Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2, a form of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome also known as Schmidt's syndrome, or APS-II, is the most common form of the polyglandular failure syndromes. It is more heterogeneous and has not been linked to one gene. Rather, patients are at a higher risk when they carry a particular human leukocyte antigen genotype (DQ2, DQ8 and DRB1*0404). APS-II affects women to a greater degree than men (75% of cases occur in women).
Features of this syndrome are:
Less common associations include hypogonadism and vitiligo.
Symptoms of Addison's disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis include:
- Dry hair
- Abdominal Pain
- Frequent urination
- Weight and muscle loss
- Salt cravings / salt wasting
- Anorexia and cachexia
- High pulse / weakened heart
- Low blood pressure
- Numbness in extremities
- Migraines / dysparunia
- Poor immune system response
Some researchers favour splitting this syndrome into three distinct syndromes (numbering 2, 3 and 4), but research evidence for these distinct combinations is not convincing.
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- ^ a b Greenspan, Francis S.; Gardner, David C. (2004). Basic clinical endocrinology. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 103. ISBN 0-07-140297-7.
- ^ Betterle C, Zanchetta R (April 2003). "Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS)". Acta Biomed 74 (1): 9–33. PMID 12817789.
- ^ de Carmo Silva R, Kater CE, Dib SA, et al (February 2000). "Autoantibodies against recombinant human steroidogenic enzymes 21-hydroxylase, side-chain cleavage and 17alpha-hydroxylase in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type III". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 142 (2): 187–94. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1420187. PMID 10664529. Retrieved 2008-07-25.