The Austrian Riviera (German Österreichische Riviera, Italian Riviera Austriaca, Slovene Avstrijska riviera, Croatian Austrijska riviera) is a description for the coastal strip of former Austrian Littoral, a Habsburg crown land which until 1919 stretched along the northeastern Adriatic Coast.
The Austrian Riviera covered coastal areas adjacent the port city of Trieste (German Triest, Slovene, Croatian Trst). The Istrian coast south of Trieste is now part of the Italian municipality of Muggia (Slovene Milje), and southernmore of Slovenia and Croatia. The coast north of Trieste is partially rocky, and partially sandy, with the Laguna di Grado. It is now part of the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. The coast presents a charming landscape and a year-round mild climate.
During the Middle Ages and until 1797, most of the area was administrated by Venetian Republic. In 1382, Trieste was joined with the Habsburg Monarchy which also controlled most of the hinterland. Trieste developed into an important port and trade hub and by 1719 a free port was constituted and further developed as the Habsburg Austria's principal commercial port and shipbuilding center.
In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, the remaining coastal villages became part of the new Austrian Empire and the completion of the South railway (Vienna–Trieste) in 1857 not only helped to further develop trade between the two cities but also brought Viennese upper class society to the mild winters of the Littoral. Trieste developed into a buzzing cosmopolitan city visited by artists, musicians, poets and writers from all over the Austrian Empire (later Austria-Hungary) and the rest of Europe. The surrounding coastal towns and villages developed into favorite hot spots for the rich and famous.
In 1883, the beach resort on Brijuni Islands (Italian Brioni) was set up, and in 1904 the Austrian Riviera Journal (Österreichische Riviera Zeitung) was first published in Pula (Italian, German Pola).
- Grado (Slovene Gradež)
- Duino (Devin)
- Sistiana (Sesljan)
- Muggia (Milje)
- Portorož (Italian Portorose)
- Poreč (Parenzo)
- Rovinj (Rovigno)
- Opatija (Abbazia)
- Lovran (Laurana)
- Mali Lošinj (Lussinpiccolo)
Eastern shore of Kvarner Gulf was then under administration of Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary with additional resorts developing, like Kraljevica (Italian: Porto Re), Crikvenica and Novi Vinodolski.
After World War I
In 1919 after World War I the Austrian Riviera became part of Italy and was cut off from most of its hinterland. During the 1920s, the Riviera flourished somewhat as a "Austro-Italian Riviera", but the splendor of its heyday was gone. The French Riviera and Italian Riviera in the western Mediterranean became more favorable resorts.
In 1947 Trieste, together with a small stretch of the adjacent coast became an independent Free Territory of Trieste. However, in 1954, the Free Territory was subdivided between Italy and Yugoslavia. Trieste, Grado, Sistiana and Muggia remained part of Italy.
- Austrian Littoral
- Venezia Giulia
- Riviera, featuring links to articles on the many coastal strips around the world which are known as Riviera