Austro-Turkish War (1787–91)
The decision to launch the war was made by the Austrian ruler Joseph II, who was in an alliance at the time with the Russian Empire under Catherine the Great. The Turks took the military initiative, driving back the Austrians from Mehadia and overrunning the Banat (1789). Later on, the balance shifted toward Austria: the Turks were expelled from the Banat and Bosnia, and Belgrade was taken in a three-week campaign by the aging Field Marshal Laudon. The Austrian army also decisively participated in the victories of Focsani and Rymnik under the overall command of Suvorov.
On the Turkish side, the war was a disaster, due not to the losses of land to Austria (which were largely recovered in negotiation) but to the territorial gains of Austria's ally Russia; see Russo–Turkish War (1787–1792).
At the front, disease played a major role. According to Volkmar Braunbehrens, in the Austrian army during 1788 there were "epidemics: the lazarettos were filled to capacity, half the army was sick, and thousands of soldiers died". Joseph II spent most of the war at the front, and was one of those who fell ill there; he ultimately died of his illness after his return home (20 February 1790). Emperor Leopold II, Joseph's successor, was compelled to end the war due to the threat of Prussian intervention in support of the Ottomans. However, in the final negotiated outcome at Sistova in Ottoman Bulgaria, Austria's gains were "meagre". Austria returned all the territory from its conquests save the small town of Orsova and a strip of land near the Bosnian-Croatian border.
The home front in Austria
Within Austria the war was "debilitating and unpopular". He adds that "the morale of the cultural elite was severely eroded; fears of conscription led many aristocratic families to leave Vienna, and there were widespread feelings of disillusionment with Emperor Joseph, a sense that he had betrayed the promise of an enlightened reform movement." (see Enlightened despotism). Braunbehrens describes the war thus: "There was open opposition, ... fueled by the enormous economic burden it placed on the population. Food prices had risen drastically and in some cases doubled; bakeries had been looted for the first time in Vienna's history."
A consequence of this social disruption was that the vibrant musical life of Vienna was greatly diminished, with the closure of two opera companies and decline of concerts and salon performance.
- Britannica, 1988
- Britannica, 11th edition
- Braunbehrens 1990, 311
- Virginia Aksan, Ottoman Wars: An Empire Besieged, (Taylor & Francis, 2007), 138.
- Jeremy Black, British Foreign Policy in an Age of Revolutions, 1783-1793, (Cambridge University Press, 1994), 263.
- Charles W. Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618-1815, (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 210.
- Braunbehrens 1990, 312
- Braunbehrens, Volkmar (1990) Mozart in Vienna. New York: Grove Weidenfeld.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition
- Encyclopædia Britannica, 1988 edition, article "Austria", p. 500
- Miller, W. (1901) "Europe and the Ottoman Power before the Nineteenth Century," The English Historical Review, Vol. 16, No. 63. (Jul., 1901), pp. 452–471.