Aurintricarboxylic acid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Aurintricarboxylic acid[1]
Aurintricarboxylic acid.png
Identifiers
Abbreviations ATA
CAS number 4431-00-9 YesY
PubChem 2259
ChemSpider 2172 YesY, 323088 (tautomeric form)
ChEMBL CHEMBL275938 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C22H14O9
Molar mass 422.34 g mol−1
Appearance Dark red to brown powder
Melting point 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) is a chemical compound that readily polymerizes in aqueous solution, forming a stable free radical that inhibits protein-nucleic acid interactions. It is a potent inhibitor of ribonuclease and topoisomerase II by preventing the binding of the nucleic acid to the enzyme. It stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation processes including the Jak2/STAT5 pathway in NB2 lymphoma cells, ErbB4 in neuroblastoma cells, and MAP kinases, Shc proteins, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase Cγ in PC12 cells. It also inhibits apoptosis. It prevents down-regulation of Ca2+-impermeable GluR2 receptors and inhibits calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease that is activated during apoptosis.[1]

It is used to inhibit protein biosynthesis in its initial stages. Nominally, it is used in biological experiments as a protein inhibitor, and as an ammonium salt (known as aluminon) it is used as a reagent to estimate the aluminium in water, biological tissue, and foods.[2]

It was found that ATA is a strong inhibitor of topoisomerases and other nucleases. It might be useful for increasing efficiency of RNA isolation.[3]

It has been discovered that using aurintricarboxylic acid against influenza-A post-infection has a strong protective effect by inhibiting the virus' ability to reproduce. In cultured canine kidney cells, it was found to reduce viral reproduction and infection when applied post-infection, but not when used as a 'vaccine'.[4] It has also been shown to block the binding of the HIV coat molecule gp120 to the CD4 co-receptor on T cells through which it invades.[citation needed]

Preparation[edit]

Aurintricarboxylic acid can be prepared by the condensation of formaldehyde with salicylic acid in the presence of nitrite-containing sulfuric acid.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Aurintricarboxylic acid". Sigma-Aldrich. 
  2. ^ "Aurintricarboxylic Acid". Reference.MD. 
  3. ^ Skidmore, A. F.; Beebee, T. J. (October 1989). "Characterization and use of the potent ribonuclease inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid for the isolation of RNA from animal tissues". The Biochemical Journal 263 (1): 73–80. PMC 1133392. PMID 2481441. 
  4. ^ Hashem, A. M.; Flaman, A. S.; Farnsworth, A.; Brown, E. G.; van Domselaar, G.; He, R.; Li, X. (2009). "Aurintricarboxylic Acid is a Potent Inhibitor of Influenza A and B Virus Neuraminidases". PLoS ONE 4 (12): e8350. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008350. PMC 2792043. PMID 20020057. 
  5. ^ Arthur I. Vogel. Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis.