Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë

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Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë
Republika Shqipëtare Korçë
Protectorate of France
1916–1920


Flag

Albania after fragmentation in 1916.[1]
Capital Korçë
Languages Albanian
Government 14-member local government
Prefect of Police[2] Themistokli Gërmenji
Historical era World War I
 -  Protocol signed December 10, 1916
 -  French Army depart June 15, 1920
Currency Korçë frange

The Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë (Albanian: Republika Autonome Shqipëtare Korçë) was an autonomous state established in 1916, by the local French forces, after the city of Korçë fell under their control, during World War I and lasted till 1920.

Due to developments in the Macedonian Front of World War I the city of Korçë came under French control (1916–20). During this time 14 representatives of Korçë and French Colonel Descoins signed a protocol that proclaimed the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë under the military protection of the French army and with Themistokli Gërmenji as Prefect of Police.[3][4]

The new authorities introduced Albanian as the official language and replaced Greek schools with Albanian ones, which were forbidden during the Greek administration of the city.[5][6] There was also a French school in Korçë and one of its many students was Enver Hoxha,[7] who was apprentice (1927—1930) and then teacher (1937—1939).[8] He would later become the First Secretary of the Albanian Party of Labour, serving from 1941 until his death in 1985.[7]

Background[edit]

The Republic of Korçë was established in 1916 during World War I. The Austro-Hungarian army invaded northern Albania in the spring of 1916, the Kingdom of Bulgaria's army occupied the eastern parts of Albania, including the city of Elbassan (which was later handed over to Austria-Hungary). The French army occupied Korçë and its surrounding areas on November 29, 1916. Italy occupied the port of Vlorë and the region of south Principality of Albania on December 1914 and in the autumn 1916.

Northern Epirus[edit]

Further information: Northern Epirus

Korçë belongs to the region regarded as Northern Epirus, a region with substantial Albanian, Aromanian and Greek populations. The Greek national view was to classify all Aromanians and Orthodox Albanians as part of the Greek minority.[9] The Great Powers signed the Protocol of Florence and awarded the region to the newly founded Principality of Albania on December 17, 1913. Gradual withdrawal of the Greek army would enable the Albanian forces to take control of the region. Consequently, to avert this possibility, pro-Greek Epirotes decided to declare their own separate political identity and self-governance.[10][11]

Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus[edit]

Operation of connecting Italian troops with Allies on Macedonian front in period December 1915 – December 1916.

On February 28, 1914, the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus[12] was declared in Gjirokastër and the provisional Government was formed to support the state's objectives.[13] The Protocol of Corfu was signed on May 17, 1914 and the Albanian Government officially recognized the area of Northern Epirus as an autonomous region within the Albanian state.[14] Soon after the outbreak of World War I (July 1914), the situation in Albania became unstable and political chaos ensued. As the country split into a number of regional governments, Prince William departed the country in September 1914.

Greek military and civil administration[edit]

Troops of the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus (Sacred Bands) in Korçë (1914).
General Maurice Sarrail, commander of the Allied forces on the Macedonian front.
Further information: Bulgarian occupation of Albania

On October 27, 1914, after approval from the Great Powers, the Greek army re-entered the area.[15] During the Greek administration, and while the First World War continued, it had been agreed between Greece, Italy and the Great Powers that the final settlement of the Northern Epirote issue should be left to the future, after the war ended. After Venizelos' resignation in December however, the succeeding royalist governments were determined to exploit the situation and pre-determine the region's future by incorporating it formally within the Greek state. In the first months of 1916, Northern Epirus participated in the Greek elections and elected 16 representatives for the Greek Parliament. In March, the region's union with Greece was officially declared, and the area was divided into the prefectures of Argyrokastro and Korytsa.[16]

Bulgarian occupation of Korçë[edit]

After the beginning of Bulgaria's engagement in First World War on the side of the Central Powers in autumn 1915, many ethnic Albanians joined the Bulgarians who gave them weapons.[17] The Kingdom of Bulgaria used its army to occupy the eastern part of Albania[18][19] at the beginning of the occupation of Albania.

After the occupation of the eastern parts of Albania, inclusive of the city of Elbasan,[4] on August 18, 1916 the Bulgarian army, probably attempting to join Austrian forces in Albania and in a combined attack on the Italian army, occupied Korçë and ejected the Greek garrison from the city.[20] Bulgaria's objective was to persuade the Albanian leaders to elect Prince Kiril, second son of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, as their king (Albanian: mbret).[21] An additional reason for the Bulgarian occupation of Korçë was that Bulgarian positions in Bitolj would be seriously threatened if the Allies gained control of Korçë.[22]

French occupation of Korçë[edit]

French troops entered Korçë on November 29, 1916 during a military operation that aimed to connect the Allied front in Thessaloníki in the Macedonian front to the region in south Albania, which was held by the Italian troops.[23] French troops in Korçë were under General Maurice Sarrail, and under direct command of Colonel Descoins.[24] There were two groups of rebels active in the region of Korçë, one was led by Themistokli Gërmenji and another by Sali Butka. In the meantime, Albanian irregular bands, headed by Butka and cooperating with the Austrian forces, completely ravaged Moscopole,[25] and threatened that if Korçë would suffer the same fate if it did not raise the Albanian flag and surrender to Albanian authorities.[26]

Establishment of the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë[edit]

Colonel Descoins made arrangements with the leading Albanian nationalists from Korçë.[4] French officers had a meeting with Themistokli Gërmenji on November 24, 1916.[27] Themistokli Gërmenji came to Korçë from Pogradec, which was occupied by the armies of Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.[28] The French officers appointed a commission led by Gërmenji. The commission had fourteen members, seven Christians and seven Muslims. The members of this commission were: Rafail Adhami, Kostandin Nocka, Nikolla Vangjeli, Vasil Singjeli, Vasil Kondi, Llambro Mborja, Thimi Cale, Shaqir Shabani, Tefik Rushiti, Hysen Dishnica, Emin Rakipi, Qani Dishnica, Sali Babani and Haki Shemshedini.[29]

The commission held a meeting on December 10 at 9 am in the Saint George's School and Gërmenji held a speech to the gathered men and after the meeting led the commission to the prefecture. In the prefecture they met with Colonel Descoins and with the other French officers. Haki Shemshedini approached to Colonel Descoins on behalf of the commission. Colonel Descoins informed the commission that they should sign a protocol. On December 10, 1916 Colonel Descoins and the commission signed a protocol, according to which an autonomous province would be established on the territories of Korçë, Bilishti, Kolonja, Opar and Gora. It was also agreed that the 14 members of the commission would make up the administrative council, responsible for maintaining order.[30]

Protocol[edit]

The text of the protocol, which stated that it was made according to the wishes of the Albanian delegates of kaza of Korçë, had 9 points that are summarized below:[31]

  1. the autonomous province of Korçë is established by this protocol, and refers to the territory of Korçë, Bilishti, Kolonja, Opar and Gora
  2. the kaza Korçë will be governed by the Administrative Council with 14 members, half Christan and half Muslim
  3. appointments to the positions in the kaza will be made by French military authorities, based on the proposal of the administrative council
  4. for maintaining order in the kaza, the prefect of police will be responsible, using newly established gendarmerie and police
  5. there shall be established a special unit of "Albanian gendarmerie mobile" which would be responsible for safeguarding the territory's independence and freedom of its people
  6. for the same purpose there can be established a regular battalion of volunteers
  7. Police, gendarmerie and volunteer troops would be under superior authority of the French officer
  8. the official language is Albanian
  9. the flag of the kaza Korçë will be traditional Skanderbeg flag with tricolor French flag

The new authorities in Korçë organized the police force and gendarmerie, a post office system and issued postage stamps.[32]

Statute[edit]

On September 27, 1917 General Maurice Sarrail proclaimed a new statute which repealed constitutional protocol. The Administration was entrusted to the commander of the army group Malik. The Administrative Council was replaced with an Advisory Council which was reduced to 12 members (still half Muslims and half Christians). Territory under French administration was divided on two parts, north (Pogradec) and south (Republic of Korçë) of Devolli.[33]

Administration[edit]

On December 10, 1916, Henry Descoins, the commander of the French garrison of Korçë, with the approval of Maurice Sarrail, declared the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë,[34] and appointed Themistokli Gërmenji as prefect.[35] In the following period the Greeks of the city were persecuted by the Albanian nationalist elements that aimed at acquiring control over Korçë. As a result the local Greeks asked the French authorities to prolong their occupation until the end of World War I.[36]

In the period of March 1917 – February 1918, Qani Dishnica was appointed as the Chairman of the Albanian Administrative Council.[37] On the French side, the delegated governors of the Republic of Korçë were Henri Descoins (December 10, 1916 – May 11, 1917), Salle (1917—1919) and Reynard Lespinasse[5] (June 1919 – May 26, 1920).[38]

The French delegated governors appointed an officer to be their delegate to the Council. The first officer appointed was reserve Lieutenant Bargeton, who was replaced in the middle of January 1917 by a Lieutenant Siegfried.[39]

Education[edit]

France intended to help in establishing 200 elementary schools on Albanian language, as part of the strategy of Albanian national affirmation.[40] On the other hand all the Greek schools were forced to close down, while the Greek element of the city was persecuted.[34] The Albanian National Lyceum (French: Le lycée de Korça, Albanian: Liceu Kombëtar i Korçës) high school in Korçë was established in 1917. French authorities claim that they banned opening of the high school because they did not want to offend their Greek allies led by Eleftherios Venizelos' Movement of National Defence, who claimed rights over the area.[41] Some sources find this claim inappropriate, considering that the French Lycée in Thessaloníki sent professor Vital Gerson to lead a small team of three Albanian professors to join a French officer, who gave some notions of French culture, on the opening ceremony of the school.[42] The French National Lyceum was the first Albanian high school that was open to the students of all faiths.[43]

Currency[edit]

Further information: Korçë frange

The frange (Albanian) or franc (French) was the currency of the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë (also written "Koritza" on the currency) between 1917 and 1921.[44] It was subdivided into 100 centimes. The currency was introduced during the period of French occupation. It was only issued in paper money form, with notes issued in denominations of 50 centimes, 1 and 5 frange. Both paper money and post stamps were engraved by the soldier Davier (a student of Louis-Oscar Roty).

Pogradec[edit]

In September 1917, General Maurice Sarrail undertook an action against the armies of Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria in Albania, and on September 9 French troops captured Pogradec.[4] Together with the armies of Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary, there were Albanians, led by Hysejn Nikolica, fighting against the French troops.[4] Themistokli Gërmenji was awarded the Croix de guerre in November 1917, for his participation in the French capture of Pogradec with the battalion from Korçë.[4] Although the French government considered appointing Essad Pasha Toptani to govern the Pogradec region[4] it remained under French administration.

Disestablishment of the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë[edit]

In November 1917, General Salle reported that the attempt at cooperation between Christians and Muslims had resulted in frequent difficulties.[45] At the end of 1917 Gërmenji was accused of collaboration with the Central Powers and executed in Thesaloniki after being sentenced to death by the French military court.[46]

General Salle removed the already limited autonomy of the Council on February 16, 1918.[47] After the armistices and capitulations at the end of First World War, it was agreed that France and Italy should continue to govern the territories they occupied, and that France, Italy and the British Empire together should govern Shkodër.[48] As a result, the French army moved from Korçë on June 15, 1920.[49] After the French army left Korçë, the fate of the territory that it administered was decided by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.

Aftermath[edit]

On December 12, 1916, Italy demanded explanations from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, through its ambassador, stating that the establishment of the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë violated the Treaty of London.[50] Austria-Hungary used the French precedent in Korçë to justify the proclamation of the independence of Albania under its protectorate on January 3, 1917 in Shkodër. The Kingdom of Italy followed suit when proclaiming the independence of Albania under its protectorate on June 23, 1917 in Gjirokastra.[51]

Because General Maurice Sarrail had demonstrated a tendency to interfere in politics, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau relieved him of his command in December 1917.[52] There was a strong French influence in Korçë even after the Autonomous Republic ceased to exist. The Albanian National Lyceum remained active until 1939; a French Military Cemetery was built and can still be seen in the city.[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Jonathan P. (2000). The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-Communist Europe: State-Building, Democracy, and Ethnic Mobilization. M.E. Sharpe. p. 171. ISBN 9780765605283. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  2. ^ Jaume Ollé (July 15, 1996). "Republic of Korçë (1917–1918)". Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011. "Themistokli Gërmenji was the head of executive power with the title of Prefect of Police." 
  3. ^ Schmidt-Neke, Michael (1987). Enstehung und Ausbau der Königsdiktatur in Albanien, 1912–1939. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-486-54321-6. Retrieved November 8, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Pearson, Owen (2004). Albania and King Zog: independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. I.B.Tauris. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84511-013-0. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Pearson, Owen (February 2, 2006). Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania and King Zog, 1908–39. I.B.Tauris. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84511-013-0. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  6. ^ Vickers, Miranda (2006) [1995]. "The Reign of Prince Wied". The Albanians: a modern history. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 90. ISBN 1-86064-541-0. Retrieved January 11, 2011. "Albanian became the official language and Albanian schools replaced Greek ones" 
  7. ^ a b Jaume Ollé (July 15, 1996). "Republic of Korçë (1917–1918)". Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011. "Its most famous student, and later French teacher, was Enver Hoxha" 
  8. ^ "Liceu Francez i Korçës" [French High School in Korçë] (in Albanian). Korçë: Bashkia Korçë. 2010. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "Nxënës (1927–1930) dhe mësues (1937–1939) i këtij liceu ka qenë edhe Enver Hoxha. / Apprentice (1927–1930) and teacher (1937–1939) of the Lyceum was the Enver Hoxha." 
  9. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (March 1999). "The Albanian Aromanians´ Awakening: Identity Politics and Conflicts in Post-Communist Albania". Schiffbruecke 12 (Kompagnietor Building) D-24939 Flensburg, Germany: EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR MINORITY ISSUES (ECMI). p. 3. Retrieved January 13, 2011. "In the national Greek view, ... Religion, as a criterion of classification, automatically places all the Albanian Aromanians, and also those people who call themselves Albanian Orthodox, into the „Greek minority.“" 
  10. ^ Kondis 1976: 124
  11. ^ Schurman 1916: "It is little wonder that the Greeks of Epirus feel outraged by the destiny which the European Powers have imposed upon them... Nor is it surprising that since Hellenic armies have evacuated northern Epirus in conformity with the decree of the Great Powers, the inhabitants of the district, all the way from Santi Quaranta to Koritza, are declaring their independence and fighting the Albanians who attempt to bring them under the yoke." p.56 [1]
  12. ^ in Greek the term autonomos has a dual meaning, it can mean either independent or autonomous.
  13. ^ Kondis 1976: p. 93
  14. ^ The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801–1927. William Miller. 1966, p.616, ISBN 0-7146-1974-4
  15. ^ The Albanian Question in British Policy and the Italian Intervention, August 1914 – April 1915, P. 109 – 131, Nicola Guy; Greek troops crossed the southern Albanian border at the end of October 1914, officially reoccupying all of southern Albania, exclusive of Vlora, and establishing a military administration by October 27, 1914.
  16. ^ Stickney 1924: 57–63
  17. ^ Bataković, Dušan (1992). "Albanian Incursions into Serbia". In Ivan Čolović. The Kosovo Chronicles. Belgrade: Knjižara Plato. ISBN 86-447-0006-5. Retrieved January 8, 2011. "The beginning of the German – Austro-Hungarian offensive against Serbia in autumn, 1915, Bulgaria's engagement in war on the side of the Central Powers and its attack on Serbia, ... Masses of ethnic Albanians recruited into the Serbian army became deserters, and many joined the Bulgarians who gave them arms...Essad Pasha ... fought ... against Albanian companies that joined Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian troops." 
  18. ^ Zogu, Ahmed. "King Zog Tells his Story to Herman Bernstein, former United States Minister to Albania.". New York: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. Retrieved January 11, 2011. "while South Albania was being oppressed by the Greeks, Valona by the Italians, the east by the Bulgarians, and the rest of the country by the Austrians." 
  19. ^ Vickers, Miranda (2006) [1995]. "The Reign of Prince Wied". The Albanians: a modern history. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 88. ISBN 1-86064-541-0. Retrieved January 11, 2011. "Bulgarians were pushing into Albania from the East." 
  20. ^ "The Times history of the war" (txt). London: The Times. p. 85. Retrieved January 11, 2011. "In their invasion of August 18 the Bulgarians had pushed west as far as Koritsa (S.W. of Lake Prespa), whence they ejected the Greek garrison." 
  21. ^ "The Times history of the war" (txt). London: The Times. p. 2-2. Retrieved January 11, 2011. "About this time they seem to have been coquetting with the idea of persuading certain of the Albanian leaders to elect Prince Cyril, second son of Tsar Ferdinand, Mbret of Albania." 
  22. ^ "The Times history of the war" (txt). London: The Times. p. 85. Retrieved January 11, 2011. "This growing threat to the Bulgarians from the west was an important and essential preliminary to the abandonment of Monastir." 
  23. ^ "The Times history of the war" (txt). London: The Times. p. 85. Retrieved January 11, 2011. "During the next three weeks ... October 25 ...., about the same time, the French occupied Koritsa." 
  24. ^ Jaume Ollé (July 15, 1996). "Republic of Korçë (1917–1918)". Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011. "by order of the French General Sarrail, ... Colonel Descoins" 
  25. ^ Nikolaeva Todorova Marii︠a︡. Balkan identities: nation and memory. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2004. ISBN 978-1-85065-715-6, pp. 108–109.
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  27. ^ Jacques, Edwin E. (1995), The Albanians: an ethnic history from prehistoric times to the present, McFarland & Co., p. 363, ISBN 978-0-89950-932-7, "On 24 November Germenji went to Korcha to confer with the French" 
  28. ^ Jacques, Edwin E. (1995), The Albanians: an ethnic history from prehistoric times to the present, McFarland & Co., p. 363, ISBN 978-0-89950-932-7, "in October 1916 he went to Pogradec, the territory occupied by Austrians and Bulgarians" 
  29. ^ Sharxhi, Dergoi Mirel (December 5, 2008). "92 vjet më parë 10 Dhjetor 1916–2008 – KRAHINA "AUTONOME" E KORÇËS". kosova.albemigrant. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "Në këtë komision, që mori përsipër barrën e kujdesjes për vendin dhe u paraqit përpara kolonelit, bënin pjesë: Rafail Adhami, Kostandin Nocka, Nikolla Vangjeli, Vasil Singjeli, Vasil Kondi, Llambro Mborja, Thimi Cale, Shaqir Shabani, Tefik Rushiti, Hysen Dishnica, Emin Rakipi, Qani Dishnica, Sali Babani dhe Haki Shemshedini." 
  30. ^ Sharxhi, Dergoi Mirel (December 5, 2008). "92 vjet më parë 10 Dhjetor 1916–2008 – KRAHINA "AUTONOME" E KORÇËS" (in Albanian). kosova.albemigrant. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "Haki Mborja i drejtohet komandantit francez e i tregon qëllimin e ardhjes së tyre. Komandanti i priti me buzëqeshje, duke thënë, se duhet bërë protokoll. U bë protokolli. Sipas protokollit të 10 dhjetorit , qyteti i Korcës, Bilishti, Kolonja, Opari dhe Gora, formonin një krahinë “autonome”, që do të administrohej nga shqiptarët, nën mbrojtjen e autoriteteve franceze. Krahina do të administrohej nga një këshill administrativ, i përbërë prej katërmbëdhjetë vetash, i cili do të kishte edhe xhandarmëri për të mbajtur rregullin." 
  31. ^ Augris, Etienne (December 2000). "Korçë dans la Grande Guerre:Le sud-est albanais sous administration française (1916–1918)" (in French). France: Balkanologie, Vol. IV, n°2. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  32. ^ Jacques, Edwin E. (1995), The Albanians: an ethnic history from prehistoric times to the present, McFarland & Co., p. 363, ISBN 978-0-89950-932-7, "... seting up the police force and gendarmerie... a post office system and issued stamps and paper money" 
  33. ^ Popescu, Stefan. "Les français et la république de Kortcha (1916–1920)". France: Cairn info. p. 82. doi:10.3917/gmcc.213.0077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "... Sarrail avait doté la région d'un nouveau statut qui abrogea le protocole...Son administration est confiée au commandant du Groupement de Malik... est remplacé par un Conseil consultatif, réduit à 12 membres.... La zone d'occupation française sera divisée en deux, au nord et au sud de Devolli : la zone Sud (la République de Kortcha) et la zone Nord (le territoire de Pogradetz)" 
  34. ^ a b M. V. Sakellariou (1997), Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization, Greece: Ekdotikē Athēnōn, p. 384, ISBN 978-960-213-371-2, retrieved January 16, 2011, "On 10 December 1916, Colonel Henry Decoin, the commander of French garrison, proclaimed with the consent of Serrail – the "Albanian Republic of Korytsa"" 
  35. ^ Çami, Muin (1999), Shqiptarët dhe francezët në Korçe (1916–1920), Dituria, p. 177, ISBN 978-99927-31-37-6, "Shpallje e prefektit të policisë, Themistokli Gërmenjit" 
  36. ^ N. Petsalīs-Diomidis. Greece at the Paris Peace Conference (1919). Institute for Balkan Studies, 1978, p. 50.
  37. ^ Cahoon, Ben (2000). "Autonomous Korça (Korce) French Occupied Zone". Wolrdstatesmen web site. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "Chairman of the Albanian Administrative Council... Mar 1917 – Feb 1918 ...Qani Dishnica" 
  38. ^ Cahoon, Ben (2000). "Autonomous Korça (Korce) French Occupied Zone". Wolrdstatesmen web site. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "Governors-delegate of the Territory of Korça 10 Dec 1916 – 11 May 1917 Henri Descoins; 1917? – 1919? Salle; Jun 1919 – 26 May 1920 .....Reynard Lespinasse" 
  39. ^ Popescu, Stefan. "Les français et la république de Kortcha (1916–1920)". France: Cairn info. doi:10.3917/gmcc.213.0077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "Ce fut le lieutenant de réserve Bargeton... Après son rappel au ministère des Affaires étrangères, vers le milieu du janvier 1917, il sera remplacé par le lieutenant Siegfried" 
  40. ^ Guillaume, Robert (December 1998). "L’Albanie et la France dans l’entre-deux-guerres : une relation privilégiée ? La présence culturelle française en Albanie, entre mythe et réalité" [Albania and France in the inter-war period: a privileged relationship? The French cultural presence in Albania, between myth and reality] (in French). Balkanologie Revues. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "Créé en 1917, durant la Première Guerre mondiale,...il s’inscrit dans une stratégie d’“affirmation nationale” des Albanais par l’établissement de structures proprement albanaises et laïques. Dans ce cadre, les Français contribuent à créer 200 écoles élémentaires albanaises, mais aident surtout à faire naître le premier lycée entièrement albanais ouvert à toutes les confessions." 
  41. ^ Guillaume, Robert (December 1998). "L’Albanie et la France dans l’entre-deux-guerres : une relation privilégiée ? La présence culturelle française en Albanie, entre mythe et réalité" [Albania and France in the inter-war period: a privileged relationship? The French cultural presence in Albania, between myth and reality] (in French). Balkanologie Revues. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "il affirme que Paris interdit l'ouverture d'un lycée français pour ne pas heurter ses alliés grecs vénizélistes qui revendiquent des droits sur la région." 
  42. ^ Guillaume, Robert (December 1998). "L’Albanie et la France dans l’entre-deux-guerres : une relation privilégiée ? La présence culturelle française en Albanie, entre mythe et réalité" [Albania and France in the inter-war period: a privileged relationship? The French cultural presence in Albania, between myth and reality] (in French). Balkanologie Revues. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "écrit qu'un professeur de Salonique, Vital Gerson, vint prendre sa direction et celle d'une petite équipe de trois professeurs albanais, à laquelle se joignit un officier français pour donner quelques notions de culture française." 
  43. ^ Guillaume, Robert (December 1998). "L’Albanie et la France dans l’entre-deux-guerres : une relation privilégiée ? La présence culturelle française en Albanie, entre mythe et réalité" [Albania and France in the inter-war period: a privileged relationship? The French cultural presence in Albania, between myth and reality] (in French). Balkanologie Revues. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "...mais aident surtout à faire naître le premier lycée entièrement albanais ouvert à toutes les confessions." 
  44. ^ Pick, Albert (1990). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Specialized Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (6th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-149-8. 
  45. ^ Augris, Etienne (December 2000). "Korçë dans la Grande Guerre:Le sud-est albanais sous administration française (1916–1918)" (in French). France: Balkanologie, Vol. IV, n°2. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "« La coopération des chrétiens et des musulmans a donné lieu, comme il fallait s'y attendre, à de fréquentes difficultés. Elle a montré, une fois de plus qu'en Albanie, le sentiment religieux était nettement plus fort que le sentiment de patrie »" 
  46. ^ Augris, Etienne (December 2000). "Korçë dans la Grande Guerre:Le sud-est albanais sous administration française (1916–1918)" (in French). France: Balkanologie, Vol. IV, n°2. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "Germenji, dont nous avons vu le rôle et les ambitions est envoyé à Salonique, jugé par un tribunal militaire et exécuté." 
  47. ^ Popescu, Stefan. "Les français et la république de Kortcha (1916–1920)". France: Cairn info. doi:10.3917/gmcc.213.0077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "Le 16 février 1918, le général Salle, commandant du groupe Malik, supprime l'autonomie déjà réduite de la République albanaise." 
  48. ^ Popescu, Stefan. "Les français et la république de Kortcha (1916–1920)". France: Cairn info. p. 85. doi:10.3917/gmcc.213.0077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "Après l'armistice il fut convenu que Français et Italiens administreraient chacun les territoires qu'ils occupaient, tandis qu'une administration franco-italo-anglaise était organisée à Scutari" 
  49. ^ Popescu, Stefan. "Les français et la république de Kortcha (1916–1920)". France: Cairn info. doi:10.3917/gmcc.213.0077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "15 juin 1920 : Retrait des Français" 
  50. ^ Popescu, Stefan. "Les français et la république de Kortcha (1916–1920)". France: Cairn info. doi:10.3917/gmcc.213.0077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. "La signature de ce Protocole contrevient aux stipulations du traité de Londres ...Par conséquent, l'Italie demanda des explications au quai d'Orsay, par l'intermédiaire de son ambassadeur, le 12 décembre 1916." 
  51. ^ Jaume Ollé (July 15, 1996). "Republic of Korçë (1917–1918)". Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011. "On 23 June 1917, Italy proclaimed the independence of Albania under her protectorate, justifying this with the French precedent in Korçë. Austria-Hungary had done it before on 3 January 1917." 
  52. ^ Duffy, Michael (August 22, 2009). "Who's Who – Maurice Sarrail". firstworldwar.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2011. "Indulging in political intrigue throughout, Sarrail's tenure as commander was brought to an abrupt – and surprisingly a politically inconsequential – end by Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau in December 1917." 
  53. ^ Jaume Ollé (July 15, 1996). "Republic of Korçë (1917–1918)". Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011. "the French influence remained strong in Korçë and the French Secondary School, founded in 1917, remained active until the Second World War... There is also a French war cemetery in Korçë." 

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