Austrobaileya maculata C.T.White
Austrobaileya is the sole genus with the sole recognised species of lianas, that constitutes the entire flowering plant family Austrobaileyaceae. The species Austrobaileya scandens grows naturally only (endemic) in the Wet Tropics rainforests of north eastern Queensland, Australia.
Austrobaileya plants grow as woody lianas or vines. Their main growing stems loosely twine, with straight, extending, leafy branches. The leaves are leathery, veined and simple. The leaves produce essential oils in spherical ethereal oil cells. Their foliage is damaged by oxidation in direct sunlight, so it tends to grow beneath the rainforest canopy, in low-sunlight and very humid conditions. Like many other flowering plants growing in the understory of tropical rainforest, it does not have palisade mesophyll tissue or low leaf photosynthetic rates. It relies strongly on vegetative reproduction for continuation of the species.
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A. scandens is found only (endemic) in the Wet Tropics rainforests of Queensland, and is rare. It is the oldest species of flowering plants in Australia that requires pollination. Austrobaileya is one of many ancient ('primitive') plants found in Wet Tropics that have survived millions of years of climatic and geological changes.
The species is well adapted to rainforests, where it can wind around tall woody trees that form the canopy. It is evolved for fitness in the wet tropical rainforest’s conditions of dampness, humidity, high-light canopy and low-light understory.
It can grow up to 15 m (50 ft) tall. The plant has a distinctive blue-green color foliage. Austrobaileya has large and solitary flowers that are arranged in a spiral with pale green petals. Flowers are pollinated by flies. To attract pollinators, A. scandens’ flowers release a rotting fish smell.
Their fruits are apricot-coloured and contain tightly packed seeds, similar in shape to chestnuts. The fruit is shaped like a pear or eggplant. Fruits have been known to grow to sizes of 7 cm in length by 5 cm.
Austrobaileyaceae family classification
The APG III system, of 2009 (and the earlier 2003 APG II system), recognise this Austrobaileyaceae family, placing it in the Austrobaileyales order. Austrobaileyales is accepted as being among the most basal lineages in the clade angiosperms.
The Engler system, in its update of 1964, assigned it to the order Magnoliales, which was placed in subclass Archychlamydeae in class Dicotyledoneae and in subdivision Angiospermae
- The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. ISSN 1095-8339. Retrieved 9 Mar 2013. See APG III system
- Stevens, Peter F. (2001 onwards). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website – Austrobaileyaceae". Version 12, July 2012 with updates. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Austrobaileya%". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) database (listing by % wildcard matching of all taxa relevant to Australia). Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 26 Apr 2013.
- Ross, E. M. (1989). "Plant profile Austrobaileya scandens C.T.White". Austrobaileya 3 (1). pp. 163–165.
- Mabberley, David J. (May 2008). Mabberley's Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, Their Classifications, and Uses (3rd, revised, illustrated ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780521820714.
- Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A. et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Austrobaileyaceae". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 10 Mar 2013.
- "Austrobaileya C.T.White". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government.
- "Austrobaileya scandens C.T.White". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government.
- Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A. et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Austrobaileya scandens". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 10 Mar 2013.
- Soltis, Douglas E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Cellinese, Nico et al. (Apr 2011). "Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa". American Journal of Botany 98 (4): 704–730. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000404. ISSN 1537-2197. Retrieved 10 Mar 2013.