The community, originally named Pearville, was established before 1900. In 1930 the community sponsored a contest, asking participants to select a new name for the community. Ruth Tucker submitted the name "Austonio", a combination of Austin and San Antonio; the name was chosen as the community's new name. Austonio has an estimated population of about 40.
Most of Austonio is within the Lovelady Independent School District. A small portion north/northeast of Farm to Market Road 1280 falls within the Crockett Independent School District. Austonio had a school until 1967, whose mascot was the owl.
The Austonio Fire Department serves the community.
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