Automat

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For other uses, see Automat (disambiguation).
Automat at 818-820 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as shown in a postcard (1904)

An automat is a fast food restaurant where simple foods and drink are served by coin-operated and bill-operated vending machines.

Concept[edit]

A Horn & Hardart postcard explaining how food was served in an automat (c. 1930s)

Originally, the machines in U.S. automats took only nickels.[1] In the original format, a cashier would sit in a change booth in the center of the restaurant, behind a wide marble counter with five to eight rounded depressions in it. The diner would insert the required number of coins in a machine and then lift a window, which was hinged at the top, to remove the meal, which was generally wrapped in waxed paper. The machines were filled from the kitchen behind. All or most New York automats also had a cafeteria-style steam table where patrons could slide a tray along rails and choose foods, which were ladled out of steaming tureens.

Inspired by the Quisiana Automat in Berlin, the first automat in the U.S. was opened June 12, 1902, at 818 Chestnut St. in Philadelphia by Horn & Hardart.[2] The automat was brought to New York City in 1912 and gradually became part of popular culture in northern industrial cities. Horn & Hardart was the most prominent automat chain.

Automat at 1165 Sixth Avenue, New York City showing areas for beverages and pies at right of dining area.

In its heyday, recipes were kept in a safe, and described how to place the food on the plate as well as how to make it. The automats were popular with a wide variety of patrons, including Walter Winchell, Irving Berlin and other celebrities of the era. The New York automats were popular with out of work songwriters and actors. Playwright Neil Simon called automats "the Maxim's of the disenfranchised" in a 1987 article.[3]

Decline[edit]

A modern automat in Manhattan's East Village

The format was threatened by the arrival of fast food, served over the counter and with more payment flexibility than traditional Automats, in the Automats' core urban markets in the 1970s; their remaining appeal was strictly nostalgic. Another contributing factor to their demise was inflation of the 1970s, making the food too expensive to be bought conveniently with coins, in a time before bill acceptors commonly appeared on vending equipment.[citation needed]

At one time there were 40 Horn & Hardart automats in New York City alone. The last one closed in 1991. Horn and Hardart converted most of its New York City locations to Burger Kings. At the time, the quality of the food was described by some customers as on the decline.[3][4]

An automat in Berlin, Germany (1954)

In an attempt to bring back automats in New York City, a company called Bamn! opened a new East Village store in 2006[5] but it closed in 2009.[6]

Rail transport[edit]

Another form of the automat was used on some passenger trains. The Great Western Railway in the United Kingdom announced plans in December 1945 to introduce automat buffet cars.[7] Plans were delayed by impending nationalisation and an automat was finally introduced on the Cambrian Coast Express in 1962.[8]

In the United States, the Pennsylvania Railroad introduced an automat between Pennsylvania Station, New York City and Union Station, Washington, DC in 1954.[9] Southern Pacific Railroad introduced automat buffet cars on the Coast Daylight and Sunset Limited in 1962. Amtrak converted four buffet cars to automats in 1985 for use on the Auto Train. The last example in use in the United States were on the short-lived Lake Country Limited in 2001.

In Switzerland, Bodensee–Toggenburg Bahn introduced automat buffet cars in 1987.[10]

By country[edit]

Japan[edit]

In Japan, in addition to regular vending machines which sell prepared food, many restaurants also use food ticket machines (食券機, shokkenki), where one purchases a meal ticket from a vending machine, then presents the ticket to a server, who then prepares and serves the meal. Such fast-food restaurants are known as "tachigui" (立喰い) which literally translates as "stand-up counter".[11] (See Wikipedia in Japanese for an example.) Conveyor belt sushi restaurants are also popular.

Netherlands[edit]

The Dutch FEBO stores provide a variety of burgers, sandwiches, frikandellen and croquettes in vending machines that are back-loaded from a kitchen. Their automat is called automatiek. FEBO snack bars sell various hot, deep fried snacks. These outlets are open 24 hours, and are popular with locals, and those leaving clubs and bars late at night.

Spain[edit]

Automatic restaurant with automats in University Jaume I of Castellón in Spain

In Spain, one can also find the typical Dutch automat machines. For example, a complete automatic restaurant is installed in a university. Fresh healthy hot plates are sold with the hot food vending machines. The cold versions provide freshly made salads.

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Claire Lui "Restaurant: The Automat Is Back," American Heritage, November/December 2006.
  2. ^ "Horn & Hardart Automat, 968 6th Ave. between 35th & 36th Sts. (1986)", 36th Street, New York City Signs -- 14th to 42nd Street.
  3. ^ a b Barron, James (April 11, 1991). "Last Automat Closes, Its Era Long Gone". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  4. ^ "New York's Last Automat Closes". Associated Press. April 11, 1991. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  5. ^ Matthews, Karen (2006-08-28). "Updated Automat to open in New York City". Associated Press. Retrieved 2006-08-28. 
  6. ^ The Shutter: Felled Bamn! to Become Baoguette? - Eater NY
  7. ^ "Automat Buffet Cars For British Railways". Reuters. 26 December 1945. 
  8. ^ The Railway Gazette 119: 709. 1963. 
  9. ^ "Automatic Buffet-Bar Car Introduced By Pennsy". Locomotive Engineers Journal (Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers) 88: 236. 1954. 
  10. ^ Jane's World Railways. Jane's Yearbooks. 1988. p. 700. ISBN 0710608713. 
  11. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=OT8OSoiYyagC&pg=PA70&lpg=PA70&dq=%22tachi-gui%22&source=bl&ots=deG5Vxtp2B&sig=n0w1abNLpGMKGpkTqTkQI0QMTzo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rsavU4-uJ8eOqgb_6YDQCQ&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22tachi-gui%22&f=false

External links[edit]