Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education is the act of teaching oneself about a subject or subjects in which one has had little to no formal education. Many notable contributions have been made by autodidacts.
Autodidactism is often complemented by learning in classrooms and other social settings. Many autodidacts seek instruction and guidance from experts, friends, teachers, parents, siblings, and community. Inquiry into autodidacticism has implications for learning theory, pedagogy, educational research, educational philosophy and educational psychology.
Modern education and autodidacticism
Autodidacticism is sometimes a complement of modern education. Armstrong (2012) claimed that in higher education students should be given more materials suitable for self-study. Students should be encouraged to do more independent work. While Leonardo da Vinci was a privileged autodidact, the Industrial Revolution created a new situation. The creation of secular societies allowed many to pursue scientific interests and to develop scientific knowledge through academic or autodidactic learning.
Before the 20th century only a small minority of people received an advanced academic education. As stated by Joseph Whitworth in his influential report on industry dated from 1853, literacy rates were higher in the United States. However, even in the US, most children were not completing high school. High school education was necessary to become a teacher. A large percentage of those completing high school also attended college, usually to pursue a professional degree, such as law or medicine, or a divinity degree.
Collegiate teaching was based on the classics (Latin, philosophy, ancient history, theology) until the early 19th century. There were few if any institutions of higher learning offering studies in engineering or science before 1800. Institutions such as the Royal Society did much to promote scientific learning, including public lectures. In England there were also itinerant lecturers offering their service, typically for a fee.
Prior to the 19th century, there were many important inventors working as millwrights or mechanics who had typically received an elementary education and served an apprenticeship. Mechanics, instrument makers and surveyors had various mathematics training. James Watt was a surveyor and instrument maker and is described as being "largely self-educated". Watt, like some other autodidacts of the time, became a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the Lunar Society. In the 18th century these societies often gave public lectures and were instrumental in teaching chemistry and other sciences with industrial applications, which were neglected by traditional universities. Academies also arose to provide scientific and technical training.
Years of schooling in the United States began to increase sharply in the early 20th century. This phenomenon was seemingly related to increasing mechanization displacing child labor. The automated glass bottle making machine is said to have done more for education than child labor laws, because boys were no longer needed to assist. However, the number of boys employed in this particular industry was not that large; it was mechanization in several sectors of industry that displaced child labor toward education. For males in the U.S. born 1886-90, years of school averaged 7.86, while for those born from 1926–30, years of school averaged 11.46.
One of the most recent trends in education is that the classroom environment should cater towards students’ individual needs, goals and interests. This model adopts the idea of inquiry-based learning where students are presented with scenarios to identify their own research, questions and knowledge regarding the area. As a form of discovery learning, students in today’s classrooms are being provided with more opportunity to “experience and interact” with knowledge, which has its roots in autodidacticism.
For autodidacts to be successful in their self-teaching, they must possess self-discipline and reflective capability. Some research suggests that being able to regulate one’s own learning is something which must be modeled to students, for it is not a natural human tendency for the population at large. In order to interact with the environment, a framework has been identified to determine the components of any learning system: a reward function, incremental action value functions and action selection methods. Rewards work best in motivating learning when they are specifically chosen on an individual student basis. New knowledge must be incorporated into previously existing information as its value is to be assessed. Ultimately, these scaffolding techniques, as described by Vygotsky (1978) and problem solving methods are a result of dynamic decision making.
The secular and modern societies gave foundations for a new system of education and a new kind of autodidacts. While the number of schools and students raised from one century to the other, so did the number of autodidacts. The industrial revolution produced new educational tools used in schools, universities and outside academic circles to create a post-modern era that gave birth to the World Wide Web and encyclopaedic data banks such as Wikipedia. As this concept becomes more widespread and popular, web locations like Udacity and Khan Academy are developed to be learning centers for many people to actively and freely learn together.
Autodidacticism in history, philosophy and literature
||This section includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but the sources of this section remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (February 2012)|
The first philosophical claim supporting an autodidactic program to the study of nature and God was in the philosophical novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Alive Son of the Vigilant), whose titular hero is considered to be the quintessential autodidact. The story is a medieval autodidactic utopia, a philosophical treatise in a literary form, which was written by the Andalusian philosopher Ibn Tufail in the 1160s, Marrakesh. It is a story about a feral boy, an autodidact prodigy who masters nature through instruments and reason, discovers laws of nature by practical exploration and experiments, and gains summum bonum through a mystical mediation and communion with God. The hero rises from his initial state of tabula rasa to a mystical or direct experience of God after passing through the necessary natural experiences. The focal point of the story is that human reason, unaided by society and its conventions or by religion, can achieve scientific knowledge, preparing the way to the mystical or highest form of human knowledge. Commonly translated as "The Self-Taught Philosopher" or "The Improvement of Human Reason," Ibn-Tufayl's story Hayy Ibn-Yaqzan inspired debates about autodidacticism in a range of historical fields from classical Islamic philosophy through Renaissance humanism and the European Enlightenment. In his book Reading Hayy Ibn-Yaqzan: a Cross-Cultural History of Autodidacticism Avner Ben-Zaken showed how the text traveled from late medieval Andalusia to early modern Europe and demonstrated the intricate ways in which autodidacticism was contested in and adapted to diverse cultural settings. Autodidacticism, apparently, intertwined with struggles over Sufism in twelfth-century Marrakesh; controversies about the role of philosophy in pedagogy in fourteenth-century Barcelona; quarrels concerning astrology in Renaissance Florence in which Pico della Mirandola pleads for autodidacticism against the strong authority of intellectual establishment notions of predestination; and debates pertaining to experimentalism in seventeenth-century Oxford. Pleas for autodidacticism echoed not only within close philosophical discussions; they surfaced in struggles for control between individuals and establishments.
In the story of African American self-education, Heather Andrea Williams presents a historical account to examine African American’s relationship to literacy during slavery, the Civil War and the first decades of freedom. Many of the personal accounts tell of individuals who have had to teach themselves due to racial discrimination in education.
The working-class protagonist of Jack London's Martin Eden (1909) embarks on a path of self-learning in order to gain the affections of Ruth, a member of cultured society. By the end of the novel, Eden has surpassed the intellect of the bourgeois class, leading him to a state of indifference and, ultimately, suicide.
In The Ignorant Schoolmaster (1987), Jacques Rancière describes the emancipatory education of Joseph Jacotot, a post-Revolutionary philosopher of education who discovered that he could teach things he did not know. The book is both a history and a contemporary intervention in the philosophy and politics of education, through the concept of autodidacticism; Rancière chronicles Jacotot's "adventures", but he articulates Jacotot's theory of "emancipation" and "stultification" in the present tense.
The 1997 drama film Good Will Hunting follows the story of autodidact Will Hunting, played by Matt Damon. Hunting demonstrates his breadth and depth of knowledge throughout the film, but especially to his therapist and in a heated discussion in a Harvard bar.
On the television show Criminal Minds (2005–present), Supervisory Special Agent Dr. Spencer Reid is an autodidact with an eidetic memory, meaning that he can remember and easily recall almost everything he sees (this, however, only applies to visual information). He holds doctoral degrees in mathematics, chemistry, and engineering. He also holds bachelor degrees in sociology and psychology, and is working on completing another in philosophy. He is known on the show for being a genius; he has an IQ of 187 and is certainly the smartest member of the FBI's Behavioral Analysis Unit stationed at Quantico, Virginia. Most of his autodidacticism comes from reading books, which he prefers over traditional forms of education, including schooling. He reads at a rate of 20,000 words per minute.
One of the main characters in The Elegance of the Hedgehog (2006), by Muriel Barbery, is an autodidact. The story is told from the view point of Renee, a middle-aged autodidact concierge in a Paris upscale apartment house and Paloma, a 12-year-old daughter of one of the tenants who is unhappy with her life. These two people find they have much in common when they both befriend a new tenant, Mr. Ozu, and their lives change forever.
In the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, Ekalayva is depicted as a tribal boy who was denied education in the science of arms from royal teachers from the house of Kuru. Ekalavya went to the forest, where he taught himself archery in front of an image of the Kuru teacher, Drona, that he had built for himself. Later, when the royal family found that Ekalavya had practiced with the image of Drona as his teacher, Drona asked for Ekalavya's thumb as part of his tuition. Ekalavya complied with Drona's request, thus ending his martial career.
Autodidacticism in architecture
Self-taught architects have generally studied and qualified in other fields such as engineering or arts and crafts. Jean Prouvé was first a structural engineer. Le Corbusier had an academic qualification in decorative arts. Tadao Ando started his career as a draftsman and Eileen Gray studied fine arts.
When a political state starts to implement restrictions on the profession, there are issues related to the rights of established self-taught architects. In most countries the legislation includes a grandfather clause, authorising established self-taught architects to continue practicing. In the UK, the legislation, allowed self-trained architects with 2 years of experience to register. In France, it allowed self-trained architects with 5 years of experience to register. In Belgium, the law allowed experienced self-trained architects in practice to register. In Italy, it allowed self-trained architects with 10 years of experience to register. In The Netherlands, the "wet op de architectentitel van 7 juli 1987" along with additional procedures, allowed architects with 10 years of experience and architects aged 40 years old or over, with 5 years of experience, to access the register.
However, other sovereign states made the choice to omit such clause and many established and competent practitioners were stripped of their professional rights. In the Republic of Ireland, a group named "Architects' Alliance of Ireland" is defending the interests of long-established self-trained architects who were recently deprived from their rights to practice as per Part 3 of the Irish Building Control Act 2007.
Theoretical research such as "Architecture of Change, sustainability and humanity in the built environment" or older studies like "Vers une Architecture" from Le Corbusier describe the practice of architecture as an environment changing with new technologies, sciences and legislations. All architects must be autodidacts to keep up to date with new standards, new regulations, or new methods.
Self-taught architects like Eileen Gray, Luis Barragán and many others, created a system where working is also learning, where self-education is associated with creativity and productivity within a working environment.
While he was primarily interested in naval architecture, William Francis Gibbs learned his profession through his own study of battleships and ocean liners. Through his life he could be seen examining and changing the designs of ships that were already built, that is, until he started Gibbs and Cox.
The role of self-directed learning continues to be investigated in learning approaches, along with other important goals of education, such as content knowledge, epistemic practices and collaboration. As colleges and universities offer distance learning degree programs and secondary schools provide cyber school options for K-12 students, technology provides numerous resources that enable individuals to have a self-directed learning experience. Several studies show these programs function most effectively when the “teacher” or facilitator is a full owner of virtual space to encourage a broad range of experiences to come together in an online format. This allows self-directed learning to encompass both a chosen path of information inquiry, self-regulation methods and reflective discussion among experts as well as novices in a given area. Furthermore MOOCs make autodidacticism easier and thus more common.
- "University lecturers do not guide their students' learning to the same extent; they do not organise their students' private study (no more set homework!); nor do they filter knowledge for you in the same way. There are two reasons for this. The first reason is that you are expected to be independent, capable of organising your life, your time, your studies and your learning, so that when you graduate you are able to function successfully in your chosen profession". Extract from: The student's guide to learning at university, by Geoffrey Cooper, published in 2003 Australia by TheHumanities.com, ISBN 1-86335-510-3
- J. Scott Armstrong (2012). "Natural Learning in Higher Education". Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.
- "Through the persecution of Galileo and other innovators of science for heresy, the public associated science with social rebellion. Moreover, the scientific world was interpreted by both the church and its detractors as a grave threat to the Christian cosmology". extract from: Contested knowledge, social theory today by Steven Seidman, Fourth Edition, 2008, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 978-1405170017
- Thomson, Ross (2009). Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United States 1790-1865. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9141-0.
- Musson; Robinson (1969). Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. University of Toronto Press.
- Robinson, Eric; McKie, Doublas. Partners in Science: Letters of James Watt and Joseph Black. Cambridge, Massachusetts. p. 4.
- Jr, Quentin R. Skrabec (2012-05-04). The 100 Most Significant Events in American Business: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313398629. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- Two Centuries of American Macroeconomic Growth From Exploration of Resource Abundance to Knowledge Driven Development, pp 44
- Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Brad Chissom (1992). "Contributions of Active and Dynamic Self-Regulation to Learning". Innovative Higher Education 17 (2): 125. doi:10.1007/bf00917134.
- Arentze, Theo; Harry Timmermans (2003). "Modeling learning and adaptation processes in activity-travel choice: A framework and numerical experiment". Transportation 30: 37.
- Ben-Zaken, Avner (2010). Reading Ḥayy Ibn-Yaqẓan: A Cross-Cultural History of Autodidacticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801897399.
- Williams, H.A. (2005). Self-taught: African American Education in slavery and freedom. University of North Carolina Press.
- Architects (Registration) Act 1931 (UK)
- Loi n°77-2 du 3 janvier 1977 sur l'architecture (Architects Act in France)
- Loi du 20 fevrier 1939 (Architects Act in Belgium)
- legge 24 june 1923 No. 1395 (Architects Act in Italy)
- Refer to document on the Dutch Registration System drafted after a meeting between the General Secretary and Dr. Hans Groenevald, Director of the Stichting Bureau Architectenreglster, (SBA) in the Hague on 1 October 1993. 1 October 1993 is a significant date because on that day the protection of the title "architect" came into force in the Netherlands.
- Refer to the example of the Republic of Ireland where hundreds of professionally trained architects are opposing a new legislation which prevents them to continue practicing. See Parliamentary records for more information.
- You can access more information from AAoI website
- For more information, you can access the full text from the Irish Building Control Act 2007
- Architecture of Change, Sustainability and Humanity in the Built Environment, Editors: Kristin Feireiss, Lukas Feireiss, ISBN 978-3-89955-211-9.
- Hmelo-Silver, C.E.; R.G. Duncan, C.A Chinn (2007). "Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based and inquiry learning: A response to Krischner, Sweller and Clark". Educational Psychologist 42 (2): 99. doi:10.1080/00461520701263368.
- Barab, S.A.; J.G. MaKinster, J.A. Moore, D.J. Cunningham (2001). "Designing and Building an online-community: The struggle to support sociability in the inquiry learning forum". Educational Technology Research and Development 49 (4): 71. doi:10.1007/bf02504948.
- Bach, James Marcus. Secrets of a Buccaneer-Scholar: Self Education and the Pursuit of Passion. ISBN 978-1-4391-0908-3
- Brown, Resa Steindel. The Call to Brilliance: A True Story to Inspire Parents and Educators. ISBN 0-9778369-0-8
- Cameron, Brent and Meyer, Barbara. SelfDesign: Nurturing Genius Through Natural Learning. ISBN 1-59181-044-2
- Hayes, Charles D. Self-University: The Price of Tuition Is the Desire to Learn. Your Degree Is a Better Life. ISBN 0-9621979-0-4
- Hayes, Charles The Rapture of Maturity: A Legacy of Lifelong Learning. ISBN 0-9621979-4-7
- Hailey, Kendall. The Day I Became an Autodidact. ISBN 0-385-29636-3
- Llewellyn, Grace. The Teenage Liberation Handbook: How to Quit School and Get a Real Life and Education. ISBN 0-9629591-7-0
- Rancière, Jacques. The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation. Stanford Univ. Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8047-1969-1
- Solomon, Joan. The Passion to Learn: An Inquiry into Autodidactism. ISBN 0-415-30418-0
- Stark, Kio. Don't Go Back to School: A Handbook for Learning Anything. 2013. ISBN 0-988-94900-8