Austrian nationality law
Birth in Austria 
Birth in Austria does not in itself confer Austrian citizenship. However it may lead to a reduction in the residence requirement for naturalisation as an Austrian citizen. Foundlings under the age of 6 months are legally presumed to have Austrian citizenship.
Descent from an Austrian parent 
A child born to Austrian parents is an Austrian citizen. If the parents are married at the time of birth, Austrian citizenship of either the mother or the father is sufficient, so long as the child was born after January 9, 1983. For children born prior to that date, the father must have been an Austrian citizen: children born to an Austrian mother married to a non-Austrian father do not qualify. If the parents are not married, however, a father cannot pass on Austrian citizenship, whereas a mother can.
Should the parents happen to marry at some time after the birth, citizenship is automatically granted to the child retroactively. If the child is over 14 at that time, however, the child's consent is needed.
Naturalization as an Austrian citizen 
It is possible to apply for Austrian citizenship by naturalization after 10 years of continuous residence in Austria.
Additional requirements include:
- knowledge of the German language 'having due regard to the alien's personal circumstances'
- renunciation of foreign citizenship (under the law of the applicant's home country) unless this is impractical
This requirement can be waived in exceptional cases.
Naturalization as an Austrian citizen based on 10 years of continuous residence is discretionary.
Exemptions to the residence requirement 
The residence requirement may be reduced or waived in the following cases:
- recognized refugees (6 years)
- citizens of other European Economic Area nations (6 years)
- persons born in Austria
- former citizens of Austria (other than by deprivation)
- actual or expected 'outstanding achievements in the fields of science, commerce, the arts or sport'
Entitlement to grant of Austrian citizenship 
Some persons are entitled to Austrian citizenship by a simpler process than naturalization. Renunciation of foreign citizenship is almost always required.
Minor children of a person granted Austrian citizenship are most often granted Austrian citizenship as well.
Spouses of Austrian citizens 
- The marriage must have lasted for a minimum of 5 years.
- The spouse applicant must also have lived in Austria with a settlement permit (Niederlassungsbewilligung) for a minimum of 6 years.
This is so far the most restrictive law among all the European Union member countries about the foreign spouses obtaining the member state's citizenship.
Long residence in Austria 
A person who has lived in Austria for 30 years, or 15 years in cases of 'sustained personal and occupational integration', is entitled to grant of Austrian citizenship.
Former Austrian citizens 
- Former citizens of Austria who lost citizenship other than by renunciation or deprivation may be granted Austrian citizenship after 1 year's residence in Austria. Austrian citizenship must have been possessed for 10 years before it was lost.
- A person who lost Austrian nationality as a child (other than by deprivation) may re-acquire it by declaration within 2 years of turning 18.
Stateless persons born in Austria 
A stateless person born in Austria may be granted Austrian citizenship within two years of age 18 if he has lived in Austria for a total of 10 years, including 5 years continuously before application.
Professors at Austrian universities 
A citizen of a non-European Economic Area nation who accepts a position as a professor at an Austrian university or college of art acquires Austrian citizenship at that point.
The spouse and minor children of such a person normally acquire Austrian citizenship at the same time.
Loss of Austrian citizenship 
An Austrian citizen who acquires another citizenship by voluntary action automatically loses Austrian citizenship. The exception is in cases where permission to retain Austrian citizenship has been obtained in advance. This may be difficult to obtain, since it needs to be in the interest of the republic of Austria to grant this dual citizenship (e.g. when somebody is a celebrity in arts, sports, science, economy etc.). However, in practical terms conditions have relaxed. If, for example, an Austrian citizen wants to obtain U.S. citizenship because he/she lives in the U.S. but has still personal or at least some commercial interests in Austria and applies for permission to retain Austrian citizenship, that request is usually granted and has become almost a formality. The important part is, that the application to retain Austrian citizenship is made BEFORE acquiring another citizenship. Otherwise the Austrian citizenship is automatically lost the moment a person obtains a foreign citizenship. The law can change at any time, however, especially should the power in the Austrian parliament shift dramatically after an election and a party opposed to the current law regains absolute majority.
Austrian citizenship is also automatically lost by serving in a foreign army.
Dual citizenship 
Austrian law substantially restricts dual citizenship. In general, only the following categories of Austrian citizens may possess a foreign nationality:
- those acquiring another nationality at birth, such as children born to Austrian parents in another country, thus automatically gaining citizenship of that country, or those born with an Austrian and a foreign parent.
- naturalized Austrian citizens who are unable to renounce their existing nationality.
- those who acquire Austrian citizenship on the basis of being appointed a professor at an Austrian university.
- Austrian citizens who naturalize in another country with permission obtained to retain Austrian citizenship.
Austrian citizenship and Germany 
Between 13 March 1938 and 27 April 1945, German nationality law extended to Austria. Those acquiring Austrian citizenship upon the re-establishment of Austria generally lost German citizenship on that date.
Citizenship of the European Union 
- European Journal. "Austria: The long road to citizenship". YouTube.
- "Back to school: Austria's plans for foreigners". BBC. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
- Biles, Peter (29 Apr 2002). "Citizenship classes: The Austrian way". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
- Bell, Bethany (24 Dec 2002). "Back to school for Austria immigrants". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
- The Legal Information System of the Republic of Austria (RIS)
- Austrian Nationality Act 1985 in the version of FLG I No. 37/2006 - in English