|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2010)|
Auto-wah (also known as an "envelope following filter" or just "envelope filter") is a type of wah-wah effects pedal typically used with electric guitar, bass guitar, clavinet, and electric piano etc. When used, it creates an audio effect similar to that of the sitar employing a resonator.
Instead of the effect being controlled by a pedal, as on a standard wah-wah, the effect alters in response to the volume of the input signal. Since the electronic circuits in the effect can respond much faster than a human musician can physically move a pedal, certain effects that a standard wah cannot achieve are only possible with auto-wah. The response of the effect is highly interactive with the dynamics of the input signal - this makes it possible to vary the response at will via slight adjustments to playing technique. Therefore it may take some practice before the response of the auto-wah can be wilfully controlled in order to achieve a consistent sound.
A typical auto-wah circuit uses an envelope follower to produce a voltage representing the overall volume of the input. This signal is then used to sweep the cutoff frequency of a filter. The filter usually has a low-pass or bandpass response. The Boss AW-3 is an example of such a device.
There is a variant of auto-wah that utilises a low frequency oscillator (LFO) instead of an envelope follower to alter the effect. The filter response varies constantly with time and is not linked to playing dynamics. The Boss AW-2 is an example of such a device. The difference in sound is subtle, but careful listeners will notice the constant period of the filter sweep. The song "Falling Into Grace" by the Red Hot Chili Peppers is an example of an LFO controlled auto-wah applied to the bass guitar.
Typical controls on an auto-wah include a sensitivity control to adjust the input level to match the level expected by the envelope follower and other circuitry, a control for the initial cutoff point of the filter, and a control for the depth of the filter sweep. Some more sophisticated units offer controls for the resonance of the filter, multiple filter types, and options for sweeping the filter up or down.
Commercial examples include the MXR Envelope Filter, the Musitronics Mutron III and the Boss AW-2 Auto Wah (LFO controlled).
This effect can be heard in the songs "Stinkfoot" by Frank Zappa; "Going Mobile" by The Who; "Industrial Disease" by Dire Straits; "What I Am" by Edie Brickell & New Bohemians; "I Disappear" by Metallica; "Mysterious Ways" by U2; and "Estimated Prophet" by The Grateful Dead. It is commonly used with a bass guitar and many examples can be found by listening to recordings by Bootsy Collins. Another bass guitar line with envelope follower controlled auto-wah applied can be heard in "Sir Psycho Sexy" by the Red Hot Chili Peppers.
- The Boss Book: The Ultimate Guide to the World's Most Popular Compact Effects for Guitar, 2002, Hal Leonard Corporation