An Austrian Australian is an Australian citizen who has Austrian ancestry or ethnicity, or a permanent resident of Australia who has migrated from Austria. There are thousands of Austrian Australians, with many tracing their history to ancestors who arrived in the gold rush during the 1850s. Others came in the aftermath of World War I; during the war, non-naturalised Austro-Hungarians in Australia were interned. The 1920 Immigration Act prevented the arrival of more Austrians, and by 1933 just 286 Austria-born people were present in Victoria alone.
In World War II, and following the Nazi take-over of Austria, a sizeable number of Austrian Jews (not to be confused with ethnic Austrians) fled towards Australia. By 1942, there were over 2,000 Austrian Jews throughout the country. The number of Austrians living in the state of Victoria peaked in the 1960s at 8,615, then declined in the decades to come. As of 2006, a total of 4,913 Austrian-born Victorians were recorded.