Autonomous administrative division
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An autonomous administrative division is an administrative division of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority. Typically it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency and/or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies.
- 1 By country
- 2 Table by designation
- 3 Other entities with devolution (autonomy)
- 4 Historical
- 5 Other
- 6 Notes
- 7 See also
- 8 Sources
- Autonomous administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China
- Autonomous administrative divisions of India
- Autonomous administrative divisions of Russia
- Autonomous administrative divisions of Spain
Table by designation
|Banner||Oroqen||People's Republic of China||In effect, these are autonomous counties.|
|Morin Dawa Daur|
|Ceuta||Spain||The autonomous cities of Spain are two exclaves located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco, separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar.|
|Sejong||Republic of Korea|
|Tashkent||Uzbekistan||Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan|
|Commune||Bangui||Central African Republic||Bangui is the capital and the largest city of the Central African Republic|
|Oblast||Jewish Autonomous Oblast||Russia|
|Jeju||Republic of Korea|
|Kosovo and Metohija||Claimed by:
|In 2008, the Republic of Kosovo declared independence. While Serbia has not formally recognised Kosovo's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Province, its independence is recognised by 107 UN member states.|
|Bougainville||Papua New Guinea|
|Guangxi||People's Republic of China|
|Iraqi Kurdistan||Iraq||Iraqi Kurdistan is the only region that has gained official recognition internationally as an autonomous regional entity.|
|Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao||Philippines|
|Ningxia||People's Republic of China|
|Tibet Autonomous Region||People's Republic of China|
|Xinjiang||People's Republic of China|
|In 1990, the Republic of Abkhazia declared its independence from the Soviet Union. While Georgia has not formally recognised Abkhazia's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Province, its independence is recognized by 6 UN member states.|
|In 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic declared its independence from the Soviet Union. While Moldova has not formally recognised Transnistria's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Province, its independence is recognized by other 3 non-UN member states.|
Other entities with devolution (autonomy)
British constituent countries and Crown Dependencies
In the United Kingdom, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have separate elected devolved legislatures which have the ability to legislate in devolved matters. The Parliament of the United Kingdom retains all legislative power of the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom is a unitary state, however the devolved legislatures have legislative powers devolved by the relevant Act of Parliament.
New Zealand dependent territories
New Zealand has several autonomous islands and atolls in the Pacific Ocean, like the Cook Islands and Niue (two states in free association with New Zealand), the Chatham Islands (a special territory within New Zealand) and Tokelau (a non-self-governing territory of New Zealand).
Ethiopian special woredas
In Ethiopia, "special woredas" are a subgroup of woredas (districts) that are organized around the traditional homelands of an ethnic minority, and are outside the usual hierarchy of a kilil, or region. These woredas have many similarities to autonomous areas in other countries.
Danish constituent countries
Dutch constituent countries
- Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship
- Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus in Albania (1914).
- Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union (1922–1990)
- Bantustans of apartheid-era South Africa and Namibia.
- Subcarpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia within Czechoslovakia (1938–1939).
- Baltic Provinces of the Russian Empire.
- Grand Duchy of Finland of the Russian Empire.
- Magyar Autonomous Region of Socialist Republic of Romania (1952–1968)
- Southern Ireland (1921–1922) and Northern Ireland (1921–1972) within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
- Free imperial city of the medieval Holy Roman Empire
- Transjordan of British Palestine
- Autonomous caza of Kuwait, a subdivision of the Ottoman Empire
- Aboriginal (First Nation or Native American) reserves and reservations, in, respectively, Canada and the United States.[discuss]
- the five comarcas indígenas ("indigenous regions") of Panama.
- List of autonomous areas by country
- Country subdivision
- Personal union
- List of autonomous regions leaders
- M. Weller and S. Wolff (eds), Autonomy, Self-governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Routledge, 2005
- From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua: Lessons Learnt, report by Minority Rights Group International
- P.M. Olausson, Autonomy and Islands, A Global Study of the Factors that determine Island Autonomy. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2007.
- Thomas Benedikter (ed.), Solving Ethnic Conflict through Self-Government - A Short Guide to Autonomy in Europe and South Asia, EURAC Bozen 2009, http://www.eurac.edu/en/research/institutes/imr/Documents/Deliverable_No_9_Update_Set_educational_material.pdf
- Thomas Benedikter, The World's Modern Autonomy Systems, EURAC Bozen 2010; http://www.gfbv.at/publikationen/weitere_publikationen.php