Automotrice à grande vitesse
|Automotrice à grande vitesse AGV|
AGV Pégase at Innotrans 2008
|Car body construction||aluminium with carbon composite in articulation section[n 1]|
|Train length||132.100 m (7 car)[n 2]|
|Car length||intermediate: 17.300 m
end car length 22.800 m
end car pivot distance: 17.1 m
|Width||2.985 m[n 2]|
|Floor height||1155 mm[n 3]|
|Maximum speed||360 km/h (220 mph) at 25 kV 50 Hz AC[n 2]
320 km/h (200 mph) at 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz[n 2]
250 km/h (160 mph) at 3kV DC[n 2]
200 km/h (120 mph) at 1.5 kV DC[n 2]
|Weight||272 tonnes (7 car)[n 2]|
|Power output||6.080 MW[n 2][n 4]|
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|UIC classification||Bo'(2)(2)(Bo')(Bo')(2)(2)Bo'[n 2]|
|Bogies||3 m wheelbase|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
Alstom offers the AGV in configurations from seven to fourteen carriages. The trains are constructed from units comprising three cars, each with one transformer and two traction electronics packages located underneath the cars, and from single-car trailers. A 7-car unit has two 3-car modules separated by one trailer and seating for around 245, an 11-car unit has three 3-car modules with two trailer cars with seating for around 446. The maximum commercial speed is 360 km/h (220 mph).
According to Alstom, the advantages of the AGV are: increased seating area per train length (compared to a single-deck TGV); lower maintenance costs due to Jacobs bogie articulation giving a low number of bogies per train; and higher energy efficiency, lower noise, and more space in the vestibules due to high power-to-weight ratio, high-efficiency permanent-magnet synchronous motors and other design improvements.
In 2008 President of Alstom Transport, Philippe Mellier, stated that an 'AGV Duplex' would be developed, and would become Alstom's double deck train offer (for SNCF) after the TGV 2N2. In June 2011 Les Échos reported that Alstom is developing a new high speed train with a top speed of up to 400 km/h, to be available as a single and a double deck version. Les Échos reported that the new design would use a train with power concentrated in a locomotive. The design has been referred to as AGVII by the press. According to reports in September 2011 a double decker design is being developed for a SNCF tender for trains expected in 2014/15 or later.
History and design
The first design studies relating to the AGV were made in 1998. An AGV design, initially named "TGV 400" was presented in Barcelona in early 2000 as part of Alstom's bid to supply high-speed trains for the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed rail line. Initial specifications were for a train with distributed traction (total power 7.2 MW), seating 359 in a train 180 metres long, with a version including eddy current brakes with a top speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), and a tilting version with a top speed of 320 km/h (200 mph). The design would retain the articulated Jakobs bogie of the TGV.
Unlike the TGV, which was developed in collaboration between Alstom and SNCF, the AGV was developed wholly at Alstom's expense, with European Union rules on state aid limiting the extent of financial collaboration between the state-owned SNCF and Alstom. The AGV was promoted in 2002 as a complementary high-speed train to the TGV Duplex, offering higher speeds for less busy train paths, while a double-decker AGV was posited as a future possibility by Alstom.
The new design was the first high-speed train design in modern times that had inter-vehicle articulation and distributed traction.[n 5] The design used Alstom Onix IGBT based traction inverters; the weight reduction associated with IGBT technology allowed an axle load of within 17 tonnes per axle. The trainsets were to be made up of modules of 3-car sets with two powered bogies per module. Each motor bogie had two body-mounted self-ventilated motors, one per axle, rated at 600 kW. The traction electronics used two taps per transformer per module, each powering two parallel connected inverters, with a separate inverter for each motor. There were two carriage designs: the driving control cars, and intermediate cars; and two designs of bogie: powered and unpowered.
The initial AGV design incorporated a number of new features: an electrically-activated active suspension (in the transverse direction to movement), used to limit oscillations between car and bogie; and eddy current brakes, fitted to the end bogies. Both technologies had been previously trialled on TGV sets. The carriages were constructed from aluminium alloy as used on the TGV Duplex. The transformers, which weigh 6.5 tonnes, are fitted underneath the end cars, since the presence of the leading bogie allows the mass to be distributed over three instead of two axles. The interior structure was designed to allow easier refurbishment and alteration to the passenger environment. The floor level is kept practically constant throughout the train, including at inter-coach connections.[n 3]
By 2005 permanent-magnet synchronous motor technology had become mature enough to use in a commercial product, and was incorporated into the design allowing a bogie-mounted (instead of frame-mounted) traction motor, with higher efficiency and lower overall weight. The 2005 specifications allowed a wider (3 metre) carriage than the TGV, with a correspondingly shorter coach length. Alstom claimed operating and capital costs per seat were the same as a TGV Duplex.
The design was complete enough to be frozen by July 2006. It had become formalised at basic train lengths of 7 or 14 cars, with the 3-car modules remaining part of the design. Each 3-car module had either a transformer or one of two traction modules (inverters) located beneath a carriage. Additional trailer vehicles (referred to as 'key' cars) were to extend the train size beyond multiples of three. The train is able to operate under all four European electrification systems, with a top speed specified at 360 km/h (220 mph) under 25kV electrification, 320 km/h (200 mph) under 15kV 16.7 Hz supply, and further reduced to 250 km/h (160 mph) and 200 km/h (120 mph) under 3 kV and 1.5 kV respectively.
The bogies are related to the type used on the TGV trains; in addition to the changes to traction motor type and installation, the bogies are constructed of a high tensile steel, for lighter weight, the bogie wheelbase is 3m as with the TGV. Braking is by rheostatic braking and regenerative braking, in addition to triple disc brakes on trailer bogies for low speed braking. An eddy current brake was not fitted. The train also incorporates a carbon composite as a structural element, forming a U beam which supports the carriage body end on the secondary suspension.[n 1]
Elisa test train, 2001
By May 2000 prototype vehicles were being constructed for testing in 2001. Two coaches were constructed; a driving and an intermediate cab, with both trailer and motor bogies; for testing the units were attached to a four car TGV Reseau set. The test train (named "Elisa") began tests in late 2001; including ride and noise level measurements, as well as testing of a multisystem "Europantograph", designed to work with all four European overhead electrification systems. Dynamic tests included measuring traction motor, braking rheostat, transformer and inverter cooling under high-speed conditions, as well as aerodynamic tests on airconditioning system performance at high speed. Initial tests were complete in May 2002.
Pégase demonstrator, 2008
By 2004, enabled by the availability of rare-earth magnets with high magnetic strength, Alstom had developed permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) which were suitable for rail vehicles. They were smaller and had a higher efficiency than asynchronous motors and a higher power-to-weight ratio, as well as having the potential for lower noise levels. The AGV was one of the early applications of the new motor design, using 720 kW prototype motors weighing 730 kg. By 2008 the motor's continuous power rating had been respecified to 760 kW.
In late 2005 Alstom began the process of constructing a 7-car AGV demonstration train fitted with PMSMs, with half the bogies powered. The demonstration vehicle, named Pégase (Prototype Evolutif Grande vitesse Automotrice Standard Européen) was assembled at Alstom's La Rochelle plant, with bogies built at Alstom's Le Creusot plant. The prototype was unveiled on 5 February 2008, at La Rochelle, in the presence of president Nicolas Sarkozy.
The transformers were mounted in the driving cars, with the other two cars of the three car modules each carrying a traction converter (ONIX 233 water cooled), which also integrate auxiliary converters, the middle 'key' car carried auxiliary equipment under the carriage. The HVAC equipment is mounted on the roof. The internal DC inverter power bus is supplied at 3600 V DC.
Testing over four weekends the LGV Est high-speed line began in late 2008; the train completed 7500 km of test runs, after which it returned to the Velim test track for tests relating to certification for NTV's trainsets in Italy, including SCMT safety system integration.
Alstom's first customer for the AGV was Italian company Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori (NTV).
Alstom submitted its bid to supply NTV with high-speed trains in March 2006. On 17 January 2008 NTV ordered 25 eleven-coach, 460-seat AGV trains, for €650 million. The order included an option for ten more trainsets. 14 trains were to be built at Alstom's La Rochelle plant, the remaining 11 at Alstom's plant in Savigliano, Italy.[n 6] An additional contract for maintenance of the trains over a thirty-year period involved the construction of a maintenance depot at Nola, Italy.
The company planned to launch a variety of services on the Turin - Milan - Bologna, Rome - Venice, and Bologna - Florence - Rome - Naples high-speed lines, with some trains from Naples running to Bari. Initial services were planned for mid-2011 based on the delivery of the first trains in September 2010. The NTV livery was unveiled in July 2008.
The buildings at the €90-million AGV maintenance facility were completed by May 2010; construction of the first NTV AGV trainset was completed on 10 May 2010. However in March 2011 NTV announced it was to postpone service start from the planned start date of September 2011 due to delays with the train certification. This start date had moved to 2012 by November 2011. The first AGV produced at Savigliano was handed over in November 2011. By December 2011 certification testing was complete. On 30 March 2012 NTV announced its first Italo service would begin on the Naples to Milan rail lines on 28 April 2012; the service would be the first open access high-speed train service in the world.
The service launched on 28 April 2012, and carried 45,000 passengers by 21 May 2012, with an average passenger loading of 41%.
- The NTV trainsets ordered 2008 have a conventional steel beam.
- Specifications refer to a 7-car unit, original Pégase prototype, with 50% of the axles motorised. Where sources conflict more recent value is taken. Sources:
- In the Pégase prototype the floor height above the bogie the height rises 95 mm from 1155 mm to 1250 mm.
- Initially rated at 5.76 MW with 720 kW motors. By 2008 the traction motors were specified at 760 kW continuous.
- The Electroliners, introduced by the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad, USA in 1941 had inter-coach articulation in a multiple unit that had no locomotive, and a top speed of over 160 km/h (100 mph).
- The number of units to be produced at Savigliano was reduced to 8 by 2011, with La Rochelle having manufactured 17 trainsets.
- Murray Hughes (31 August 2007), "AGV tailors capacity and performance to the market", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- "The AGV, a cutting-edge technology integrator (Innotrans 2008)", www.unife.org (Alstom), 2008
- Murray Hughes (3 March 2008), "Wraps come off the AGV", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- François Lacôte (March 2008), "The AGV, incorporating cutting-edge technology", www.uic.org (Alstom)
- François Lacôte (November 2005), "Trends for High Speed Rolling Stock", Eurailspeed (milano 2005) (Alstom): 11, 13
- Guillaume Leborgne (interviewer) (2008), "Materiel. Philippe Mellier: << Nous ferons l'AGV Duplex >>", La Vie du Rail (in French) (3181): 12–13, ISSN 0042-5478, "(Philippe Mellier) .. Il y aura un AGV Duplex .. [..] .. Il est normal que la SNCF réfléchisse a l'apres-TGV 2N2. Pour nous, le successeur, c'est l'AGV Duplex."
- Michel de Grandi (12 June 2011), "Alstom veut garder un TGV d'avance", www.lesechos.fr
- Sylvie Thomas, "High-speed rail: on track for the future (June 2012)", www.diplomatie.gouv.fr (Ministère des affaires étrangères et européennes)
- Manuel Moragues (1 Sep 2011), "Alstom et la SNCF planchent sur un nouvel AGV II Duplex", www.usinenouvelle.com
- "Barcelona acogerá la presentación internacional de un nuevo AVE", La Vanguardia (in Spanish), 22 January 200: 3
- LA ALTA VELOCIDAD LLEGA A COREA DE MANOS DE ALSTOM (in Spanish), Spanish Trains On Line STOL, 23 March 2000, TGV 400
- THE HIGH-SPEED ARRIVES TO KOREA AT THE HANDS OF ALSTOM, Spanish Trains On Line STOL, 23 March 2000, TGV 400
- Robert Preston (1 May 2000), "Bidders line up in high speed race", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- "AGV in need of a customer", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 1 July 2002
- "Alstom to build 350 km/h AGV demonstrator", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 1 December 2005
- François Lacôte; Georges Palais (1 November 2001), "AGV becomes a reality", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- John D. Horachek (November 1982), "The Electroliner Legend -2 "We have never done better than this"", Trains magazine: 48–58
- Philip G Craig (7 March 2008), "US trainsets foreshadowed AGV (Letter to the Editor)", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- David Briginshaw (May 2000), "AGV: The Next Generation - high speed trains", International Railway Journal (Simmons-Boardman Publishing)
- "AGV- высокоскоростной электропоезд нового поколения", Железные дороги мира (in Russian) (10), 2000
- Laurent Charlier (1 May 2007), "V150: Power-packed train proves AGV technology in record sprint", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- ""ELISA" to validate Alstom's AGV very high-speed train concept", www.transport.alstom.com (Alstom), 12 June 2001
- "Alstom makes advances in traction power: Alstom Transport has successfully completed a prototype development programme for permanent magnet motors for railway traction applications", International Railway Journal, April 2004
- Murray Hughes (1 May 2007), "Alstom offers AGVs to Italian private operator", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- Murray Hughes (1 September 2008), "NTV targets 20% market share by 2015", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group)
- "Alstom presents first Italian AGV", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 30 November 2011
- "NTV unveils Italian AGV livery", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 15 July 2008
- "NTV readies for Italo high speed launch", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 25 May 2010
- "NTV launch delayed until 'late autumn'", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 17 March 2011
- "NTV unveils first Italo AGV", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 15 December 2011
- "Italo to launch on April 28", www.railwaygazette.com (DVV Media Group), 30 March 2012
- "Connectivity", www.ntvspa.it (NTV), archived from the original on 2 November 2010, retrieved 2 November 2010
- Vincent Foti (23 May 2012), "Italo, il primo bilancioin un mese centomila biglietti", www.repubblica.it (in Italian)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alstom AGV.|
- "AGV very high speed trains", www.alstom.com, archived from the original on 25 July 2011
- "AGV Full speed ahead into the 21st century", www.alstom.com (Alstom), archived from the original on 25 July 2011, AGV Brochure
- "Alstom AGV prototype Industrial Design", www.vegarastudio.com, retrieved March 2012
- "Supervlak AGV se v Česku učí uhánět rychlostí 400 km/h.", technet.idnes.cz (in Czech), 4 August 2008, AGV Pégase at Velim test track, Czech Republic, 2009
- "France unveils super-fast train", news.bbc.co.uk (BBC News), 5 February 2008, official unveiling of Pégase AGV prototype, February 2008
- "AGV— высокоскоростной электропоезд нового поколения", Железные дороги мира (in Russian) (1), 2009