Automatic rifle

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2nd Lt. Val Browning with the Browning Automatic Rifle in France during World War I.

An automatic rifle is a type of magazine-fed rifle that uses either its recoil or a portion of the gas propelling the projectile to remove the spent cartridge case, cock the rifle, load a new cartridge and fire again repeatedly, as long as the trigger is held down or until the magazine is exhausted. Automatic rifles are distinguished from semi-automatic rifles in their ability to fire more than one shot in succession once the trigger is pulled. Many automatic rifles are select-fire weapons which are capable of firing in fully automatic and semi-automatic modes, or in some cases, even being capable of burst-fire.

History[edit]

The world's first automatic rifle was the Mondragón rifle designed by Mexican General Manuel Mondragón, but manufactured in Switzerland by SIG. Mondragón began work in 1882 and patented the weapon in 1887. It was created with the intention of giving a single infantry man the fire power of an entire squad and was subsequently adopted by the Mexican army.[1] It saw combat during the Mexican Revolution, with about 400 guns having been delivered before a blockade interfered. SIG surplus Mondragóns (around 1000) made their way to World War I, where the gun was mostly carried by German air crews of the Luftstreitkräfte under the designation FSK15. It suffered from poor reliability and most were withdrawn from service before the war ended.[2]

The British experimented with the automatic Farquhar-Hill rifle before and during World War I, but it was quickly abandoned.[3] The Italian Cei-Rigotti did not fare any better.[4] The Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) made its successful combat debut in World War I.[1] The BAR arose from the concept of "Walking Fire", an idea urged upon the Americans by the French who used the Chauchat light machine gun to fulfill that role.[5] The BAR never entirely lived up to the desigers hopes; being neither a rifle nor a machinegun.[6] However, for its day it was a brilliant design and was the standard squad automatic rifle for the U.S. Military throughout World War II and the Korean War.[7]

Another automatic rifle that made its debut during World War I was the Russian Fedorov Avtomat, chambered in 6.5×50mmSR Arisaka. Initially it was an emergency conversion of semi-automatic rifles designed by Fedorov. Approximately two dozen Fedorov Avtomats saw combat in during World War I. A factory in Kovrov produced this gun in about 3000 exemplars mainly after 1920. The Fedorov Avtomat saw more significant use during the Russian Civil War, particularly in the hands of the Red Finns during the Karelian Uprising. Because they depended on foreign ammunition, the Fedorov Avtomats were withdrawn from service by 1928 and stockpiled. Officially they were replaced in Soviet service with new submachine guns, like the PPD, and by 7.62 mm automatic rifles, like the AVS-36. But poor production and bureaucratic bungles ensured that by the start of the Winter War (1939), very few substitutes had been produced. So the Fedorov Avtomats were rushed back in service against the Finns.[8][9]

The Germans were the first to pioneer the assault rifle concept, during World War II, based upon research that showed that most firefights happen within 400 meters and that contemporary rifles were over-powered for most small arms combat. The Germans sought to develop a select-fire intermediate powered rifle combining the firepower of a submachine gun with the accuracy and range of a rifle. This was done by shortening the standard 7.92x57mm cartridge to 7.92x33mm and giving it a lighter 125 grain bullet, that limited range but allowed for more controllable automatic fire. The result was the Sturmgewehr 44.[10][11][12][13]

Like the Germans, the Soviets were influenced by experience showing most combat happens within 400 meters and that their soldiers were consistently outgunned by heavily armed German troops, especially those armed with the Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifles.[14][15] The Soviets were so impressed with the Sturmgewehr 44, that after World War II, they held a design competition to develop an assault rifle of their own.[16][17] The winner was the AK-47.[13] It was finalized, adopted and entered widespread service in the Soviet army in the early 1950s.[15] Its firepower, ease of use, low production costs, and reliability was perfectly suited for the Red Army's new mobile warfare doctrines.[15] The AK-47 was widely supplied or sold to nations allied with the USSR and the blueprints were shared with several friendly nations (the People's Republic of China standing out among these with the Type 56).[15]

The U.S. Army was influenced by combat experience with semi-automatic weapons such as the M1 Garand and M1 carbine, which enjoyed a significant advantage over enemies armed primarily with bolt-action rifles.[18] Although U.S. Army studies of World War II combat accounts had very similar results to that of the Germans and Soviets, the U.S. Army maintained its traditional views and preference for high-powered semi-automatic rifles.[13]

After World War II, the United States military started looking for a single automatic rifle to replace the M1 Garand, M1/M2 Carbines, M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, M3 "Grease Gun" and Thompson submachine gun.[13] In the Korean War, the select-fire M2 Carbine largely replaced submachine guns in US service.[19] However, early experiments with select-fire versions of the M1 Garand proved disappointing.[20] Also, combat experience suggested that the .30 Carbine round was underpowered.[21] American weapons designers reached the same conclusion as the Germans and Soviets: an intermediate round was necessary, and recommended a small caliber, high velocity cartridge.[22]

However, senior American commanders having faced fanatical enemies and experienced major logistical problems during WWII and the Korean War,[23][24][25][26][27] insisted that a single powerful .30 caliber cartridge be developed, that could not only be used by the new automatic rifle, but by the new general purpose machine gun (GPMG) in concurrent development.[28][29] This culminated in the development of the 7.62x51 NATO cartridge and the M14 rifle[28] which was basically an improved select-fire M1 Garand with a 20 round magazine.[30] The U.S. also adopted the M60 GPMG.[28] Its NATO partners adopted the FN FAL and HK G3 rifles, as well as the FN MAG and Rheinmetall MG3 GPMGs.

The first confrontations between the AK-47 and the M14 came in the early part of the Vietnam War. Battlefield reports indicated that the M14 was uncontrollable in full-auto and that soldiers could not carry enough ammo to maintain fire superiority over the AK-47.[31] A replacement was needed: A medium between the traditional preference for high-powered rifles such as the M14, and the lightweight firepower of the M2 Carbine.

As a result, the Army was forced to reconsider a 1957 request by General Willard G. Wyman, commander of the U.S. Continental Army Command (CONARC) to develop a .223 caliber (5.56 mm) select-fire rifle weighing 6 lbs (2.7 kg) when loaded with a 20 round magazine.[13] The 5.56mm round had to penetrate a standard U.S. helmet at 500 yards (460 meters) and retain a velocity in excess of the speed of sound, while matching or exceeding the wounding ability of the .30 Carbine cartridge.[32]

This request ultimately resulted in the development of a scaled-down version of the Armalite AR-10, called AR-15 rifle.[33][34][35] However, despite overwhelming evidence that the AR-15 could bring more firepower to bear than the M14, the Army opposed the adoption of the new rifle.[35] In January 1963, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara concluded that the AR-15 was the superior weapon system and ordered a halt to M14 production.[35] At the time, the AR-15 was the only rifle available that could fulfill the requirement of a universal infantry weapon for issue to all services. After modifications (Most notably: the charging handle was re-located from under the carrying handle like AR-10 to the rear of the receiver),[34] the new redesigned rifle was subsequently adopted as the M16.[35][36]

In March 1970, the U.S. recommended that all NATO forces adopt the 5.56x45mm cartridge.[37] This shift represented a change in the philosophy of the military's long-held position about caliber size. By the middle of the 1970s, other armies were looking at M16-style weapons. A NATO standardization effort soon started and tests of various rounds were carried out starting in 1977.[37] The U.S. offered the 5.56x45mm M193 round, but there were concerns about its penetration in the face of the wider introduction of body armor.[13] In the end the Belgian 5.56x45mm SS109 round was chosen (STANAG 4172) in October 1980.[37] The SS109 round was based on the U.S. cartridge but included a new stronger, heavier, 62 grain bullet design, with better long range performance and improved penetration (specifically, to consistently penetrate the side of a steel helmet at 600 meters).[13]

During the 1970s, the USSR developed the AK-74 and the 5.45x39mm cartridge, which has similar physical characteristics to the U.S. 5.56x45mm cartridge.[38] Also during the 1970s, Finland, Israel, South Africa and Sweden introduced AK type rifles in 5.56x45mm.[39] During the 1990s, the Russians developed the AK-101 in 5.56x45mm NATO for the world export market.[40][41] In addition, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia (i.e., Serbia) have also rechambered their locally produced AK variants to 5.56mm NATO.[42][43] The adoption these rifles cemented the world-wide trend toward small caliber, high velocity cartridges.

In 1977, Austria introduced the 5.56x45mm Steyr AUG bullpup rifle, often cited as the first successful bullpup rifle, finding service with the armed forces of over twenty countries. It was highly advanced for the 1970s, combining in the same weapon the bullpup configuration, a polymer housing, dual vertical grips, an optical sight as standard, and a modular design. Highly reliable, light, and accurate, the Steyr AUG showed clearly the potential of the bullpup layout. In 1978, France introduced the 5.56x45mm FAMAS bullpup rifle. And in 1985, the British introduced the 5.56x45mm L85 bullpup rifle. The adoption these rifles emphasized the trend from traditional designs to bullpup designs.

Having learned from extensive combat experience, Israel Military Industries began to develop a bullpup rifle in the early 1990s. The result was the Tavor TAR-21 which is an extremely light, accurate, reliable and fully ambidextrous bullpup rifle. The Tavor has been adopted by other countries (most notably India). The Tavor was closely followed by Singapore's SAR 21, the South African Vektor CR-21 and the Iranian army's KH-2002. Also, China's People's Liberation Army's (the worlds largest army) adopted QBZ-95. By the turn of the century, the bullpup design had achieved world-wide acceptance.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hogg, Ian V., and Weeks, John. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1977), p.180, "US Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30in M1918-M1922 (Brownings)".
  2. ^ Dr. David Westwood (2005). Rifles: An Illustrated History Of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-85109-401-1. 
  3. ^ John Walter (2006). The Rifle Story: An Illustrated History from 1756 to the Present Day. MBI Publishing Company. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-85367-690-1. 
  4. ^ David Miller (2003). The illustrated directory of twentieth century guns. Zenith Imprint. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-0-7603-1560-6. 
  5. ^ Hogg, Ian V., and Weeks, John. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1977), p.180, "US Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30in M1918-M1922 (Brownings)".
  6. ^ Hogg, Ian V., and Weeks, John. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1977), p.180, "US Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30in M1918-M1922 (Brownings)".
  7. ^ Hogg, Ian V., and Weeks, John. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1977), p.180, "US Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30in M1918-M1922 (Brownings)".
  8. ^ Monetchikov, Sergei (2005). История русского автомата [The History of Russian Assault Rifle] (in Russian). St. Petersburg: Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps. pp. 8–19. ISBN 5-98655-006-4. 
  9. ^ Семён Федосеев (2008). Пулеметы русской армии в бою (in Russian). Яуза / Эксмо. pp. 299–311. ISBN 978-5-699-25634-1. 
  10. ^ Jane's Guns Recognition Guide, Ian Hogg & Terry Gander, HarperCollins Publisher, 2005, p.287
  11. ^ "Machine Carbine Promoted: MP43 Is Now Assault Rifle StG44, WWII Tactical and Technical Trends, No. 57, April 1945". Lone Sentry. 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  12. ^ Military Small Arms Of The 20th Century, 7th Edition, 2000 by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks, p.243
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Major Thomas P. Ehrhart Increasing Small Arms Lethality in Afghanistan: Taking Back the Infantry Half-Kilometer. US Army. 2009
  14. ^ Chapter 1. Symbol of violence, war and culture. oneworld-publications.com
  15. ^ a b c d Weapon Of Mass Destruction. Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-19.
  16. ^ History of AK-47 Gun – The Gun Book Review. Popular Mechanics (2010-10-12). Retrieved on 2012-02-09.
  17. ^ "Scribd". Scribd. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  18. ^ Richard R. Hallock, Colonel (retired) of US Army M16 Case Study March 16, 1970
  19. ^ Gordon Rottman (2011). The M16. Osprey Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84908-690-5. 
  20. ^ http://www.nramuseum.com/media/940585/m14.pdf |CUT DOWN in its Youth, Arguably Americas Best Service Rifle, the M14 Never Had the Chance to Prove Itself. By Philip Schreier, SSUSA, September 2001, p 24-29 & 46
  21. ^ Arms of the Chosin Few. Americanrifleman.org. Retrieved on 2011-11-23.
  22. ^ Donald L. Hall An effectiveness study of the infantry rifle (PDF). Report No. 593. Ballistic Research Laboratories. Maryland. March 1952 (released March 29, 1973)
  23. ^ Fanaticism And Conflict In The Modern Age, by Matthew Hughes & Gaynor Johnson, Frank Cass & Co, 2005
  24. ^ "An Attempt To Explain Japanese War Crimes". Pacificwar.org.au. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  25. ^ "South to the Naktong - North to the Yalu". History.army.mil. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  26. ^ HyperWar: The Big 'L'-American Logistics in World War II. Ibiblio.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-24.
  27. ^ The Logistics of Invasion. Almc.army.mil. Retrieved on 2011-11-23.
  28. ^ a b c Col. E. H. Harrison (NRA Technical Staff) New Service Rifle (PDF). June 1957
  29. ^ Anthony G Williams Assault Rifles And Their Ammunition: History and Prospects. Quarry.nildram.co.uk (revised 3 February 2012). Retrieved on 2011-11-23.
  30. ^ M14 7.62mm Rifle. Globalsecurity.org (1945-09-20). Retrieved on 2011-11-23.
  31. ^ Lee Emerson M14 Rifle History and Development. October 10, 2006
  32. ^ Hutton, Robert (ed.), The .223, Guns & Ammo Annual Edition, 1971.
  33. ^ Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-88029-601-4. 
  34. ^ a b Peter G. Kokalis Retro AR-15. nodakspud.com
  35. ^ a b c d Danford Allan Kern The influence of organizational culture on the acquisition of the m16 rifle. m-14parts.com. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE, Military History. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2006
  36. ^ Report of the M16 rifle review panel. Department of the Army. dtic.mil. 1 June 1968
  37. ^ a b c Per G. Arvidsson Weapons & Sensors. NATO Army Armaments Group
  38. ^ Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. 7th Edition. by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks. Krause Publications 2000. page 271
  39. ^ Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. 7th Edition. by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks. Krause Publications 2000. pages 235, 258, 274, 278
  40. ^ LEGION Ltd. – the producer of high quality firearms with period artistic treatment (threading, engraving, incrustation) and improved finishing. izhmash.ru
  41. ^ http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/detail.asp?smallarms_id=256 |The Kalashnikov AK-101 is an export assault rifle in operational service withat least nine nations worldwide
  42. ^ Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. 7th Edition. by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks. Krause Publications 2000. pages 233, 257, 266, 296
  43. ^ http://www.arsenal-bg.com/defense_police/5.56_arsenal_assault_rifle_ar-m1_ar-m1f.htm | Arsenal AR-M1 5.56mm assault rifle