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|Autonomous Republic of Crimea
"Процветание в единстве" (Russian)
Protsvetanie v yedinstve (transliteration)
"Prosperity in unity"
"Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина" (Russian)
Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina (transliteration)
Your fields and mountains are magical, Motherland
Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (white)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Russian, Crimean Tatara|
|Ethnic groups (2001)|
|-||Prime Minister||Sergey Aksyonov (de facto)|
|Modern history of statehood|
|-||Independence from Russian Empire||December 13, 1917|
|-||Soviet occupation||January 1918|
|-||German protectorate||April 1918|
|-||2nd Soviet occupation||April 1919|
|-||Region of the South Russia||June 1919|
|-||Soviet Russia autonomy||October 1921|
|-||Nazi Germany occupation||1941-1943|
|-||Autonomy stripped||June 1945|
|-||Passed to Ukraine||February 1954|
|-||Ukraine restored autonomy||February 1991|
|-||Constitution||October 21, 1998|
|-||Total||26,100 km2 (148th)
10,038 sq mi
|-||2007 estimate||1,973,185 (148th)|
|Currency||Ukrainian hryvnia (
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|a.||Because Ukrainian is the only state language in Ukraine, no other language may be official, although according to the Constitution of Crimea, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication. However, government duties are fulfilled mainly in Russian, hence it is a de facto official language. Crimean Tatar is also used.|
|b.||The Crimean Oblast's autonomy was restored when it became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within the newly independent Ukraine.|
|c.||Not officially assigned.|
|d.||+380 65 for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, +380 692 for the administratively separate City of Sevastopol.|
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети) is an autonomous republic in the southeastern region of Ukraine. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea composes most of the Crimean peninsula, a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea. The Ukrainian city of Sevastopol is also on the peninsula.
The Cimmerians, Bulgars, Greeks, Scythians, Goths, Huns, Khazars, the state of Kievan Rus', Byzantine Greeks, Kipchaks, Ottoman Turks, Golden Horde Tatars and the Mongols each controlled Crimea in its earlier history. In the 13th century, it was partly controlled by the Venetians and by the Genoese; they were followed by the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire in the 15th to 18th centuries, the Russian Empire in the 18th to 20th centuries, Germany during World War II and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, within the Soviet Union during the rest of the 20th century until Crimea became part of independent Ukraine with the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is an autonomous parliamentary republic within Ukraine and is governed by the Constitution of Crimea in accordance with the laws of Ukraine. The capital and administrative seat of the republic's government is the city of Simferopol, located in the center of the peninsula. Crimea's area is 26,200 square kilometres (10,100 sq mi) and its population was 1,973,185 as of 2007. These figures do not include the area and population of the City of Sevastopol (2007 population: 379,200), which is administratively separate from the autonomous republic. The peninsula thus has 2,352,385 people (2007 estimate).
Crimean Tatars, a predominantly Muslim ethnic minority who in 2001 made up 12.10% of the population, formed in Crimea in the late Middle Ages, after the Crimean Khanate had come into existence. The Crimean Tatars were forcibly expelled to Central Asia by Joseph Stalin's government. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Crimean Tatars began to return to the region. According to the 2001 Ukrainian population census 58% of the population of Crimea are ethnic Russians and 24% are ethnic Ukrainians. The region has the highest proportion of Muslims in Ukraine.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Gallery
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The name Crimea derives from the name of the city of Qırım (today's Stary Krym), which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde. The name Krim thus traces to the Tatar word for 'steppe, hill' (Crimean Tatar: qırım - ‘my steppe, hill’, from Old Turkic, Middle Turkic qır ‘mountain top, mountain ridge; steppe, desert, level ground’). Russian Krym is a Russified form of Qırım. The ancient Greeks called Crimea Tauris (later Taurica, Ταυρική in Ancient Greek), after its inhabitants, the Tauri. The Greek historian Herodotus accounts for the name by asserting that Heracles plowed that land using a huge ox ("Taurus"). Herodotus also refers to a nearby region called Cremni or 'the Cliffs'", which may also refer to the Crimean peninsula, notable for its cliffs along what is otherwise a flat northern coastline of the Black Sea.
In English, Crimea was often referred to with the definite article, as the Crimea, until well into the 20th century.
Taurica was the name of Crimea in antiquity. Taurica was inhabited by a variety of peoples. The inland regions were inhabited by Scythians and the mountainous south coast by the Taures, an offshoot of the Cimmerians. Greek settlers inhabited a number of colonies along the coast of the peninsula, notably the city of Chersonesos in modern Sevastopol. In the 4th century BC the eastern part of Taurica became part of the Bosporan Kingdom, before being incorporated into the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC. During the 1st, 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, Taurica was host to Roman colonists in Charax, Crimea. Taurica was eventually renamed by the Crimean Tatars, from whose language Crimea's modern name derives. The word "Crimea" comes from the Crimean Tatar name Qırım, via Greek Krimea (Κριμαία).
Throughout the later centuries, Crimea was invaded or occupied successively by the Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths (AD 250), the Huns (376), the Bulgars (4th–8th century), the Khazars (8th century), the state of Kievan Rus' (10th–11th centuries), the Byzantine Empire (1016), the Kipchaks (Kumans) (1050), and the Mongols (1237). In the 13th century, the Republic of Genoa seized the settlements that their rivals, the Venetians, had built along the Crimean coast and gained control of the Crimean economy and the Black Sea commerce for two centuries. The Black Death pandemic came to Europe in the 14th century, probably aboard Genoese merchant ships from the Crimean peninsula.
A number of Turkic peoples, now collectively known as the Crimean Tatars, came to inhabit the peninsula starting with the early Middle Ages. At times these dominated the peninsula demographically, while at other times their numbers dwindled (1750–1944) or disappeared altogether (1944–91), only to reappear again (1991–present) After the destruction of the Golden Horde by Tamerlane, the Crimean Tatars founded an independent Crimean Khanate in 1441, under Hacı I Giray, a descendant of Genghis Khan. The Crimean Tatars controlled the steppes that stretched from the Kuban and to the Dniester River, however, they were initially unable to take control over commercial Genoese towns. After the capture of Genoese towns, the Ottoman Sultan held Meñli I Giray captive, later releasing him in return for accepting Ottoman sovereignty above the Crimean Khans and allowing them rule as tributary princes of the Ottoman Empire.:78 However, the Crimean Khans still had a large amount of autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. In 1774, the Crimean Khans fell under Russian influence with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca and, in 1783, the entire Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire.:176
The Crimean Khanate was a Tatar state founded by Hacı I Giray, a descendant of Genghis Khan, from 1441 to 1783. In 1478 the Khanate became a tributary of the Ottoman Empire, during the long wars of Russian expansion it became a formally independent state by the terms of the 1774 Russo-Ottoman Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, and was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1783, and called the Taurida Governorate.
Until the late 18th century, Crimean Tatars maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. About 2 million slaves from Russia and Ukraine were sold over the period 1500–1700. Tatars were known for frequent, at some periods almost annual, devastating raids on the Slavic peoples to the north. In 1769 a last major Tatar raid, which took place during the Russo-Turkish War, saw the capture of 20,000 slaves.
Crimean War and the 19th century
Crimea became part of Russia's Taurida Governorate and was the site of much of the fighting in the Crimean War (1853–1856) between Russia on one side, and France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia on the other. Russia and the Ottoman Empire went to war in October 1853 over Russia's rights to protect Orthodox Christians. Russia gained the upper hand after destroying the Ottoman fleet at the Black Sea port of Sinope; to stop Russia's conquest, France and Britain entered in March 1854. Most of the fighting took place for control of the Black Sea, with land battles on the Crimean peninsula in southern Russia. The Russians held their great fortress at Sevastopol for over a year. After it fell, peace was arranged at Paris in March 1856. The religion issue had already been resolved. The main results were that the Black Sea was neutralized—Russia would have no warships there—and the two vassals, Wallachia and Moldavia, became largely independent under nominal Ottoman rule. The war devastated much of the economic and social infrastructure of the peninsula.
Crimea in the 20th and 21st centuries
In the Soviet Union
During the Russian Civil War following the overthrow of the Russian Empire, Crimea changed hands a number of times and was a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army. It was in Crimea that the White Russians led by General Wrangel made their last stand against the Anarchist forces of Nestor Makhno and the Red Army in 1920. Approximately 50,000 White prisoners of war and civilians were summarily executed by shooting or hanging after the defeat of General Wrangel at the end of 1920. This is considered one of the largest massacres in the Civil War.
On 18 October 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was created as part of the Russian SFSR, which then became part of the Soviet Union. Crimea experienced two severe famines in the 20th century, the Famine of 1921–1922 and the Holodomor of 1932–1933.
During World War II, Crimea was the scene of several bloody battles. The Axis forces under the command of Nazi Germany suffered heavy casualties in the summer of 1941 as they tried to advance through the narrow Isthmus of Perekop linking Crimea to the Soviet mainland. Once the Axis forces broke through, they occupied most of Crimea, with the exception of the city of Sevastopol, which held out from October 1941 until 4 July 1942 when the Germans finally captured the city. From 1 September 1942, the peninsula was administered as the Generalbezirk Krim (general district of Crimea) und Teilbezirk (and sub-district) Taurien. In spite of heavy-handed tactics by the Nazis and their allies, the Crimean mountains remained an unconquered stronghold of the native resistance until the day when the peninsula was freed from the occupying force in 1944.
On 18 May 1944, the entire population of the Crimean Tatars was forcibly deported in the "Sürgün" (Turkish (Crimean Tatar) for exile) to Central Asia by Joseph Stalin's Soviet government as a form of collective punishment, on the grounds that they had collaborated with the Nazi occupation forces and formed anti-Soviet Tatar Legions. An estimated 46% of the deportees died from hunger and disease. On 26 June of the same year, the Armenian, Bulgarian, and Greek population was also deported to Central Asia. By the end of summer of 1944, the ethnic cleansing of Crimea was complete. In 1967, the Crimean Tatars were rehabilitated, but they were banned from legally returning to their homeland until the last days of the Soviet Union. The Crimean ASSR was abolished on 30 June 1945 and transformed into the Crimean Oblast (province) of the Russian SFSR.
On 19 February 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issued a decree transferring the Crimean Oblast from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The transfer of the Crimean Oblast to Ukraine has been described as a "symbolic gesture," marking the 300th anniversary of Ukraine becoming a part of the Russian Empire. The General Secretary of the Communist Party in Soviet Union was at the time the Ukrainian Nikita Khrushchev.
In post-war years, Crimea thrived as a prime tourist destination, built with new attractions and spas for tourists. Tourists came from all over the Soviet Union and neighbouring countries. Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing was also developed, particularly around the sea ports at Kerch and Sevastopol and in the oblast's landlocked capital of Simferopol.
In Independent Ukraine
|This section is missing information about the details regarding the referendums promoted by the Crimean parliament in 1992 and 1994, the tensions these created in Kiev, Kiev's reasons to deter them, the required majority vote for the referendums, and Tatar repatriation and population distribution at the time. (March 2014)|
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine, which led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine.[nb 1] With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula, worries of armed skirmishes were occasionally raised. Crimean Tatars began returning from exile and resettling in Crimea.
On 26 February 1992, the Verkhovniy Sovet (the Crimean parliament) renamed the ASSR the Republic of Crimea and proclaimed self-government on 5 May 1992 (which was yet to be approved by a referendum held 2 August 1992) and passed the first Crimean constitution the same day. On 6 May 1992 the same parliament inserted a new sentence into this constitution that declared that Crimea was part of Ukraine.
On 19 May, Crimea agreed to remain part of Ukraine and annulled its proclamation of self-government but Crimean Communists forced the Ukrainian government to expand on the already extensive autonomous status of Crimea.:587 In the same period, Russian president Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk agreed to divide the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet between Russia and the newly formed Ukrainian Navy.
On 14 October 1993, the Crimean parliament established the post of President of Crimea and agreed on a quota of Crimean Tatars represented in the Council of 14. However, political turmoil continued. Amendments[clarification needed] to the constitution eased the conflict, but on 17 March 1995, the parliament of Ukraine intervened, scrapping the Crimean Constitution and removing Yuriy Meshkov (the President of Crimea) along with his office for his actions against the state and promoting integration with Russia. After an interim constitution, the current constitution was put into effect, changing the territory's name to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
Following the ratification of the May 1997 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Partnership on friendship and division of the Black Sea Fleet, international tensions slowly eased. However, in 2006, anti-NATO protests broke out on the peninsula. In September 2008, the Ukrainian Foreign Minister Volodymyr Ohryzko accused Russia of giving out Russian passports to the population in the Crimea and described it as a "real problem" given Russia's declared policy of military intervention abroad to protect Russian citizens.
On 24 August 2009, anti-Ukrainian demonstrations were held in Crimea by ethnic Russian residents. Sergei Tsekov (of the Russian Bloc and then deputy speaker of the Crimean parliament) said then that he hoped that Russia would treat the Crimea the same way as it had treated South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Chaos in the Ukrainian parliament erupted during a debate over the extension of the lease on a Russian naval base on 27 April 2010 after Ukraine’s parliament ratified the treaty that extends Russia's lease on a military wharf and shore installations in the Crimean port Sevastopol until 2042. Along with Verkhovna Rada, the treaty was ratified by the Russian State Duma as well.
2014 Crimean crisis and Russian military intervention
On 26 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, thousands of pro-Russian and pro-Ukraine protesters clashed in front of the parliament building in Simferopol. The pretext of the clash has been the abolition, on 23 February 2014, of the law on languages of minorities, including Russian. This decision, that would make Ukrainian the sole state language, has not been upheld by the interim president.
The demonstrations followed the ousting of the Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych on 22 February 2014, and a push by pro-Russian protesters for Crimea to secede from Ukraine and seek assistance from Russia.
On 28 February 2014, Russian Ground Forces occupied airports and other strategic locations in Crimea. The interim Government of Ukraine described the events as an invasion and occupation of Crimea by Russian forces. However, Russian troops have been stationed in Crimea for over a decade under an agreement with Ukraine, although the number of forces present in late February 2014 constituted a violation of Ukrainian-Russian treaty agreements. Crimean Prime Minister Sergey Aksyonov, elected in an emergency session earlier in the week, said he asserted sole control over Crimea's security forces and appealed to Russia "for assistance in guaranteeing peace and calmness" on the peninsula. The central Ukrainian government does not recognize the Aksyonov administration and considers it illegal. Ousted Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovich sent a letter to Putin asking him to use military force in Ukraine to restore law and order. The Russian foreign ministry stated that "movement of the Black Sea Fleet armored vehicles in Crimea (...) happens in full accordance with basic Russian-Ukrainian agreements on the Black Sea Fleet".
On 1 March, the Russian parliament granted President Vladimir Putin the authority to use military force in Ukraine. The move was condemned by many Western and Western-aligned nations. On the same day, the acting president of Ukraine, Oleksandr Turchynov decried the appointment of the Prime Minister of Crimea as unconstitutional. Russia established de facto control of the territory.
On 3 March, it was reported that the head of Russia's Black Sea Fleet gave Ukraine a deadline of dawn on the 4th to surrender their control of the Crimea, or face an assault by Russian troops occupying the area. However, Interfax news agency later quoted a fleet spokesman who denied that any ultimatum had been issued. Nothing came to pass at the deadline.
On 4 March, several Ukrainian bases and navy ships in Crimea reported being intimidated by Russian forces but vowed non-violence. In one particular display, Ukrainian soldiers at Belbek airbase marched unarmed from their barracks to the Russian lines, where they were stopped by sentries who fired warning shots and surrounded them. Journalists recorded the encounter. Ukrainian warships were also effectively blockaded in their port of Sevastopol.
On 6 March, MPs of the Crimean Parliament asked the Russian Government for the region to become a subject of the Russian Federation with a referendum on the issue set for the Crimean region for March 16th. The Ukrainian central government, EU and US disputed the legitimacy of the request and referendum. Article 73 of the Constitution of Ukraine states: "Alterations to the territory of Ukraine shall be resolved exclusively by the All-Ukrainian referendum." International monitors arrived in Ukraine to assess the situation in Crimea but were halted by armed militants at the Crimean border.  Russian forces scuttled a Russian Kara-class Cruiser Ochakov near Novoozerne, Yevpatoria on the west coast of Crimea to blockade Ukrainian navy ships in their port on Donuzlav Lake.
The Crimean Parliament released the Ballot Questions for the 16 March referendum. The referendum questions are: (Translation from Kyiv Post see reference for original Russian, Ukrainian and Tatar)
- "Do you support joining Crimea with the Russian Federation as a subject of Russian Federation?"
- "Do you support restoration of 1992 Crimean constitution and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine?"
There is no option on the 16 March ballot to maintain the status quo. Some outlets considered the questions as equivalent to "join Russia immediately or declare independence and then join Russia." The current Crimean constitution came into effect in 1999 and Article 135 of the Ukrainian constitution provides that the Crimean Constitution must be approved by the Ukrainian parliament.
Crimea is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea and on the western coast of the Sea of Azov, bordering Kherson Oblast from the North. There are two rural communities of Henichesk Raion in Kherson Oblast that are physically located on the peninsula, on the smaller peninsula Arabat Spit, Shchaslyvtseve and Strilkove. Although located in the southwestern part of the Crimean peninsula, the city of Sevastopol has a special but separate municipality status within Ukraine. Crimea's total land area is 26,100 km2 (10,077 sq mi).
Crimea is connected to the mainland by the 5–7 kilometres (3.1–4.3 mi) wide Isthmus of Perekop. At the eastern tip is the Kerch Peninsula, which is directly opposite the Taman Peninsula on the Russian mainland. Between the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, lies the 3–13 kilometres (1.9–8.1 mi) wide Strait of Kerch, which connects the waters of the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov. The peninsula consists of many other smaller peninsulas such as Arabat Spit, Kerch peninsula, Herakles peninsula, Tarhan Qut peninsula and many others. Crimea also features other headlands such as Cape Priboiny, Cape Tarhan Qut, Sarych, Nicholas Cape, Cape Fonar, Cape Fiolent, Qazan Tip, Cape Aq Burun, and many others.
Geographically, the peninsula is generally divided into three zones: steppes, mountains and southern coast.
The southeast coast is flanked at a distance of 8–12 kilometres (5.0–7.5 mi) from the sea by a parallel range of mountains, the Crimean Mountains. These mountains are backed by secondary parallel ranges. Seventy-five percent of the remaining area of Crimea consists of semiarid prairie lands, a southward continuation of the Pontic steppes, which slope gently to the northwest from the foot of the Crimean Mountains. The main range of these mountains shoots up with extraordinary abruptness from the deep floor of the Black Sea to an altitude of 600–750 metres (1,969–2,461 ft), beginning at the southwest point of the peninsula, called Cape Fiolente. It was believed that this cape was supposedly crowned with the temple of Artemis, where Iphigeneia is said to have officiated as priestess.
The terrain that lies beyond the sheltering Crimean Mountain range is of an altogether different character. Here, the narrow strip of coast and the slopes of the mountains are smothered with greenery. This "riviera" stretches along the southeast coast from capes Fiolente and Aya, in the south, to Feodosiya, and is studded with summer sea-bathing resorts such as Alupka, Yalta, Gurzuf, Alushta, Sudak, and Feodosiya. During the years of Soviet rule, the resorts and dachas of this coast served as the prime perquisites of the politically loyal.why here? and ref? In addition, vineyards and fruit orchards are located in the region. Fishing, mining, and the production of essential oils are also important. Numerous Crimean Tatar villages, mosques, monasteries, and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles.
|This section's factual accuracy is disputed. (December 2012)|
The Crimean coastline is broken by several bays and harbors. These harbors lie west of the Isthmus of Perekop by the Bay of Karkinit; on the southwest by the open Bay of Kalamita, with the ports of Yevpatoria and Sevastopol;(not Sevastopol) on the north by the Bay of Arabat of the Isthmus(nonsense) of Yenikale or Kerch; and on the south by the Bay of Caffa(name?) or Feodosiya, with the port of Feodosiya. The natural borders between the Crimean peninsula and the Ukrainian mainland serve the saline Lake Syvash (a unique shallow system of estuaries and bays).
||This section must include a table tabulating Crimea's minimum, average, and maximum temperatures and rain fall. (March 2014)|
Most of Crimea has a temperate continental climate, except for the south coast where it experiences a humid subtropical climate, due to warm influences from the Black Sea. Summers can be hot (28 °C or 82.4 °F Jul average) and winters are cool (−0.3 °C or 31.5 °F Jan average) in the interior, on the south coast winters are milder (4 °C or 39.2 °F Jan average) and temperatures much below freezing are exceptional. Precipitation throughout Crimea is low, averaging only 400 mm (15.7 in) a year. Because of its climate, the southern Crimean coast is a popular beach and sun resort for Ukrainian and Russian tourists.
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2014)|
Government and politics
Crimea is an autonomous republic within the unitary state of Ukraine, with the Presidential Representative serving as a governor and replacing once established post of president. The legislative body is a 100-seat parliament, the Supreme Council of Crimea.
The executive power is represented by the Council of Ministers, headed by a Chairman who is appointed and dismissed by the Verkhovna Rada, with the consent of the President of Ukraine. The authority and operation of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of Crimea are determined by the Constitution of Ukraine and other the laws of Ukraine, as well as by regular decisions carried out by the Supreme Council of Crimea.
While not an official body controlling Crimea, the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is a representative body of the Crimean Tatars, which could address grievances to the Ukrainian central government, the Crimean government, and international bodies.
During the 2004 presidential elections, Crimea largely voted for the presidential candidate Viktor Yanukovych. In both the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary elections and the 2007 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, the Yanukovych-led Party of Regions also won most of the votes from the region, as they did in the 2010 Crimean parliamentary election.
Crimea is subdivided into 25 regions: 14 raions (districts) and 11 city municipalities, officially known as territories governed by city councils. While the City of Sevastopol is located on the Crimean peninsula, it is administratively separate from the rest of Crimea and is one of two special municipalities of Ukraine. Sevastopol, while having a separate administration, is tightly integrated within the infrastructure of the whole peninsula.
- Simferopol: capital
- Kerch:Hero City, important industrial, transport and tourist center
- Yevpatoria: major port, a rail hub, and resort city
- Feodosiya: port and resort city
- Yalta: one of the most important resorts in Crimea
- Dzhankoy: important railroad connection
- Bakhchisaray: historical capital of the Crimean Khanate
- Krasnoperekopsk: industrial city
- Armyansk: industrial city
- Alushta: resort city
Foreign and intergovernmental relations
|This section is missing information about Crimea's liaison to the Ukrainian national government and Crimea's liaison to foreign entities. (March 2014)|
Crimea is subject to the Constitution of Ukraine. At the local level it has its own constitution.
On 18 February 2009 the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea sent a letter to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the President of Ukraine, in which it stated that it deemed it inexpedient to open a representative office of the United States in Crimea, and urged the Ukrainian leadership to give up this idea. The letter had passed in the Crimean parliament by a 77 to 9 roll-call vote with one abstention. The letter was also sent to the Chairman of the UN General Assembly.
|This section is missing information about Crimea's GDP distribution by economic sector. (March 2014)|
The main branches of the Crimean economy are tourism and agriculture. Industrial plants are situated for the most part in the northern regions of the republic. Important industrial cities include Dzhankoy, housing a major railway connection, Krasnoperekopsk and Armyansk, among others.
The most important industries in Crimea include food production, chemical fields, mechanical engineering and metal working, and fuel production industries. Sixty percent of the industry market belongs to food production. There are a total of 291 large industrial enterprises and 1002 small business enterprises.
The main branches of vegetation production in the region include cereals, vegetable-growing, gardening, and wine-making, particularly in the Yalta and Massandra regions. Other agricultural forms include cattle breeding, poultry keeping, and sheep breeding. Other products produced on the Crimean Peninsula include salt, porphyry, limestone, and ironstone (found around Kerch).
Crimea also possesses several natural gas fields both onshore and offshore, all connected to Ukraine's pipeline system. The inland fields are located in Chornomorske and Dzhankoy, while offshore fields are located in the western coast in the Black Sea and in the northeastern coast in the Azov Sea:
||This section contains an enumeration of examples, but lacks a general overview of its topic. You can help by adding an appropriate introductory section. Editing help is available. (March 2014)|
- Public transportation
Almost every settlement in Crimea is connected with another settlement with bus lines. Crimea contains the longest (96 km or 59 mi) trolleybus route in the world, stretching from Simferopol to Yalta. The trolleybus line starts near Simferopol's Railway Station through the mountains to Alushta and on to Yalta. The length of line is about 90 km. It was founded in 1959.
- E105/M18 - Syvash (bridge, starts), Dzhankoy, North Crimean Canal (bridge), Simferopol, Alushta, Yalta (ends)
- E97/M17 - Perekop (starts), Armyansk, Dzhankoy, Feodosiya, Kerch (ferry, ends)
- H05 - Krasnoperekopsk, Simferopol (access to the Simferopol International Airport)
- H06 - Simferopol, Bakhchisaray, Sevastopol
- H19 - Yalta, Sevastopol
- P23 - Simferopol, Feodosiya
- P25 - Simferopol, Yevpatoria
- P27 - Sevastopol, Inkerman (completely within the city of Sevastopol)
- P29 - Alushta, Sudak, Feodosiya
- P34 - Alushta, Yalta
- P35 - Hrushivka, Sudak
- P58 - Sevastopol, Port "Komysheva Bukhta" (completely within the city of Sevastopol)
- P59 (completely within the city of Sevastopol)
- Sea transport
The development of Crimea as a holiday destination began in the second half of the 19th century. The development of the transport networks brought masses of tourists from central parts of Russia. At the beginning of the 20th century, a major development of palaces, villas, and dachas began—most of which remain. These are some of the main attractions of Crimea as a tourist destination. There are many Crimean legends about famous touristic places, which attract the attention of tourists.
A new phase of tourist development began when the Soviet government realized the potential of the healing quality of the local air, lakes and therapeutic muds. It became a "health" destination for Soviet workers, and hundreds of thousands of Soviet tourists visited Crimea. Nowadays Crimea is more of a get-away destination than a "health-improvement" destination. The most visited areas are the south shore of Crimea with cities of Yalta and Alushta, the western shore - Eupatoria and Saki, and the south-eastern shore - Feodosia and Sudak.
Crimea possesses significant historical and natural resources and is a region where it is possible to find practically any type of landscape; mountain ranges and plateaus, grasslands, caves. Furthermore, Saki poses unique therapeutic mud and Eupatoria has vast empty beaches with the purest quartz sand.
Places of interest include
Beach in Koktebel
|This section is missing information about religion in Crimea, and its educational and healthcare systems. (March 2014)|
|0–14 years old||291,848||(14.9%)|
|15–64 years old||1,377,276||(70.4%)|
|65 years and over||287,298||(14.7%)|
|Source:[disputed ]|
From 1989 to 2001, Crimea's population declined by 396,795 people, representing 16.33% of the 1989 population, despite the return of displaced groups such as Crimean Tatars. From 2001–2005 the population declined once again by another 39,400 people, representing a decline from 2001 of 2%.(Sevastopol was included in 1989)
The population of the Crimean peninsula as a whole has been consistently falling at a rate of 0.4% per year. This is particularly apparent in both the Russian and Ukrainian ethnic populations, whose growth rate has been falling at the rate of 0.6% and 0.12% annually respectively. In comparison, the ethnic Crimean Tatar population has been growing at the rate of 0.9% per annum.
|1897 census||1939 census||1959 census||1979 census||1989 census||2001 census|
Other minorities are Black Sea Germans, Romani people, Bulgarians, Poles, Azerbaijanis, Koreans, Greeks and Italians. The number of Crimea Germans was 45,000 in 1941. In 1944, 70,000 Greeks and 14,000 Bulgarians from the Crimea were deported to Central Asia and Siberia, along with 200,000 Crimean Tatars and other nationalities.
Ukrainian is the single official state language countrywide, and is the sole language of government in Ukraine. According to the census mentioned, 77% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 11.4% – Crimean Tatar; and 10.1% – Ukrainian. In Crimea government business is carried out mainly in Russian. Attempts to expand the usage of Ukrainian in education and government affairs have been less successful in Crimea than in other areas of the nation.
Two thirds of the migrants into Crimea are from other regions of Ukraine; every fifth migrant is from the former Soviet Union and every 40th from outside of it. Three quarters of those leaving Crimea move to other areas in Ukraine. Every 20th migrates to the West.
The number of Crimean residents who consider Ukraine their motherland increased sharply from 32% to 71.3% from 2008 through 2011; according to a poll by Razumkov Center in March 2011, although this is the lowest number in all Ukraine (93% on average across the country). Surveys of regional identities in Ukraine have shown that around 30% of Crimean residents claim to have retained a self-identified "Soviet identity".
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Almost 100 broadcasters and around 1,200 publications are registered in Crimea, although no more than a few dozen operate or publish regularly. Of them most use the Russian language only. Crimea's first Tatar-owned, Tatar-language TV launched in 2006.
Crimea figures prominently in Ukrainian sports, especially the most popular: association football. The most successful Crimean football club is Tavriya Simferopol who won the inaugural Ukrainian Premier League title in 1992. FC Sevastopol also currently competes in the top division. In the Ukrainian First League, Crimea has been represented by clubs such as FC Feniks-Illichovets Kalinine, FC Krymteplitsia Molodizhne (from Simferopol suburbs) and FC Tytan Armyansk.
Crimea has a bandy federation. Their[clarification needed] chairman is Vice president of Ukrainian Federation of Bandy and Rink-Bandy. In 2011 they for the first time organized the rink bandy tournament Crimea Open.
- (Ukrainian) Kunitsyn appointed President's representative in the Crimea, Ukrayinska Pravda (27 February 2014)
- "Crimean Parliament Dismisses Cabinet and Sets Date for Autonomy Referendum". The Moscow Times. February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Installed during the 2014 Crimean crisis and not appointed by the President of Ukraine
- Vasyl Dzharty of Regions Party heads Crimean government, Kyiv Post (March 17, 2010).
- Crimean parliament to decide on appointment of autonomous republic's premier on Tuesday, Interfax Ukraine (7 November 2011)
- Swedish 15 volumes encyclopedia from the 1960's "Bonniers Lexikon", article "Krim" ("Crimea" in English), But hundereds of sources will give the same fact and explination. So why is someone removing the "since 1954" short paragraph ? The statement is currently called for and NPOV.
- Regions and territories: The Republic of Crimea, BBC News
- Autonomous Republic of Crimea
- Government Portal of The Autonomous Republic of Crimea
- About number and composition population of AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA by data All-Ukrainian population census', Ukrainian Census (2001)
- Pohl, J. Otto. The Stalinist Penal System: A Statistical History of Soviet Repression and Terror. Mc Farland & Company, Inc, Publishers. 1997. 23.
- “kır” in Nişanyan Dictionary (Turkish Etymological dictionary)
- “*Kɨr” in Sergei Starostin, Vladimir Dybo, Oleg Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers
- Herodotus IV.20.
- Hind, John. "The Bosporan Kingdom". The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge: CUP). VI - The 4th Century BC: 476–511.
- "Polish archaeologists discovered a Roman garrison commander's house in the Crimea | News | Science & Scholarship in Poland". Naukawpolsce.pap.pl. 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- "Channel 4 – History – The Black Death". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
- "Soldier Khan". Avalanchepress.com. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- "History". blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
- Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum. "The Corpus of Crimean Gothic". University of Texas at Austin.
- Brian Glyn Williams (2013). "The Sultan’s Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars in the Ottoman Empire". The Jamestown Foundation. p. 27.
- Darjusz Kołodziejczyk, as reported by Mikhail Kizilov (2007). "Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards:The Jews and the Trade in Slaves and Captivesin the Crimean Khanate". The Journal of Jewish Studies. p. 2.
- Mikhail Kizilov. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Oxford University. p. 7.
- Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf. p. 72. ISBN 1-4000-4005-1.
- Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Panne, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stephane Courtois, Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, page 100, ISBN 0-674-07608-7. Chapter 4: The Red Terror
- "Famine in Crimea". Iccrimea.org. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- Rummel, R. J. Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocides and Mass Murders Since 1917. Transaction Publishers. p. 181.
- ""The Gift of Crimea".". www.macalester.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
- ""Подарунок Хрущова". Як Україна відбудувала Крим". Istpravda.com.ua. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- Arutunyan, Anna (2 March 2014). "Russia testing the waters on Ukraine invasion". USA Today. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Calamur, Krishnadev (27 February 2014). "Crimea: A Gift To Ukraine Becomes A Political Flash Point". NPR. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Day in history - 20 January". RIA Novosti (in Russian). January 8, 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
- (Ukrainian) Майже 60% росіян вважають, що Крим - це Росія Almost 60% of Russians believe, that Crimea - is Russian, Ukrayinska Pravda (10 September 2013)
- Wolczuk, Kataryna (August 31, 2004). "Catching up with 'Europe'? Constitutional Debates on the Territorial-Administrative Model in Independent Ukraine". Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved December 16, 2006.
Wydra, Doris (November 11, 2004). "The Crimea Conundrum: The Tug of War Between Russia and Ukraine on the Questions of Autonomy and Self-Determination".
- Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2004, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1857431871 (page 540)
- Russians in the Former Soviet Republics by Pål Kolstø, Indiana University Press, 1995, ISBN 0253329175 (page 194)
- Ready To Cast Off, TIME Magazine, June 15, 1992
- Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada law No. 93/95-вр: On the termination of the Constitution and some laws of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Passed on 1995-03-17. (Ukrainian)
- Russia tells Ukraine to stay out of Nato, The Guardian (8 June 2006)
- Cheney urges divided Ukraine to unite against Russia 'threat. Associated Press. September 6, 2008.
- "Russia and Ukraine in Intensifying Standoff". Nytimes.com. 2009-08-28. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- Update: Ukraine, Russia ratify Black Sea naval lease, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
- Ayres, Sabra (February 28, 2014). "Is it too late for Kiev to woo Russian-speaking Ukraine?". The Christian Science Monitor.
- "Olexandre Tourtchinov refuse de signer l’abrogation de la loi sur la politique linguistique".
- "Olexandre Tourtchinov demande d’urgence une nouvelle loi sur le statut des langues en Ukraine".
- "Putin orders military exercise as protesters clash in Crimea". Russia Herald. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "This is what it looked like when Russian military rolled through Crimea today (VIDEO)". UK Telegraph. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "UPDATE 2-U.N. Security Council to hold emergency meeting on Ukraine crisis". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Higgons, Andrew, Grab for Power in Crimea Raises Secession Threat, New York Times, February 28, 2014, page A1; reporting was contributed by David M. Herszenhorn and Andrew E. Kramer from Kiev, Ukraine; Andrew Roth from Moscow; Alan Cowell from London; and Michael R. Gordon from Washington; with a graphic presentation of linguistic divisions of Ukraine and Crimea
- http://rt.com/news/russian-troops-crimea-ukraine-816/ Russia is allowed to have 25,000 troops in Crimea...and other facts you didn’t know
- "Crimean PM claims control of forces, asks Putin for help". The Hindu. March 1, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Ukraine army on full alert as Russia backs sending troops". BBC. March 1, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- http://rt.com/news/churkin-unsc-russia-ukraine-683/ Yanukovich sent letter to Putin asking for Russian military presence in Ukraine
- ""Movement of Russian armored vehicles in Crimea fully complies with agreements - Foreign Ministry"". Russia Today. February 28, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Kremlin Clears Way for Force in Ukraine; Separatist Split Feared". New York Times. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- Турчинов издал указ о незаконности назначения Аксенова премьером Крыма
- "Russia 'demands surrender' of Ukraine's Crimea forces". BBC News. March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "'Invasion of Ukraine: Russian troops shoots on Ukrainian soldiers". Kyiv Post. March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "'So why aren't they shooting?' is Putin's question, Ukrainians say". Kyiv Post. March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "Ukraine resistance proves problem for Russia". BBC Online. March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "'another view of the Ochakov - scuttled by Russian forces Wed night to block mouth of Donuzlav inlet". Twitter@elizapalmer. March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "'Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia". BBC. March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "'Ukraine crisis: 'Illegal' Crimean referendum condemned". BBC. March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "'Constitution of Ukraine - Title III". Government of Ukraine. NA. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "'Russians Scuttle Another Ship to Block Ukrainian Fleet". Ukrainian Pravda. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- "'Приложение 1 к Постановлению Верховной Рады Автономной Республики Крым от 6 марта 2014 года No 1702-6/14". www.rada.crimea.ua. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- "'Two choices in Crimean referendum: yes and yes". Kyiv Post. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- The Crimean Mountains may also be referred to as the Yaylâ Dağ or Alpine Meadow Mountains.
- See the article "Crimea" in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.
- The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea should not be confused with the national Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
- "Autonomous Republic of Crimea – Information card". Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
- Ziad, Waleed; Laryssa Chomiak (February 20, 2007). "A lesson in stifling violent extremism". CS Monitor. Retrieved March 26, 2007.
- Local government elections in Ukraine: last stage in the Party of Regions’ takeover of power, Centre for Eastern Studies (October 4, 2010)
- "Infobox card – Avtonomna Respublika Krym". Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Retrieved February 23, 2007.
- Crimean parliament votes against opening U.S. diplomatic post, Interfax-Ukraine (18 February 2009)
- Bealby, John T. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Cambridge University Press. p. 449.
- Gloystein, Henning (7 March 2014). "Ukraine's Black Sea gas ambitions seen at risk over Crimea". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "East European Gas Analysis - Ukrainian Gas Pipelines". Eegas.com. 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
- "Ukraine crisis in maps". BBC. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Investment portal of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea – investments in Crimea - "Chernomorneftegaz" presented a program of development till 2015". Invest-crimea.gov.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
- "The longest trolleybus line in the world!". blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
- "Crimea Travel Guide". CrimeaTravel. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- Best Trips 2013 Crimea, National Geographic Society
- "Regions of Ukraine / Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved December 16, 2006.
- Falling Population growth rate in Crimea (in Ukrainian)
- Population growth in Crimea (in Ukrainian)
- "Results / General results of the census / National composition of population". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved December 16, 2006.
- These figures do not include the area and population of the City of Sevastopol. Administratively, Sevastopol is a municipality excluded from the surrounding Autonomous Republic of Crimea
- "A People on the Move: Germans in Russia and in the Former Soviet Union: 1763 – 1997. North Dakota State University Libraries.
- "The Persecution of Pontic Greeks in the Soviet Union" (PDF)
- "Crimean Tatars Divide Ukraine and Russia". The Jamestown Foundation. June 24, 2009.
- "Results / General results of the census / Linguistic composition of the population / Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved December 16, 2006.
- Bondaruk, Halyna (March 3, 2007). "Yushchenko Appeals to Crimean Authority Not to Speculate on Language". Ukrayinska Pravda. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Poll: Most Crimean residents consider Ukraine their motherland, Kyiv Post (11 April 2011)
- Soviet conspiracy theories and political culture in Ukraine:Understanding Viktor Yanukovych and the Party of Region by Taras Kuzio (23 August 2011)
- "Ukrainian Bandy and Rink-bandy Federation". Ukrbandy.org.ua. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- "Ukrainian national and regional competition". Ukrbandy.org.ua. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
- "Autonomous Republic of Crimea – Information card". Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
- Crimea, terra di mille etnie, 1993 di Giuseppe D'Amato in Il Diario del Cambiamento. Urss 1990 – Russia 1993. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 1998. pp. 247–252. ISBN 88-7980-187-2 (The Diary of the Change. USSR 1990 – Russia 1993) Book in Italian.
- Crimea, la penisola regalata di Giuseppe D'Amato in L’EuroSogno e i nuovi Muri ad Est. L’Unione europea e la dimensione orientale. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2008. pp. 99–107 ISBN 978-88-7980-456-1 (The EuroDream and the new Walls at East. The European Union and the Eastern dimension) Book in Italian.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- (German) Stefan Albrecht, Michael Herdick: Ein Spielball der Mächte: Die Krim im Schwarzmeerraum (VI.-XV. Jahrhundert). =A Pawn of the Powers- The Crimea in the Black Sea Region (VI-XV. Century). In: Stefan Albrecht, Falko Daim, Michael Herdick (Hg.): Die Höhensiedlungen im Bergland der Krim. Umwelt, Kulturaustausch und Transformation am Nordrand des Byzantinischen Reiches. RGZM, Mainz 2013, S. 25-56. ISBN 978-3-884-67220-4 (with an Englisch and Russian Summary)
- (German) Stefan Albrecht, Michael Herdick, Rainer Schreg: Neue Forschungen auf der Krim. Geschichte und Gesellschaft im Bergland der südwestlichen Krim - eine Zusammenfassung. =New Researches on the Crimea. Synthesis: A Hypothetical Model of Competing Neighborhoods. In: Stefan Albrecht, Falko Daim, Michael Herdick (Hg.): Die Höhensiedlungen im Bergland der Krim. Umwelt, Kulturaustausch und Transformation am Nordrand des Byzantinischen Reiches. RGZM, Mainz 2013, S. 471-497. ISBN 978-3-884-67220-4 (with an Englisch and Russian Summary)
- (Russian) Bazilevich Basil Mitrofanovich. (1914) From the History of Moscow-Crimea Relations in the First Half of the 17th Century (Из истории московско-крымских отношений в первой половине XVII века) at Runivers.ru in DjVu and PDF formats
- (Russian) Bantysh-Kamensky Nikolay. (1893) Register of cases of Crimean court with 1474 to 1779 (Реестр делам крымского двора с 1474 по 1779 год) at Runivers.ru in DjVu and PDF formats
- (Russian) Berg Nikolai. (1858) Sevastopol album by N. Berg (Севастопольский альбом Н. Берга) at Runivers.ru in DjVu and PDF formats
- (Russian) Berezhkov Michael N.Plan for the conquest of the Crimea compiled during the reign of Emperor Alexis of Russia Slav scholar Yuri Krizhanich (План завоевания Крыма составленный в царствование государя Алексея Михайловича ученым славянином Юрием Крижаничем) at Runivers.ru in DjVu and PDF formats
- (Russian) Berezhkov Michael N. (1888) Russian captives and slaves in the Crimea (Русские пленники и невольники в Крыму) at Runivers.ru in DjVu and PDF formats
- (Russian) Bogdanovich Modest I. (1876) Eastern War 1853-1856 (Восточная война 1853-1856 гг.) at Runivers.ru in DjVu format
- (Russian) Dubrovin Nikolai Fedorovich. (1900) History of the Crimean War and the defense of Sevastopol (История Крымской войны и обороны Севастополя) at Runivers.ru in DjVu format
- (Russian) Dubrovin Nikolai Fedorovich. (1885–1889) Joining the Crimea to Russia (Присоединение Крыма к России) at Runivers.ru in DjVu format
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- crimea-portal.gov.ua, the official portal of the Council of Ministers of Crimea (English) (Ukrainian) (Russian) (Crimean Tatar)
- rada.crimea.ua, the official web-site of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (English) (Ukrainian) (Russian) (Crimean Tatar)
- www.ppu.gov.ua, the official web-site of the Permanent Presidential Representative in the Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian) (Russian)
- Series about the recent political history of Crimea by Independent Analytical Center for Geopolitical Studies “Borysfen Intel” (English)
- Historical footage of Crimea, 1918, filmportal.de