|Southeast Asia and the Pacific|
Austronesian–Ongan is a proposed connection between the Ongan and Austronesian language families, published in Blevins (2007). Ongan is a small family of two attested languages in the Andaman Islands, while Austronesian is one of the largest language families in the world, with a thousand languages spread across the Pacific.
Blevins (2007) proposes the following sound correspondences:
|Proto-Austronesian (PAN)||*p||*t||*k||*q||*ku||*qu||*ʔ||*b||*d||*g||*s, *S||*c, *C||*z||*j||*h||*m||*n||*ny||*ŋ||*N||*l||*r||*R||*w|
|Proto-Ongan (PO)||*p||*t||*k||*kw||*ʔ||*b||*d||*j, *g||*c||*j, *y||*h, *y, *∅||*m||*n||*ny||*ŋ||*l, *y||*l||*r||*l, *r||*w|
There is neutralization and sometimes loss of final nasals in Proto-Ongan, with final **n merged into Proto-Ongan *ŋ, and final **m and **ny partially merged into *ŋ. (The latter merger, and loss, may post-date Proto-Ongan.) Final (oral) stops are lost in multisyllabic words (unstressed syllables?) in Proto-Ongan.
Initial **b drops from Proto-Ongan before **u and perhaps before **i.
**qw and **kw become *kw in Proto-Ongan, and *q/k or *w in Proto-AN.
Proto-Ongan and Proto-AN share a typologically odd restriction against root-initial *m-.
Vowel-initial words in Proto-Ongan correspond to *q in Proto-AN; because the Austronesian forms often include doublets, Blevins believes this is due to epenthesis in Proto-AN.
|Proto-Ongan (PO)||*i||*u, *o||*a, *e||*e||*e#|
Final **ay has become *e in Proto-Ongan. *e also derives from **a before palatals, word-finally, and when unstressed.
Proto-Ongan *o typically derives from **u in a checked syllable, or from assimilation as in **wa.
Proto-Ongan *ə is thought to have been an allophone of *e, found before coda nasals except after palatals.
Most derivational morphology and grammatical words are so short that the several resemblances between Proto-Ongan and Proto-AN may be chance. However, Ongan morphology does appear to explain an odd situation in Austronesian.
Proto-Austronesian has a limited set of reconstructed vowel-initial roots, all of which are kin terms, body parts, or other readily possessed nouns. Ongan languages have inalienable possession, and inalienably possessed nouns are all vowel initial. Elsewhere, vowel-initial roots in Proto-Ongan correspond to initial *q- in Proto-Austronesian. The complete list of vowel-initial Proto-AN roots reconstructed by Blust is as follows:
- *aki grandfather; *ama father, paternal uncle; *aNak child; *apu grandparent/grandchild; *aya paternal aunt; *ina mother, maternal aunt
- *ujung/ijung nose; *ikuR tail; *iSeq urine; *uRat vein, sinew; *utaq vomit
- *asu/wasu dog; *aCab cover; *ian home; *uNay splinter
These are all the kinds of words expected in inalienable-possession systems. Blevins suggests that inalienable possession was lost from Proto-Austronesian, presumably after epenthetic *q- was added to vowel-initial words. There are many Proto-AN doublets like *wasu, *asu 'dog'; initial *w- has also been lost from *w-anaN 'right side' and *w-iRi 'left side' in Pazeh and other languages, from what Blust describes as "some now-obscured morphological process". Blevins suggests that in all three cases, the Proto-Austronesian *w- reflects the Proto-Ongan possessive prefix *gw- 'his, her', which remained as a fossil in some daughter languages. Thus proto-Austronesian–Ongan may explain some of the odd patterns found in proto-Austronesian.
- *aCab 'cover' may be cognate with Proto-Ongan *otab 'head',
- Blevins, p 183
- Blevins, Juliette (2007), "A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands", Oceanic Linguistics 46 (1): 154–198, doi:10.1353/ol.2007.0015 (available here)