Australian Consumer Law
The Australian Consumer Law (ACL), being Schedule 2 to the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, is uniform legislation for consumer protection, applying as a law of the Commonwealth of Australia and is incorporated into the law of each of Australia's states and territories. The law commenced on 1 January 2011, replacing 20 different consumer laws across the Commonwealth and the states and territories, although certain other Acts continue to be in force.
The provisions of the Australian Consumer Law broadly reflects the provisions previously afforded by the Trade Practices Act 1974, although some additional protections have been added. The Australian Consumer Law also generally reflects most of the consumer protection provisions of the fair trading legislation in each state and territory.
The ACL has a broad definition as to who is a "consumer," and it includes anyone who acquires:
- goods or services that are priced at less than $40,000,
- goods or services of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption, or
- a vehicle or trailer for use principally in the transport of goods on public roads,
but it does include the acquisition of goods for re-supply, or for transformation in the course of manufacturing or repairs. It accordingly extends protections relating to business behaviour, product safety and quality to businesses and farms with regard to the areas covered above.
Certain provisions possess different scope in their application:
- Unfair terms are void, where they appear in standard form contracts signed with individuals "whose acquisition of the goods, services or interest is wholly or predominantly for personal, domestic or household use or consumption."
- All persons are prohibited from engaging in unconscionable conduct (beyond unfair terms in standard form consumer contracts) when dealing with persons (other than public listed companies) in the course of trade and commerce.
These provisions are being vigorously enforced. In December 2014, the Federal Court of Australia, on the application of the ACCC, issued a $10 million pecuniary penalty order against Coles Supermarkets in relation to two connected proceedings arising from payment demands by Coles to which it was not entitled by threatening harm to the suppliers that did not comply with such demands.
The ACL is administered and enforced jointly by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and the State and Territory consumer protection agencies, with the involvement of Australian Securities and Investment Commission on financial services matters.
- the conduct of corporations;
- a supply or possible supply of goods or services by any person to a corporation (other than a listed public company); or
- an acquisition or possible acquisition of goods or services from any person by a corporation (other than a listed public company).
Federal jurisdiction also extends to conduct outside Australia by bodies corporate incorporated or carrying on business in Australia, Australian citizens, and persons ordinarily resident in Australia.
All other matters subject to the ACL are handled by the States.
Implementing identical consumer protection laws at Commonwealth and state/territory levels promotes consistency between jurisdictions. It will also make it easier for the Federal Parliament to amend the provisions which will then be reflected in the laws of the states and territories without the parliaments of each jurisdiction needing to debate and enact the amendments separately, although the states and territories reserve the right not to implement any amendments within their own jurisdiction.
List of implementing Acts
|Australia||Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)|
|Australian Capital Territory||Fair Trading (Australian Consumer Law) 1992 (ACT)|
|New South Wales||Fair Trading Act 1987 (NSW)|
|Northern Territory||Consumer Affairs and Fair Trading Act (NT)|
|Queensland||Fair Trading Act 1989 (Qld)|
|South Australia||Fair Trading Act 1987 (SA)|
|Tasmania||Australian Consumer Law (Tasmania) Act 2010 (Tas)|
|Victoria||Australian Consumer Law and Fair Trading Act 2012 (Vic)|
|Western Australia||Fair Trading Act 2010 (WA)|
- Kelly, Joe (31 December 2010). "Shoppers and parents among those to benefit from law changes at midnight". The Australian. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- "Exceptions under commonwealth, state & territory legislation". Australian Competition and Consumer Commission.
- Explanatory Memorandum, Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No. 2) 2010 (Cth)
- ACL, s. 3
- "The Australian Consumer Law and your safety". consumerlaw.gov.au.
- "The Australian Consumer Law and your business". consumerlaw.gov.au.
- "The Australian Consumer Law and your farm". consumerlaw.gov.au.
- ACL, ss. 23–28
- ACL, ss. 20–22A
- Gibbons, Fleur; Uthmeyer, Simon (8 April 2015). "Pecuniary penalty order against Coles is a win for good standards of conduct in commercial dealings". DLA Piper., discussing Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Coles Supermarkets Australia Pty Ltd  FCA 1405 (22 December 2014)
- "Court finds Coles engaged in unconscionable conduct and orders Coles pay $10 million penalties". Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 22 December 2014.
- "Business and the ACL". consumerlaw.gov.au.
- Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) s 131
- Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) s 5