Automotive industry

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A video showing new Škoda cars being transported by rail at Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles.[1] It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry.[2]

History[edit]

Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
Citroën assembly line in 1918

The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[3] After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.[4]

Safety[edit]

Main article: Automobile safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262,[5] is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.[6]

In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls,[7] which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy[edit]

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[8] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down.[9] It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport.[10] Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.[11] Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate.[12][13] However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries.[14]

World motor vehicle production[edit]

By year[edit]

Global production of motorvehicles

(cars and commercial vehicles)

Year Production Change Source
1997 54,434,000   [15]
1998 52,987,000 -2.7% [15]
1999 56,258,892 6.2% [16]
2000 58,374,162 3.8% [17]
2001 56,304,925 -3.5% [18]
2002 58,994,318 4.8% [19]
2003 60,663,225 2.8% [20]
2004 64,496,220 6.3% [21]
2005 66,482,439 3.1% [22]
2006 69,222,975 4.1% [23]
2007 73,266,061 5.8% [24]
2008 70,520,493 -3.7% [25]
2009 61,791,868 -12.4% [26]
2010 77,857,705 26.0% [27]
2011 79,989,155 3.1% [28]
2012 84,141,209 5.3% [29]
2013 87,300,115 3.7% [30]


By country[edit]

Automobile Export Treemap (2012) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity

By manufacturer[edit]

Rank of manufacturers by production, 2012[31]

Rank Group Country Total Cars LCV HCV Heavy Bus
1 Toyota  Japan 10,104,424 8,381,968 1,448,107 268,377 5,972
2 GM  United States 9,285,425 6,608,567 2,658,612 7,558 10,688
3 Volkswagen  Germany 9,254,742 8,576,964 486,544 169,064 22,170
4 Hyundai  South Korea 7,126,413 6,761,074 279,579 70,290 15,470
5 Ford  United States 5,595,483 3,123,340 2,394,221 77,922
6 Nissan  Japan 4,889,379 3,830,954 1,022,974 35,451
7 Honda  Japan 4,110,857 4,078,376 32,481
8 PSA  France 2,911,764 2,554,059 357,705
9 Suzuki  Japan 2,893,602 2,483,721 409,881
10 Renault  France 2,676,226 2,302,769 373,457
11 Chrysler  United States 2,371,427 656,892 1,702,235 12,300
12 Daimler AG  Germany 2,195,152 1,455,650 257,496 450,622 31,384
13 Fiat  Italy 2,127,295 1,501,979 498,984 85,513 40,819
14 BMW  Germany 2,065,477 2,065,216 261
15 SAIC  China 1,783,548 1,523,398 190,848 67,805 1,497
16 Tata  India 1,241,239 744,067 314,399 165,171 17,602
17 Mazda  Japan 1,189,283 1,097,661 91,622
18 Dongfeng Motor  China 1,137,950 539,845 245,641 337,545 14,919
19 Mitsubishi  Japan 1,109,731 980,001 127,435 2,295
20 Changan  China 1,063,721 835,334 166,727 59,978 1,682
21 Geely  China 922,906 922,906
22 Fuji  Japan 753,320 734,959 18,361
23 BAIC  China 720,828 83,033 285,081 348,659 4,055
24 FAW  China 706,012 480,443 52,983 168,793 3,793
25 Great Wall  China 624,426 487,704 136,722
26 Mahindra  India 606,418 429,101 173,083 3,461 773
27 Isuzu  Japan 600,470 32,309 565,617 2,544
28 Chery  China 563,951 550,565 13,386
29 AvtoVAZ  Russia 553,232 553,232
30 Brilliance  China 489,770 231,527 231,862 26,381
31 JAC  China 476,356 200,278 114,864 145,811 15,403
32 BYD  China 455,444 455,444
33 Chongqing Lifan Motor Co.  China 272,657 183,750 24,035 64,872
34 Volvo  Sweden 234,680 224,000 10,680
35 Proton  Malaysia 162,455 134,934 27,521
36 China National Heavy Duty Truck  China 127,792 1,224 125,792 776
37 Paccar  United States 125,336 125,336
38 GAZ  Russia 125,319 88,899 21,561 14,859
39 Ashok Leyland  India 117,738 30,776 61,519 25,443
40 Hunan Jiangnan Automobile Manufacturing Co.  China 117,051 117,051
41 Guangzhou Auto Industry  China 114,157 87,408 25,611 1,138
42 Shannxi  China 86,283 8,044 166 77,808 265
43 Porsche  Germany 86,083 86,083
44 South East (Fujian)  China 85,515 81,512 4,003
45 Navistar  United States 83,371 72,005 11,366
46 Xiamen King Long  China 78,226 36,451 41,775
47 UAZ  Russia 70,434 32,469 37,965
48 Tangjun Ou Ling  China 69,167 16,459 52,708
49 Hebei Zhongxing  China 63,221 4,955 58,266
50 Sichuan Nanjun  China 60,743 18,296 41,602 845

OICA[32] defines these entries as follows:

  • Passenger cars are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the transport of passengers, and comprising no more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat.
  • Light commercial vehicles (LCV) are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the carriage of goods. Mass given in tons (metric tons) is used as a limit between light commercial vehicles and heavy trucks. This limit depends on national and professional definitions and varies between 3.5 and 7 tons. Minibuses, derived from light commercial vehicles, are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat and having a maximum mass between 3.5 and 7 tons.
  • Heavy trucks (HCV) are vehicles intended for the carriage of goods. Maximum authorised mass is over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tons) of light commercial vehicles. They include tractor vehicles designed for towing semi-trailers.
  • Buses and coaches are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat, and having a maximum mass over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tones) of light commercial vehicles.

Company relationships[edit]

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "automotive industry". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Scientific and Technical Societies of the United States (Eighth ed.). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences. 1968. p. 164. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles". Popular Science 115 (5): 84. November 1929. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ "ISO 26262-10:2012 Road vehicles -- Functional safety -- Part 10: Guideline on ISO 26262". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  6. ^ "Functional Safety". SGS. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Product Recalls in the Automotive Industry" (Press release). SGS. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  8. ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  9. ^ Developed countries having slowing automotive industry
  10. ^ Younger generations shifting to other modes of transport
  11. ^ Paul A. Eisenstein Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World at TheDetroitBureau.com
  12. ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  13. ^ "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand". J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  14. ^ Trends in the automotive industry
  15. ^ a b http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/cl98type.pdf
  16. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/1999-statistics/
  17. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2000-statistics/
  18. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2001-statistics/
  19. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2002-statistics/
  20. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2003-statistics/
  21. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2004-statistics/
  22. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2005-statistics/
  23. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2006-statistics/
  24. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2007-statistics/
  25. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2008-statistics/
  26. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2009-statistics
  27. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2010-statistics/
  28. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2011-statistics/
  29. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/
  30. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/
  31. ^ "World Motor Vehicle Production, Year 2012". OICA. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  32. ^ "Definitions". OICA. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 

External links[edit]