Australian National University
|The Australian National University|
Coat of Arms of ANU
|Motto||Naturam Primum Cognoscere Rerum (Latin)
First to learn the nature of things
|Chancellor||The Hon Gareth Evans AC|
|Vice-Chancellor||Ian Young AO|
|Location||Acton, Australian Capital Territory, Australia|
|Campus||Urban, 358 acres (1.45 km2)|
|Affiliations||Group of Eight, IARU, APRU, AURA, ASAIHL|
The Australian National University (ANU) is a public university in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. Located in the suburb of Acton adjacent to the Canberra CBD, the main campus encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national institutes.
Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. Originally a postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, which had been established in 1929. As of 2011, the university employed 3,819 staff and instructed 10,231 undergraduate and 8,283 postgraduate students.
ANU is currently ranked 1st and 2nd among Australian universities, and 24th and 37th among world universities, by the QS and Times Higher Education rankings respectively. ANU counts six Nobel laureates among its staff and alumni. ANU is a member of the Group of Eight and the International Alliance of Research Universities.
Post-war origins 
Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, Canberra, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department for Post-War Reconstruction in 1942, ultimately leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Parliament of Australia on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey (co-developer of medicinal penicillin), Sir Mark Oliphant (a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project), Sir Keith Hancock (the Chichele Professor of Economic History at Oxford) and Sir Raymond Firth (a professor of anthropology at LSE). Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research.
The first resident's hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965.
Canberra University College 
Canberra University College (CUC) was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt.
In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics, law and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961.
Modern era 
The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992.
On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory. ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope.
In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU.
ANU is governed by a 15-member Council, whose members include the Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor. Gareth Evans, a former Foreign Minister of Australia, has been ANU Chancellor since 2010 and Ian Young, a research engineer, was appointed Vice-Chancellor in 2011. Ian Chubb, Vice-Chancellor from 2001 to 2011, is presently the Chief Scientist of Australia.
Undergraduate students are represented by the Australian National University Students' Association (ANUSA) and postgraduates by the Postgraduate and Research Students' Association (PARSA). The Australian National University Union manages catering and retail outlets and function amenities on behalf of all students.
In its most recent disclosure at the end of 2010, ANU recorded an endowment of A$1.237 billion.
ANU has consistently been ranked 1st or 2nd among universities in Australia. In the 2012 QS Rankings, ANU was ranked 1st in Australia and 24th in the world. The university was ranked 2nd in Australia and 27th in the world by the 2012 Times Higher Education Rankings, which also placed the university 1st in Australia for arts and humanities and social science. The 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked ANU 2nd in Australia and 64th in the world, but 1st in Australia for social science and natural sciences and mathematics. Since 2002, the ANU has had the highest ranked philosophy department in Australia.
ANU was reorganised in 2006 to create seven Colleges, each of which conducts both teaching and research.
Arts and Social Sciences 
The ANU College of Arts and Social Sciences is divided into the Research School of Social Sciences (RSSS) and the Research School of Humanities and the Arts (RSHA). Within RSSS there are schools dedicated to history, philosophy, sociology, political science and international relations, Middle Eastern studies and Latin American studies. RSHA contains schools focusing on anthropology, archaeology, classics, art history, English literature, drama, film studies, gender studies, linguistics, European languages as well as an art and music school.
Asia and the Pacific 
The ANU College of Asia and the Pacific is a specialist centre of Asian and Pacific studies and languages, with the largest number of experts in these fields of any university in the English-speaking world. It also houses the Crawford School of Public Policy.
Business and Economics 
The ANU College of Business and Economics comprises four Research Schools, which in turn conduct research and teaching in economics, finance, accounting, actuarial studies, statistics, marketing and management.
Engineering and Computer Science 
The ANU College of Engineering and Computer Science is divided into two Research Schools, which study a range of engineering and computer science topics respectively. ANU is home to the National Computational Infrastructure National Facility and was a co-founder of NICTA, the chief information and communications technology research centre in Australia.
The ANU College of Law conducts legal research and teaching, with centres dedicated to commercial law, international law, public law and environmental law. In addition to numerous research programs, the College offers the professional LL.B. and J.D. degrees. It is the 7th oldest of Australia's 36 law schools and was ranked 3rd among Australian and 14th among world law schools by the 2012 QS Rankings. The College imposes a grade limiting policy, which caps scores of >80 to 2-5% of students and scores of 70-79 to 10-20% of students.
Medicine, Biology and Environment 
The ANU College of Medicine, Biology and Environment encompasses the John Curtin School of Medical Research (JCSMR), the ANU Medical School, the Fenner School of Environment & Society and Research Schools of Biology, Psychology and Population Health. JCSMR was established in 1948 as a result of the vision of Nobel laureate Howard Florey. Three further Nobel Prizes have been won as a result of research at JCSMR—in 1963 by John Eccles and in 1996 by Peter Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel.
Physical and Mathematical Sciences 
The ANU College of Physical & Mathematical Sciences comprises the Research Schools of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Physics. Under the direction of Mark Oliphant, nuclear physics was one the university's most notable early research priorities, leading to the construction of a 500 megajoule homopolar generator and a 7.7 megaelectronvolts cyclotron in the 1950s. These devices were to be used as part of a 10.6 gigaelectronvolt synchrotron particle accelerator that was never completed, however they remained in use for other research purposes. ANU has been home to 8 particle accelerators over the years and currently operates the 14UD and LINAS accelerators.
The main campus of ANU extends across the Canberra suburb of Acton, which consists of 358 acres (1.45 km2) of mostly parkland with university buildings landscaped within. ANU is roughly bisected by Sullivans Creek, part of the Murray–Darling basin, and is bordered by the native bushland of Black Mountain, Lake Burley Griffin, the suburb of Turner and the Canberra central business district. Many university sites are of historical significance dating from the establishment of the national capital, with over 40 buildings recognised by the Commonwealth Heritage List and several others on local lists.
Four of Australia's five learned societies are based at ANU—the Australian Academy of Science, the Australian Academy of the Humanities, the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia and the Australian Academy of Law. The Australian National Centre for the Public Awareness of Science and the National Film and Sound Archive are also located at ANU, while the National Museum of Australia and CSIRO are situated next to the campus.
ANU occupies additional locations including Mount Stromlo Observatory on the outskirts of Canberra, Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, a campus at Kioloa on the South Coast of New South Wales and a research unit in Darwin.
The library of ANU originated in 1948 with the appointment of the first librarian, Arthur McDonald. Presently the library holds over 2.5 million physical volumes distributed across six branches—the Chifley, Menzies, Hancock, Art & Music and Law Libraries and the external Print Repository.
Residential halls and colleges 
Eight residential facilities are affiliated with ANU—Bruce Hall, Ursula Hall, Burgmann College, John XXIII College, Toad Hall, Burton & Garran Hall, Graduate House and Fenner Hall. All are located on campus except Fenner Hall, which is located in the nearby suburb of Braddon. Students also reside in the privately run units adjoining the campus—Davey Lodge, Kinloch Lodge, Warrumbul Lodge and Lena Karmel Lodge. In 2010, the non-residential Griffin Hall was established for students living off-campus.
Notable alumni and faculty 
Notable past faculty members include Mark Oliphant, Keith Hancock, Manning Clark, Derek Freeman, H. C. Coombs, Hedley Bull and Frank Fenner. Nobel Prizes have been awarded to former ANU Chancellor Howard Florey and faculty members John Eccles, John Harsanyi, Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Peter Doherty and Brian Schmidt.
ANU alumni are especially visible in government. Bob Hawke and Kevin Rudd, former Prime Ministers of Australia, both attended the university, as did senior politicians Barry O'Farrell, Nick Minchin, Kim Beazley Sr, Peter Garrett, Craig Emerson, Stephen Conroy, Gary Gray, Warren Snowdon and Joe Ludwig. Graduates also include Australian Treasury secretary Martin Parkinson, ASIS director-general Nick Warner, ACCC chairman Rod Sims, Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands Gordon Darcy Lilo, former British cabinet minister Patricia Hewitt and former U.S. Ambassador to Israel Martin Indyk.
Other notable alumni include High Court of Australia judge Stephen Gageler, Chief Federal Magistrate John Pascoe, human rights lawyer Jennifer Robinson, Kellogg's CEO John Bryant, former Singapore Airlines CEO Cheong Choong Kong, Indiana University president Michael McRobbie, University of Melbourne Vice-Chancellors Alan Gilbert and Glyn Davis, mathematician John H. Coates, public intellectual Clive Hamilton and economists Ross Garnaut, Peter Drysdale and John Quiggin.
See also 
- List of Australian National University people
- Australian National University Library
- Woroni (student newspaper)
- Australian National University Union
- Australian National University Student Association
- Australian National University Postgraduate and Research Students' Association
- Group of Eight
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