List of Ohlone villages

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Map of the Costanoan languages and major villages.

Over 50 villages and tribes of the Ohlone (also known as Costanoan) Native American people have been identified as existing in Northern California circa 1769 in the regions of the San Francisco Peninsula, Santa Clara Valley, East Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley. The known tribe names and village locations of people who spoke the Costanoan languages[1] are listed by regions below.[2]

San Francisco Peninsula[edit]

Languages spoken: Ramaytush, Tamyen on southern border

Tribes and villages of the San Francisco Peninsula:

  1. Ahwaste - the San Francisco Peninsula [1]
  2. Chiguan - Pacific Coast of San Francisco Peninsula vicinity of Half Moon Bay [2]
  3. Cotegen - Pacific Coast south of Half Moon Bay
  4. Lamchin - present-day San Mateo County, Bay shore from Belmont south to Redwood City and valleys to the west
  5. Oljon - Pacific Coast on lower San Gregorio Creek and Pescadero Creek
  6. Quiroste - Pacific Coast from Bean Hollow Creek to Ano Nuevo Creek [3]
  7. name unknown - At Tunitas Creek [3]
  8. Romonan - the San Francisco Peninsula
  9. Ssalson (tribe) - along San Mateo Creek, in San Andreas Valley. Had 3 villages:
    • Aleitac (village) - along San Mateo Creek in San Andreas Valley
    • Altahmo (village) - (also spelled Altagmu) - along San Mateo Creek in San Andreas Valley
    • Uturbe (village) - along San Mateo Creek in San Andreas Valley
  10. Pruristac - One mile from the Pacific Coast in San Pedro Valley, near San Pedro Creek, present day Pacifica
  11. Timigtac - half mile from Pacific Coast, on bank of Calera Creek, present-day Pacifica
  12. Tulomo - the San Francisco Peninsula [4]
  13. Urebure (also spelled Buriburi)[5]- San Bruno Creek south of San Bruno Mountain
  14. Yelamu (tribe) - northern San Francisco Peninsula
    • Amuctac (village) - near Visitation Valley in San Francisco
    • Chutchui (village) - near the present day site of Mission Dolores in San Francisco.[4]
    • Petlenuc (village) - near the Presidio in San Francisco
    • Sitlintac (village) - near Mission Creek in San Francisco
    • Tubsinta (village) - near Visitation Valley in San Francisco
  15. Puichon - near present-day Menlo Park, Palo Alto and Mountain View
  16. Tuchayune - Fishing village on Angel Island [6]

Santa Clara Valley[edit]

Languages spoken: Tamyen, Chochenyo on eastern fringes

Tamyen language region (also spelled Tamien, Thamien) - tentatively Santa Clara Valley along Guadalupe River and west through Cupertino.

Tribes and villages of Santa Clara Valley:

  1. Alson - low marshlands at southern end of San Francisco Bay, present-Day Newark, Milpitas and Alviso
  2. Aulintac (also spelled Auxentac) - along Coyote Creek
  3. Asirin - Coast Ranges east of Santa Clara Valley
  4. Aulintac (also spelled Auxentac) - along Coyote Creek
  5. Churistac - cover term for cluster of villages in the mountains east of Morgan Hill
  6. Matalan - Santa Clara Valley from Coyote to Morgan Hill
  7. Pala (also known as Palenos) - mountains of Hall's Valley between Santa Clara Valley and Mount Hamilton
  8. Ritocsi - Santa Clara Valley at Upper Guadalupe River and central Coyote Creek
  9. San Bernardino Group - Santa Clara Valley unknown location. See Partacsi.
    • Lamaytu (tribe) - Santa Clara Valley
    • Muyson (tribe) - Santa Clara Valley
    • Pornen (tribe) - Santa Clara Valley
    • Solchequis (tribe) - Santa Clara Valley
  10. So-co-is-u-ka (village) - The original site of the Mission Santa Clara (Mission Santa Clara de Thamien) on the Guadalupe River, 1777.
  11. "Santa Ysabel" - eastern Santa Clara Valley and Upper Calaveras Creek
  12. Somontac (also called Santa Clara) - tentatively Los Gatos region of Santa Clara Valley, and/or a village of the Matalan
  13. Thamien (village or locality) - The original site of the Mission Santa Clara (Mission Santa Clara de Thamien) on the Guadalupe River, 1777.
  14. Tayssen - large area of eastern Coast Ranges east and southeast of Santa Clara Valley
In vicinity:
  1. Junas - probably in Hospital Creek drainage or San Antonio Valley of Diablo Range
  2. Werwersen - vicinity of Mt. Hamilton, Diablo Range [7]
*See also: Chitactac, Partacsi, possibly in this valley.

East Bay area[edit]

Languages spoken: Chochenyo, Karkin in the north

Tribes and villages of the East Bay area:

  1. Causen - (aka Patlans) - Sunol Valley
  2. Huchian - large area of East Bay shore, from Temescal Creek to present-day Richmond
  3. Huchiun-Aguasto - East Bay on Southeast shores of San Pablo Bay
  4. Karkin - (aka Los Carquines in Spanish) - on both sides of Carquinez Strait, present-day Crockett, Port Costa, Martinez and Benicia
  5. Luecha - Southeast of Livermore
  6. Jalquin/Yrgen - Present day Hayward, Castro Valley
  7. Pelnen - western part of Livermore Valley, from Pleasanton to Dublin
  8. Seunen - Northwest side of Livermore Valley
  9. Souyen - Marshland of Livermore Valley and up Tassajara Creek into southern foothills of Mount Diablo
  10. Ssaoam - around Brushy Peak and Altamont Pass, between Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley
    • Yulian (either a subgroup or alias name of Ssaoams)
  11. Taunan - mountainous parts of Alameda Creek and Arroyo del Valle south to Alameda-Contra Costa County line
  12. Tuibun - mouth of Alameda Creek and Coyote Hills area, eastern shore of San Francisco Bay

Santa Cruz Mountains[edit]

Languages spoken: Awaswas, Tamyen on eastern border

Tribes and villages of the Santa Cruz Mountains:

  1. Achista (tentatively included Acsaggis[1]) - Santa Cruz Mountains, present-day Boulder Creek, and Riverside Grove
  2. Chalumu, current location of city of Santa Cruz[5]
  3. Chaloctac - around Loma Prieta Creek on crest of Santa Cruz Mountains
  4. Chitactac - Santa Cruz Mountains and/or Santa Clara Valley
  5. Cotoni - Pacific Coast at present-day Davenport
  6. Olpen (also known as Guemelentos) - interior hills and valleys in Santa Cruz Mountains, La Honda Creek, Corte de Madera Creek
  7. Partacsi (also known as "Paltrastach") - Saratoga Gap mountainous area, upper Pescadero Creek, Stevens Creek, and Saratoga Creek watersheds. Tentatively the village and center of San Bernardino tribal groups.
  8. Sayanta - Scotts Valley, Glenwood, and Laural areas (part of Mexican grant Arrollo de Sayante)
  9. Sokel, who lived at present-day Aptos[5]

Monterey Bay area[edit]

Languages spoken: Awaswas north coast, Rumsen south coast, Mutsun inland

Tribes and villages of the Monterey Bay area:

  1. Aptos - Shores of Monterey Bay from Aptos east, halfway up Pajaro River
  2. Cajastaca - north or northeast of Watsonville, near the Pajaro River
  3. Ichxenta - At San Jose Creek, near Point Lobos State Reserve.
  4. Kalindaruk (Calendaruc)- Monterey County [8]
  5. Rumsen (village) - Carmel River, roughly 5 miles inland from San Carlos Mission and Pacific Coast [5]
  6. Uypi - present-day City of Santa Cruz
  7. Wacharon - near present-day Moss Landing [9]

Salinas Valley[edit]

Languages spoken: Rumsen, Mutsun, Chalon[10]

Tribes and villages of Salinas Valley:

  1. Ansaime (also spelled Ausaima) - east side of San Felipe sink on Pacheco Creek
  2. Chipuctac- Canada de Osos area northeast of Gilroy
  3. Mutsun (village) - at the Mission San Juan Bautista, on San Benito River, west of present-day city of Hollister.[5]
  4. Pitac - possibly San Martin area or else part of Unijama in the Gilroy area
  5. Tomoi - in the general area of Pacheco Pass
  6. Unijaima (also spelled Unijaimas) - Gilroy and Carnadero areas
  7. Wachero-n - at site of Mission Soledad on Salinas River[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Milliken, 1995.
  2. ^ (Please note these are standard modernized spellings of tribal names, other spellings exist in California Mission records and land records.)
  3. ^ Eric Simons (2011). "Unearthing California: Berkeley researchers are uncovering how the land looked when the Spaniards stumbled upon it.". Cal Alumni Association. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 
  4. ^ The Sentencing Project; Linenthal, Peter; Abigail Johnston (2005). San Francisco's Potrero Hill (Images of America) (Images of America). Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 0-7385-2937-0. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Kroeber, 1925, Map p. 465

References[edit]

  • Kroeber, Alfred L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington, D.C: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. (map of villages, page 465)
  • Milliken, Randall. A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769-1910 Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press Publication, 1995. ISBN 0-87919-132-5 (alk. paper)

Further reading[edit]

  • Beeler, Madison S. Northern Costanoan, International Journal of American Linguistics, 1961. 27: 191-197.
  • Brown, Alan K. Indians of San Mateo County, La Peninsula:Journal of the San Mateo County Historical Association, Vol. XVII No. 4, Winter 1973-1974.
  • Brown, Alan K. Place Names of San Mateo County, published San Mateo County Historical Association, 1975.
  • Teixeira, Lauren. The Costanoan/Ohlone Indians of the San Francisco and Monterey Bay Area, A Research Guide. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press Publication, 1997. ISBN 0-87919-141-4.