4th Brigade (Australia)

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4th Brigade
Australian 4th brigade formation graphic.PNG
Active 1914–19
1921–present
Country  Australia
Allegiance HM Queen Elizabeth II
Branch Army
Size 200 (Active)
2,100 (Reserve)
40 (Civilian)[1]
Part of 2nd Division
Garrison/HQ Melbourne
Engagements

World War I

World War II

Commanders
Current
commander
Brigadier Michael Annett, CSC
Notable
commanders

General Sir John Monash
Hon. Major General Greg Garde AO, RFD, QC
Major General Jim E. Barry, AM, MBE, RFD, ED

Brigadier Robert Marsh, RFD - now Director-General Reserves
Insignia
Unit Colour Patch 4 Bde HQ Unit Colour Patch.PNG

The 4th Brigade is a brigade-level formation of the Australian Army. Originally formed in September 1914 for service during World War I, elements of the brigade served at Gallipoli and in the trenches on the Western Front before being disbanded in 1919. In 1921, the brigade was re-raised as a unit of Australia's part-time military forces, based in the state of Victoria. During World War II the brigade served in the New Guinea and New Britain campaigns. Following the war, the brigade formed part of the 3rd Division, however, it was later reallocated to the 2nd Division, where it serves as a Reserve combined-arms formation including units and personnel from all corps of the Army including armoured, infantry, artillery, engineers, signals and ordnance.

History[edit]

World War I[edit]

The 4th Brigade was originally formed in September 1914 as part of the Australian Imperial Force (AIF), which was an all-volunteer force that was raised for service during World War I shortly after the outbreak of the war.[2] Under the command of Colonel (later General Sir) John Monash, at that time the brigade consisted of four infantry battalions which were raised from all Australian states: the 13th (NSW), 14th (Vic), 15th (Qld/Tas) and 16th Battalions (SA/WA).[3]

4th Brigade soldiers at Quinn's Post, May 1915

Following initial training at Broadmeadows in Victoria, they embarked for overseas in the second wave of Australian forces to be dispatched, leaving in December 1914.[4] They arrived in Egypt in early 1915, where they were assigned to the New Zealand and Australian Division.[3] In April 1915, the brigade participated in the ANZAC landing at Gallipoli, arriving on the second day as the division's reserve,[4] before joining the eight-month campaign that followed. During the August Offensive, the brigade attacked Hill 971 and then, later, Hill 60. In December 1915 the decision was made to evacuate Gallipoli and subsequently the brigade was transported back to Egypt.[3] Following this, the AIF underwent a period of reorganisation and expansion.[5] As a part of this process, the 4th Brigade provided a cadre of experienced personnel to the newly formed 12th Brigade.[6] At the same time, the brigade was re-assigned to the 4th Division.[7]

In June 1916, after spending a couple of months manning defences along the Suez Canal, the brigade, along with the rest of the 4th Division was transferred to Europe where they joined the war on the Western Front in France and Belgium.[4] Assigned to the front line around Armentieres, they undertook their first operation on 2 July, undertaking an unsuccessful raid.[4] During the next two years, the brigade rotated in and out of the line along with the rest of the 4th Division. In April 1917, the brigade took part in heavy fighting around Ypres where, on 11 April, they suffered heavy casualties, losing 2,339 men out of the 3,000 that were committed.[8] In April 1918, the 4th Brigade was involved in significant fighting around Villers-Bretonneux, and eventually succeeded in liberating the town. The liberation was the third anniversary of ANZAC day—25 April 1918. In commemoration of the sacrifices made by Australians, in 1926 the main street of the town was renamed "Rue de Melbourne", while another was named "Rue de Victoria". The school, which was damaged during the fighting, was rebuilt with donations from Victorian school children and was subsequently called "Victoria School".[9]

Men of the 4th Brigade at Le Verguier, France in 1918.

Later, in July, the 4th Brigade took part in the fighting around Le Hamel. The tactics used during the battle on 4 July 1918 were conceived by General John Monash and largely carried out by Australian infantrymen, along with a number of US troops. It was the scene of one of Allies greatest military victories during the war.[10] So great was this victory that French prime minister Georges Clemenceau came to address the Australian troops in the field: "When the Australians came to France, the French people expected a great deal of you, but we did not know that from the very beginning you would astonish the whole continent".[11] On 12 August 1918 Monash was knighted in the field by King George V.[4]

The 4th Brigade remained in the front line until late September 1918,[3] taking part in the Hundred Days Offensive, including the fighting on 8 August, which was later described as the "Black Day" by the German commander, Erich Ludendorff.[12] In early October the rest of the Australian Corps was withdrawn from the line for rest and re-organisation in order to prepare for further operations.[13] As a result, the brigade did not take part in any further fighting before the Armistice in November 1918, after which the brigade's component infantry battalions began the demobilisation process and were eventually disbanded in 1919.[3][14][15][16]

During the course of the war, eight members of the brigade received the Victoria Cross. These were: Albert Jacka, Martin O'Meara, John Dwyer, Harry Murray, Henry Dalziel, Thomas Axford, Maurice Buckley and Dominic McCarthy.[17]

Inter war years[edit]

In 1921, Australia's part-time military forces were re-organised to perpetuate the numerical designations and structure of the AIF formations that had existed during World War I.[18] As a result, in May the 4th Brigade was re-raised as part of the Citizens Forces.[19] Where possible the decision was made to raise the new formations in the recruiting areas from where the World War I units had drawn their personnel. Due to the fact that the 4th Brigade had consisted of battalions that had been drawn from a number of Australian states, upon re-forming when it was decided to base the brigade in Victoria—with its headquarters in Prahran—only one of its four component battalions had the numerical designation of units that had been assigned to the brigade previously. The four infantry battalions that were assigned to it at this time were: the 14th, 22nd, 29th and 46th Battalions.[20] The brigade was assigned to the 3rd Division at this time.[19]

Initially, despite a level of war-weariness in Australia, numbers within the Citizens Force were maintained through voluntary recruitment and the compulsory training scheme, and due to strategic concerns around the expansion of Japanese naval power within the Pacific, there was a need to maintain a strong part-time military force. As a result, each infantry battalion within the brigade was able to report being at full strength, with over 1,000 men in each of the four battalions.[21] However, in 1922 following the conclusion of the Washington Naval Treaty, which theoretically resolved Australia's security concerns, the decision was made to reduce the Army's budget and reduce the authorised strength of each battalion to 409 men.[21]

The manpower situation grew more acute in 1929 when the Scullin Labor government suspended the compulsory training scheme and replaced it with a voluntary "Militia".[22] This decision, coupled with the economic downturn of the Great Depression resulted in further scarcity of recruits for the brigade's infantry battalions and, as a result, the decision was made to amalgamate two of the battalions,[23] the 22nd and the 29th, to form the 29th/22nd Battalion.[24] Throughout the 1930s, the situation was characterised by poor attendance and limited training opportunities.[25] This resulted in further changes in the brigade's composition, and by 1934, the 14th Battalion had been re-assigned to the 2nd Brigade.[26] The manpower situation, however, began to improve in 1936 and then again in 1938 when tensions in Europe increased concerns about the possibility of another war. The result of this was a concerted recruitment drive and more funding for training courses and camps, which in turn resulted in more enlistments.[27] As a result of the improved attendance within the 4th Brigade, 29th/22nd Battalion was split in August 1939 and the 22nd and 29th Battalions were reconstituted in their own right.[28]

World War II[edit]

At the outbreak of World War II, the brigade was a part-time formation of the Militia, based in Victoria.[29] As the provisions of the Defence Act (1903) precluded the deployment of Militia formations outside of Australian territory to fight, the Australian government decided to raise a separate force for dispatch to Europe and the Middle East. This force was known as the Second Australian Imperial Force.[30] As a result, it was decided that the Militia would be used to improve the country's overall readiness for war through undertaking periods of continuous training, undertaking defensive duties and managing the training of recruits called up following the re-establishment of the compulsory training scheme in January 1940.[30]

Soldiers from the 29th/46th Battalion evacuate a wounded comrade following fighting around Gusika on New Britain, November 1943

In September 1939, the brigade consisted of three infantry battalions—the 22nd, 29th and 46th Battalions[31]—and it was initially assigned to the 3rd Division.[32] Following Japan's entry into the war in December 1941, however, the 4th Brigade was mobilised for war service and raised to a higher state of training at Bonegilla, Victoria.[29] In April 1942, the brigade was transferred to the 5th Division and later,[32] in 1943, it was deployed to New Guinea, being dispatched to Milne Bay to relieve the 7th Brigade.[33] Later it was amongst the first of the Militia brigades to see action against the Japanese at Guiska. At that time, the brigade consisted of the 22nd, 29th/46th and 37th/52nd Infantry Battalions.[34] Throughout 1943 and 1944 the brigade was transferred between the 5th and 9th Division a number of times, taking part in the New Guinea campaign.[32]

In September 1944, the brigade returned to Australia for reorganisation and training before taking part in the New Britain campaign. Due to a shortage of shipping, the brigade's deployment was delayed and they did not land until January 1945.[35] Following this, the brigade helped to undertake a containment campaign against the Japanese forces on the island until the end of the war in August 1945.[36]

Post World War II[edit]

In 1948, following the completion of the demobilisation process, Australia's part-time military forces were re-organised under the guise of the Citizens Military Force.[37] Upon re-formation, the 4th Brigade was assigned to the 3rd Division and consisted of three infantry battalions: the 5th, 6th and 8th/7th.[38] Throughout the Cold War period which followed, the composition of the brigade changed a number of times as the role of part-time military forces evolved. Initially, post war service was voluntary, however, in 1951 national service was instituted and this increased the size of the CMF units.[39] During this time, due to increased manpower and resources, the brigade was able to achieve full manning and equipment scales and, as a result, in 1959, formed the basis of a 3,500-man combined arms exercise undertaken at Puckapunyal.[40]

Nevertheless, the national service scheme was suspended in 1960,[41] due to the large amount of resources required to administer it.[42] At the same time, the introduction of the Pentropic divisional establishment saw the disbandment or amalgamation of many infantry battalions as regional-based battalions were formed into multi-battalion State-based regiments.[43] This saw the adoption of the five battalion division and resulted in the disbandment of the old three battalion brigade formations.[44]

In late 1964, however, the decision was made to end the experiment with the Pentropic establishment,[45] partly because of the difficulties it created with allied interoperability.[43] Early the following year the brigade formations were re-established, although they were designated "task forces" instead of brigades.[46][47] By 1976, due to limited resources and manpower the brigade's parent formation, the 3rd Division, had become a largely hollow structure. As a result, the division's headquarters were merged with the 4th Task Force's headquarters as the 3rd Division was redesignated as the "3rd Division Field Force Group" and the 4th Task Force ceased to exist.[48]

On 1 July 1981 the formation was reraised as the "4th Task Force", however, in 1982 it was renamed as the "4th Brigade".[17] In 1981 the brigade's infantry battalions were the 1st and 2nd Battalions, Royal Victoria Regiment (RVR). In December 1982 the 5th/6th Battalion was raised by establishing a new BHQ and utilising some of the 1 RVR companies. Until 1987 the Briagde had three infantry battalions, 1 RVR, 2 RVR and 5/6 RVR. During this period 2 RVR was renamed 8/7 RVR. In 1987 the brigade was reduced to just two infantry battalions, namely 5/6 RVR and 8/7 RVR and supporting arms.[41] In the early 1990s the brigade was assigned to the 2nd Division.[41] In 1991, following a force structure review, the 3rd Division was disbanded and its units were placed under the 4th Brigade's command. As a result, in the late 1990s it had a vital asset protection mobilisation role as part of the "Protective Force" in the Tindal area of the Northern Territory.[49]

Current structure and recent operations[edit]

Currently, the 4th Brigade is headquartered at Simpson Barracks in Melbourne. It consists of about 2,400 personnel, who are based in a number of locations in Melbourne and regional Victoria.[50] The brigade currently consists of the following units:[51]

(Note - Monash University Regiment (MonUR) and the 2nd/10th Medium Regiment were removed from the Australian Army Order of Battle in 2012. The Officer Cadet Company of MUR was renamed Monash University Company, and the artillery was amalgamated with 5/6 RVR as the 2nd/10th Light Battery, which employs mortars rather than artillery. The 4th Combat Engineer Regiment (4 CER) was removed from the Australian Army Order of Battle in 2013. 4 CER and 22nd Construction Regiment (22 Const Regt) were amalgamated in 2013 to form the 22nd Engineer Regiment (22 ER)).[52]

Recently the brigade has contributed personnel to deployments in Iraq, Afghanistan, East Timor and the Solomon Islands.[50] It also continues to support Australia's commitment to Rifle Company Butterworth. Within Australia, the brigade provided engineer and logistic support during the 2003 Alpine Bushfires, the 2006 Gippsland Fires, as well as support to the community during the 2009 Victorian bushfires and the 2011 floods and 2012 floods.[53][54]

Under Plan Beersheba currently being implemented the 4th Brigade would be paired with the reserve 9th Brigade to reinforce the regular 1st Brigade. In the event of the 1st Brigade being deployed, the two reserve brigades would be tasked with generating a battalion-sized battle group. This battle group would be called "Jackka".[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Australian Army. Modernisation from Beersheba and Beyond. Commonwealth of Australia. p. 5. Retrieved 4 December 2014. 
  2. ^ Grey 2008, p. 80.
  3. ^ a b c d e "13th Battalion, First World War". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "Monash, Sir John (1865–1931)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  5. ^ Grey 2008, pp. 99–100.
  6. ^ Grey 2008, p. 100.
  7. ^ Bean 1941, p. 42.
  8. ^ Grey 2008, p. 104.
  9. ^ Wilson, Peter and Wilson, Lauren (25 April 2009). "Bound by history, French children honour their debt". The Australian. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  10. ^ Odgers 1988, p. 100.
  11. ^ Quoted in Odgers 1994, pp. 121–122.
  12. ^ Odgers 1994, p. 122.
  13. ^ Odgers 1994, p. 127.
  14. ^ "14th Battalion, First World War". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  15. ^ "15th Battalion, First World War". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  16. ^ "16th Battalion, First World War". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  17. ^ a b "History – HQ 4th Brigade – Forces Command". Australian Army. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  18. ^ Grey 2008, p. 125.
  19. ^ a b Palazzo 2002, p. 63.
  20. ^ "Australian Infantry Unit Colour Patches 1921–1949". Digger History. Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  21. ^ a b Palazzo 2002, pp. 65–67.
  22. ^ Palazzo 2001, p. 110.
  23. ^ Keogh 1965, p. 44.
  24. ^ Palazzo 2002, p. 69.
  25. ^ Palazzo 2002, p. 76.
  26. ^ Kuring 2004, p. 111.
  27. ^ Palazzo 2002, pp. 72–86.
  28. ^ "29/22 Battalion". Orders of Battle.com. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  29. ^ a b "4 Australian Infantry Brigade". Orders of Battle.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Grey 2008, p. 146.
  31. ^ "4 Australian Infantry Brigade: Subordinates". Orders of Battle.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  32. ^ a b c "4 Australian Infantry Brigade: Superiors". Orders of Battle.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  33. ^ Long 1963, p. 577.
  34. ^ "29th/46th Battalion". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  35. ^ Long 1963, p. 251.
  36. ^ Long 1963, p. 261.
  37. ^ Grey 2008, p. 200.
  38. ^ Palazzo 2002, p. 163.
  39. ^ Grey 2008, p. 205.
  40. ^ Palazzo 2002, pp. 167–168.
  41. ^ a b c "Brief History of the 2nd Division". Army History Unit. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  42. ^ Grey 2008, p. 207.
  43. ^ a b Grey 2008, p. 228.
  44. ^ Kuring 2004, p. 262.
  45. ^ McNeill 1993, p. 22.
  46. ^ McCarthy 2003, p. 131.
  47. ^ Blaxland 1989, p. 108.
  48. ^ Palazzo 2002, pp. 190–191.
  49. ^ Palazzo 2002, p. 194.
  50. ^ a b Dr Mike Kelly, Parliamentary Secretary for Defence Support. "Press Release: Benefits of Employing Reservists Highlighted on Boss Lift to Solomon Islands". Department of Defence. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  51. ^ "Home – HQ 4th Brigade – Forces Command". Australian Army. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  52. ^ "Minister for Defence and Parliamentary Secretary for Defence – Ministerial visit for Ringwood Army Reserves". Media Release. Department of Defence. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  53. ^ Toohill, Ian. "Operation Vic Fires Assist". Australian Infantry Magazine (Oct 2009 – April 2010): 16–20. 
  54. ^ Toohill, Ian (April 2011). "ADF Reservists Assist SES During Flood Crisis". The Australian Reservist (16): 12–15. 

References[edit]

  • Bean, Charles (1941). The Australian Imperial Force in France, 1916. Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume III (12th ed.). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 220623454. 
  • Blaxland, J.C. (1989). Organising an Army: The Australian Experience, 1957–1965. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, the Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University. ISBN 0-7315-0530-1. 
  • Grey, Jeffrey (2008). A Military History of Australia (3rd ed.). Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-69791-0. 
  • Keogh, Eustace (1965). South West Pacific 1941–45. Melbourne, Victoria: Grayflower Publications. OCLC 7185705. 
  • Kuring, Ian (2004). Redcoats to Cams: A History of Australian Infantry 1788–2001. Loftus, New South Wales: Australian Military History Publications. ISBN 1-876439-99-8. 
  • Long, Gavin (1963). The Final Campaigns. Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 1—Army. Volume VII (1st ed.). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 1297619. 
  • McCarthy, Dayton (2003). The Once and Future Army: A History of the Citizen Military Forces, 1947–74. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-551569-2. 
  • McNeill, Ian (1993). To Long Tan: The Australian Army and the Vietnam War 1950–1966. The Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975. St Leonards, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 1-86373-282-9. 
  • Odgers, George (1988). Army Australia: An Illustrated History. Frenchs Forest, New South Wales: Child & Associates. ISBN 0-86777-061-9. 
  • Odgers, George (1994). Diggers: The Australian Army, Navy and Air Force in Eleven Wars 1. London: Lansdowne. ISBN 978-1-86302-385-6. OCLC 31743147. 
  • Palazzo, Albert (2001). The Australian Army. A History of its Organisation 1901–2001. South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-551507-2. 
  • Palazzo, Albert (2002). Defenders of Australia: The 3rd Australian Division 1916–1991. Loftus, New South Wales: Australian Military Historical Publications. ISBN 1-876439-03-3.