It is thought that in the Gallic era the original site of the city was on the heights overlooking the current city at Saint-Jean-de-Dône ("Dône" from dunum) and, like most oppida, it was abandoned after the Roman conquest in favour of a new city established on the plain. With the return of instability in the Lower Roman Empire there was a movement towards Encastellation and a new fortified site was established in mid-slope between the former oppidum and the old Gallo-Roman city where the Chateau of Saint-Étienne is today.

The history of the city is really only known from 856, the year of the birth of Count Gerald of Aurillac at the castle where his father, also named Gerald, was lord. In 885 he founded a Benedictine monastery which later bore his name. It was in this monastery that Gerbert, the first French pope under the name of Sylvester II, studied.

The city was made in a Sauveté[Note 1] area which was located between four crosses and was founded in 898 by Gerald shortly after the abbey. The first urban area was circular and built close to the Abbey of Aurillac. Gerald died around 910 but his influence was such that over the centuries Gerald was always a baptismal name prevalent in the population of Aurillac and the surrounding area.

Houses along the Jordanne

It was in the 13th century that municipal conflict began between consuls and abbots. After taking the Chateau of Saint-Étienne in 1255 and two negotiated agreements called the Peace of Aurillac, relations were normalised.

In the 13th and 14th centuries Aurillac withstood several sieges by the English and in the 16th century continued to suffer from civil and religious wars.

The influence of the abbey declined with its secularization and its implementation of orders.

In 1569 the city was delivered by treason to the Protestants: people were tortured and held to ransom and the Abbey was sacked. The library and archives were all burned.

Before the French Revolution Aurillac had a Présidial and carried the title of capital of the Haute-Auvergne. In 1790 on the creation of departments, after a period of alternating with Saint-Flour, Aurillac definitively became the capital of Cantal.

The Station at Aurillac in 1898

The arrival of the railway in 1866 accelerated the development of the city.

At the first census in 1759 there were 6,268 people in Aurillac, it now has about 28,000.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Aurillac

The traditional arms of Aurillac. The three silver shells were originally on one line because Aurillac was a stage on the Way of St. James coming from Clermont-Ferrand (currently the Via Arvernha). The three fleurs-de-lis gold indicated a Good Town at a time when Aurillac provided a body of two hundred picked men to King Charles VII to fight the British.

Blazon:
Gules, three escallops of Argent 2 and 1, in chief Azure, three fleurs-de-lis of Or.




Arms of Aurillac Abbey

The traditional arms of the Abbey and County of Aurillac. These arms were originally on the banner of the abbey representing a patch of grass, evoking a miraculous fact related by Odo of Cluny in his Life of Saint Gerald of Aurillac.

Blazon:
Party per pale, Or and Vert, the border engrailed of one on the other.




Politics and Administration[edit]

Cantons[edit]

Aurillac is the capital of the department of Cantal (seat of the prefecture) and of the Arrondissement of Aurillac as well as for four cantons (INSEE names):

  • 1st Canton of Aurillac - 8,600 pop. Solely from the City of Aurillac
  • 2nd Canton of Aurillac - 4,254 pop. Aurillac and 3 other communes
  • 3rd Canton of Aurillac - 9,756 pop. Solely from the City of Aurillac
  • 4th Canton of Aurillac - 6,031 pop. Aurillac and 9 other communes.

Administration[edit]

List of Successive Mayors[3]

Mayors from 1941
From To Name Party Position
1941 1944 Antony Joly Named by the Vichy Regime. Textile Entrepreneur
1944 1947 Jean Chanal Doctor, Former Mayor
1947 1953 Henri Tricot Dentist, Legion of Honour
1953 1965 Paul Joseph Amable Piales Industrialist, Legion of Honour, Senator for Cantal 1948-1971
1965 1971 Jacques Meyniel PS Son of Mayor Louis Meyniel, MP for Cantal
1971 1977 Jean Mézard CNIP Doctor, President of the General Council
1977 1995 René Souchon PS
1995 2001 Yvon Bec MDC
2001 2006 René Souchon PS Resigned to become President of the Auvergne Regional Council
2006 2013 Alain Calmette PS General Counsellor, MP fro Cantal from 2012
2013 2020 Pierre Mathonier PS

(Not all data is known)

Twinning[edit]

Aurillac has twinning associations with:[4]

Demography[edit]

In 2010 the commune had 27,924 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 2]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
10,470 10,357 10,523 9,190 9,766 10,889 9,753 9,609 10,917
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
9,846 9,831 10,998 11,098 11,211 13,727 14,613 15,824 16,886
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
17,459 17,772 18,038 16,389 17,153 17,643 19,041 22,174 22,224
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -
24,563 28,226 30,863 30,963 30,773 30,551 29,700 27,924 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Aurillac

Economy[edit]

  • Aurillac is the seat of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Cantal which manages commercial villages (including that of Tronquières in Aurillac). Aurillac Airport is managed by the CABA (Urban Community of the Aurillac Basin Agglomeration).

Shops[edit]

Boutique Gentiane Couderc

Aurillac has hundreds of boutiques, shops, and artisans.

Industry[edit]

  • Processing of agricultural products, particularly milk and meat. Manufacturing and packaging of Cantal cheese.
  • Historic French capital of umbrellas with half of French production - 250,000 units in 1999 - and provides 100 jobs. After declining for several decades at the end of the 20th century, Aurillac umbrella producers decided to join their forces and created the Economic Interest Group, or GIE in 1997. They then launched their products under a single label, L'aurillac Parapluie (The Aurillac Umbrella).
  • Aurillac is also the seat of what was the European leader in healthcare duvets and pillows: Abeil[5] and the plasturgist Auriplast specializes in injection and electroplating.
Bleu d'Auvergne

Also found in Aurillac are different players in various food fields (e.g. the Couderc distillery with its famous gentian liqueur and famous establishments such as the Leroux and Bonal cheese factories, the Morin refinery, MAS charcuteries, Teil cured by the Altitude group, refrigerated transport operator Olano Ladoux etc.).

Aurillac is best known for its Cheese centre based on the heights of Aurillac close to the Chateau Saint-Étienne. It was established in 1993, the structure consists of an association bringing together many organisations to develop scientific programs. It develops scientific programs relating to the cheese sector.

Data processing[edit]

Aurillac hosts several websites:

  • video games with Jeuxvideo.com
  • trucks with Net-truck[6]
  • aeronautical accessories with Aerodiscount[7]

Aurillac has also been the headquarters of the ERP vendor Qualiac since 1979.[8]

Culture and heritage[edit]

The commune has a very large number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments. For a complete list click here (French).

There are also a very large number of items which are registered as historical objects in various locations. For a complete list click here. (French)

Civil heritage[edit]

Some of the most interesting sites are:

  • The Chateau of Saint-Etienne (9th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg which overlooks the city.[9]
  • The Aurillac National Stud
  • The Musée des volcans (Museum of Volcanos), at the château Saint-Étienne
  • The Musée d'art et d'archéologie d'Aurillac (Museum of Art and Archaeology), 37 rue des Carmes
  • The former Consul's House.Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[10]
  • The former Présidial
  • The former Jesuit College
  • The Palace of Justice (1872)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[11]
  • The Prison (1855)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[12]
  • The Police Station (1872)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[13]
  • The Town Hall (17th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[14]
  • The Prefecture (19th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[15]

Religious heritage[edit]

The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Abbey Saint-Géraud (11th century).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[16] The Abbey has several items that are registered as historical objects:
  • The Church of Notre-Dame-aux-Neiges (1332).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[22][23] The chapel contains a large number of items which are registered as historical objects. A complete list can be seen here.
  • The Church of Sacré Coeur (1937).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[24] The chapel has one group of items that is registered as an historical object:
    • Interior Decor, Stained glass, Reliefs, paintings, and mosaics (20th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[25]
  • The Chapel of Aurinques (1616).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[26] The chapel has a number of items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Bronze Bell (1554)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[27]
    • An Ex-voto Painting: Procession of Acts of Grace (1701)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[28]
    • An Ex-voto Painting: Deliverance of the Town (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[29]
    • An Ex-voto Painting: Attack on the Town (1701)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[30]
    • A Glass wall: Virgin and Child (163)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[31]
  • The Church of Saint-Joseph-Ouvrier (20th century)

Facilities[edit]

Cultural facilities[edit]

Concert at Le Prisme

Aurillac has several dance centres:

  • Folk dancing: dancers and singers from the Auvergne School
  • Conservatory: National School of Music and Dance of Aurillac
  • Arabesque;
  • Katy Bardy Dance School
  • Modern jazz and classical Chorège Dance School;
  • La Manufacture: a higher centre of dance, movement, and images created by Vendetta Mathea.
  • Society of Upper Auvergne: a Society of letters, sciences and arts "La Haute-Auvergne"
  • Theatre 4: rue de la Coste next to the Consul's House
  • Le Prisme: conference rooms and entertainment

Cultural events and festivities[edit]

Festival of Street theatre at Aurillac
  • The International festival of street theatre of Aurillac has been held every year since 1986 at the end of August for a period of four days. Since 2004 this festival has been preceded by "Les préalables" (Preliminaries) of variable duration (often starting in early August) with street performances throughout Cantal (and sometimes even in Corrèze) with the support of the association éclat. 2008 who inaugurated the first "University of Street Art".
  • The European gourmet taste for three days in June is a gastronomic and cultural festival during which various prizes are awarded (Les Goudots gourmands)) and where there are cooking classes with different themes each year (e.g. 2008: Slow Food) provided by prominent chefs.
  • In 2007 there was the first edition of '36 Hours of Aurillac with Solos and small dance pieces.

Sports[edit]

Profile of the 10th stage of the Tour de France
  • The Stade Aurillacois Cantal Auvergne: the Rugby Team had its 100th anniversary in 2004 and has played in Rugby Pro D2 since 2001, except for 2006-2007 where the "purgatory" in Fédérale 1 ended with the title of champion of France. Since the Second World War the club has always played either in the elite until 1986 (except 1949 and 1955) then later in group A, B, or Pro D2. Aurillac is rugby country as it is one of the few cities where there are more spectators at rugby matches than football matches. Matches take place at the Stade Jean Alric.
  • The Athlétic Club Vélocipédique Aurillacois (Cycling Athletic Club): a cycling team founded in 1977 by Pierre Labro and led, since 1983, by André Valadou. In 2011 and 2012 it was the largest cycling club in Auvergne by number of members. In 2013 three riders from the club ranked at the highest level with Christophe Laborie among the professionals and François Bidard and Pierre Bonnet first in the amateur division. With a focus on training, the club sees at least one of its representatives each year wear Auvergne colours during a championship of France.
  • The Aurillac FCA: a soccer team playing in CFA2 although the Aurillac reserve team plays in DH Auvergne and is Team C in the Regional Honour Division. Its training centre allows it to have 3 youth teams playing in the national championships (14 years, 16 years, and 18 years - the highest level for these categories).
  • Aurillac Handball Cantal Auvergne: a professional Handball team who played in the first division for the 2008-2009 season for the first time in its history
  • Basket club Aurillac Arpajon Géraldienne (BAAG): This is the Aurillac Basketball Club. Girls Team 1 plays at the highest regional level. This is the biggest club in the city in terms of members and results. There is also the Cantalienne Club.
  • The Jean-Alric Stadium: the Municipal Stadium for the city of Aurillac and its rugby club - the Stade Aurillacois Cantal Auvergne. It owes its name to Jean Alric, a former player of the club, shot in Aurillac by the Germans during the Second World War.
  • Volleyball Club (AVB): Aurillac has a volleyball club. The senior male and female teams play in Regional 1. The club has UFOLEP teams and youth teams. The club organises three tournaments open to everyone:
    • A tournament starting in September;
    • A night of volleyball in December (the largest in Auvergne);
    • A Summer tournament in June.

In 2011 Aurillac hosted the start of the Tour de France in the 10th stage.

Places of Worship[edit]

Military[edit]

Two military units are garrisoned in Aurillac:

  • the 139th Infantry Regiment, 1906
  • the 2/16 Squadron of riot police which became the 33/5 in 1991 after the creation of legions of riot police then finally the 18/5 in 2011 after the dissolution of the GM group of Clermont-Ferrand.

Aurillac has long been a garrison town with the 139th Infantry Regiment, who are noted for their feats during the Battle of the Somme. They have a remarkable chronology and a cabinet of trophies were displayed in the Hall of Honour of the Departmental Military Delegation who have since moved, forgetting to preserve and safeguard this part of history.

The military square is wide and airy and a feature of military architecture of the time. It is now known as the Zone of Peace and is now converted into a parking lot leaving a clear view of the 3 buildings that surround it. The entrance to the barracks was destroyed and replaced by a modern building. It houses administrative services, treasury, CABA, Mortgages, Cadastre etc. In the 1950s the old military buildings became the "Cité Administrative".

The clock building is called so because of the great clock that adorns this building. It is also commonly called the House of unions and associations. Originally these buildings were the former Convent of the Visitation, built in 1682. The Convent was converted into a barracks for infantry in 1792 and occupied half of the buildings until 1922, hence the transformation of buildings to equestrian use. Today the Pierre-Mendès-France Cultural Centre occupies the premises including the Museum of Art and Archaeology, the County Conservatory of Music and Dance, the youth service activities of the town of Aurillac, and a crèche for children. The Stables were then used by the national stud established by Napoleon in 1806; a depot of stallions was created in Aurillac. At the Battle of Austerlitz Napoleon rode Cantal, a speckled gray horse which is visible in a painting in the Art and Archaeology Museum. When the National Stud moved the stables were transformed into an exhibition hall / gallery and a range of exhibitions is held every year including the Salon des Métiers d'Art d'Aurillac.

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

Aurillac was the birthplace of
Saint Gerald of Aurillac
Statue of Pope Sylvester II (1851)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[33]
L-F Grognier
  • Saint Gerald of Aurillac (855-909), politician.
  • Gerbert of Aurillac (938-1003), Mathematician, tutor to Hugues Capet, Pope under the name Sylvester II.
  • William of Auvergne (1190-1249), Theologian, Bishop of Paris, Chaplain and minister for Saint Louis.
  • Jean Cinquarbres (1514-1587, Orientalist, Principal of Fortet College the Professor of Hebrew and Syriac at the Royal College.
  • Jean-Aymar Piganiol de La Force (1673-1753), Geographer.
  • Antoine Delzons (1743-1816), MP
  • Louis Furcy Grognier (1774-1837), Director of the Veterinary school of Lyon
  • Jean-Baptiste Carrier (1756-1794), bloodthirsty republican revolutionary
  • Édouard Jean-Baptiste Milhaud (1766-1833), cousin of Carrier, revolutionary, Commissioner of the Army, General of the Army of the Republic and the Empire, also known for his bloodthirsty actions
  • Alexis Joseph Delzons (1775-1812), General of the Empire
  • Charles Antoine Manhès (1777-1854), General of the Army of the Republic and the Empire
  • Arsène Lacarrière-Latour (1778-1837), Engineer, architect, urban planner in Louisiana
  • Éloy Chapsal (1811-1882), Painter and director of the Museum of Aurillac.
  • Claude Sosthène Grasset d'Orcet (1828-1900), Archaeologist, historian
  • Émile Duclaux (1840-1904), Physician, Chemist and biologist
  • Jules Rengade (1841-1915), Doctor, médecin, novelist for children, scientific journalist
  • Francis Charmes (1849-1916), Journalist, Academic
  • Géraud Réveilhac (1851-1937), General
  • Paul Doumer (1857-1932), President of the Third Republic
  • Jean de Bonnefon (1866-1928), Journalist, polygrapher
  • Pierre de Vaissière (1867-1942), paleographic archivist, historian
  • Marie Marvingt (1875–1963), an athlete, mountaineer, Pioneer medical evacuation pilot, and the most decorated woman in the history of France.
  • Georges Monnet (1898-1980), agronomist, politician
  • Elie Calvet (1904-1929), Comedian, 1st Prize in Comedy from the Conservatory, died on stage receiving his award, nephew of the famous singer Rosa Emma Calvé (1858-1942)
  • Bernard Tricot (1920-2000), Secretary-General of the Élysée from 1967 to 1969, one of the negotiators of the Évian Accords with the Algerian FLN to abandon French Algeria
  • Jean-Benoît Puech (1947-), writer, author of La Bibliothèque d'un amateur (1980), Louis-René des Forêts, novel (2000), Une biographie autorisée (2010)
  • Roland Chassain, MP for Bouches-du-Rhône
  • Jean-Yves Hugon, former MP for Indre
  • Alain Delcamp, Secretary-General for the Senate
  • Olivier Magne, international rugby player
  • Jacques Maziol, Minister of Construction under de Gaulle, President-director general of Radio Monte-Carlo.
  • Jean-Philippe Sol, international volley-ball player
  • Sébastien Pissavy, founder of the jeuxvideo.com website
Linked to Aurillac
  • François Maynard (Toulouse 1582-Aurillac 1646), poet, one of the first members of the Académie française.
  • Abel Beaufrère
  • Alfred Durand (-1947), Professor of Geography at the Aurillac school, author of La vie rurale dans les massifs volcaniques des Dores, du Cézallier, du Cantal et de l'Aubrac, thesis, 1946, Clermont-Ferrand, 530 p. (reprint Créér), Aurillac, géographie urbaine, 1948, 254 pp.
  • Marcel Grosdidier de Matons (1885-1945), Professor of Geography at the Aurillac school, author of Études de géographie urbaine (RHA), La Chataigneraie cantalienne
  • Maxime Real del Sarte and Jean de Barrau did their military service at Aurillac
  • Pierre Wirth (1921-2003), Professor at Aurillac school, author of Aurillac, 1973, Voyage à travers la Haute-Auvergne, 1973, Le Guide du Cantal, 1994
  • Joseph Malègue (1876-1940), Much of his novel of 900 pages, Augustin ou le Maître est là, takes place mainly in Aurillac: Under the table of Augustin is life in a prefecture of the province, which is actually Aurillac.[34]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Alfred Durand, Aurillac, Urban Geography, 1948, 254 pp. (French)

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In the Middle Ages in the south of France an area of extra-territoriality protected by the Catholic Church.
  2. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Cantal (French)
  2. ^ a b c d e Google Maps
  3. ^ List of Mayors of France (French)
  4. ^ National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (French)
  5. ^ Abeil
  6. ^ Net-truck (French)
  7. ^ Aerodiscount
  8. ^ Qualiac
  9. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093450 Chateau of Saint-Etienne (French)
  10. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093460 Consul's House (French)Camera aabb.svg
  11. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093466 Palace of Justice (French)
  12. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093467 Prison (French)
  13. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093452 Police Station (French)
  14. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093459 Town Hall (French)
  15. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093454 Prefecture (French)
  16. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093448 Abbey Saint-Géraud (French)Camera aabb.svg
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000760 Organ (French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000072 Instrumental part of the Organ (French)
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000102 Reliquary of Saint Blaise (French)Camera aabb.svg
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000101 Reliquary of Saint Benoît (French)Camera aabb.svg
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000100 Reliquary of Saint Odon (French)Camera aabb.svg
  22. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093451 Church of Notre-Dame-aux-Neiges (French)
  23. ^ Anne Courtillé - Auvergne, Bourbonnais, Velay gothiques - pp.134-137 - Editions A. et J. Picard - Paris - 2002 - ISBN 2-7084-0683-3 (French)
  24. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA15000030 Church of Sacré Coeur (French)
  25. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000755 Interior Decor, Stained glass, Reliefs, paintings, and mosaics (French)
  26. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093449 Chapel of Aurinques (French)
  27. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000080 Bronze Bell (French)
  28. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PIM15000079 Ex-voto Painting: Procession of Acts of Grace (French)Camera aabb.svg
  29. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PIM15000078 Ex-voto Painting: Deliverance of the Town (French)Camera aabb.svg
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PIM15000077 Ex-voto Painting: Attack on the Town (French)Camera aabb.svg
  31. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000076 Glass wall: virgin and Child (French)
  32. ^ Aurillac Protestant Church (French)
  33. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093468 Statue ofChurch (French)
  34. ^ Claude Barthe, Joseph Malègue and the "Novel of ideas" in the modern crisis in Les romanciers et le catholicisme, Éditions de Paris, 2004, pp. 83-97, p. 92. ISBN 2-85162-107-6 (French)